中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (9): 975-979.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1873

• 科研论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

学龄前儿童身体活动与执行功能的相关性研究

屈潇1, 王晓娟2, 王博2, 冯超2, 关宏岩2,3, 陈晓波1   

  1. 1 北京大学首都儿科研究所教学医院,北京 100020;
    2 首都儿科研究所,北京 100020;
    3 儿童发育营养组学北京市重点实验室,北京 100020
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-11 出版日期:2020-09-10 发布日期:2020-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 陈晓波,E-mail:xiaobochen6362@163.com;关宏岩,E-mail:hongyanguan@126.com
  • 作者简介:屈潇(1994-),女,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为儿童身体活动、儿童早期生长发育。
  • 基金资助:
    北京市卫生系统高层次卫生技术人才培养计划(2015-3-008);澳大利亚卧龙岗大学SUNRISE国际合作项目与加拿大卫生研究所研究计划与传播基金联合资助

Study on the association between physical activity and executive function in preschoolers

QU Xiao1, WANG Xiao-juan2, WANG Bo2, FENG Chao2, GUAN Hong-yan2,3, CHEN Xiao-bo1   

  1. 1 Capital Institute of Pediatrics-Peking University Teaching Hospital,Beijing 100020,China;
    2 Capital Institute of Pediatrics,Beijing 100020,China;
    3 Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Child Development and Nutriomics,Beijing 100020,China
  • Received:2019-12-11 Online:2020-09-10 Published:2020-09-10
  • Contact: CHEN Xiao-bo,E-mail:xiaobochen6362@163.com;GUAN Hong-yan,E-mail:hongyanguan@126.com

摘要: 目的 了解学龄前儿童日常身体活动现状,进一步研究身体活动与执行功能之间的相关性。方法 2018年5-7月在北京地区抽取3家幼儿园,采用方便抽样方法抽取中班儿童201人,连续3 d佩戴加速度计ActiGraph GT9X,采用早期儿童执行功能测量工具包(Early Years Toolbox,EYT)进行工作记忆、抑制控制和转换三项执行功能测试,采用自编问卷调查受试儿童的屏幕时间。结果 学龄前儿童每日中高强度身体活动、总身体活动时间分别为(95.65±29.02)min、(204.58±46.91)min,男女之间每日轻度、中度、剧烈、中高强度以及总身体活动时间存在差异(U=2 593.00,2 136.00,2 440.00,t=4.09,3.68,P<0.05)。每日屏幕时间为(72.84±51.79) min,男女之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。工作记忆、抑制控制、转换三项执行功能测试得分依次是2.40±0.80、0.76±0.16、14.08±3.49,男女之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。身体活动与EYT测试得分相关性分析发现在4岁组儿童中针对转换的测试得分与每日高强度身体活动时间存在显著相关性(r=0.199,P=0.040)。进一步以屏幕时间、每日总身体活动时间,每日中高强度身体活动时间达标与否进行分组,未发现各组间EYT测试得分差异有统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 学龄前儿童存在身体活动不足的状况,身体活动和执行功能之间存在相关性,且这种相关性与身体活动的强度有关。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 身体活动, 执行功能, 久坐行为, 屏幕时间

Abstract: Objective To know the physical activity condition in preschoolers,and to investigate the association between physical activity and executive function. Methods From May to July in 2018,201 children of middle class in 3 kindergartens in Beijing were recruited using convenience sampling. Participants were asked to wear ActiGraph GT9X for 3 days. Children′s executive function,including inhibition,shift and working memory,were tested through Early Years Toolbox (EYT). Screen time was investigated by self-compiled questionnaires. Results The average time of moderate to vigorous physical activity and total physical activity per day were (95.65±29.02) minutes and (204.58±46.91) minutes,respectively. There were significant differences between boys and girls on the time for mild,moderate,vigorous,moderate to vigorous and total physical activity per day (U=2 593.00,2 136.00,2 440.00,t=4.09,3.68,P<0.05). Screen time per day was (72.84±51.79) minutes,and there was no significant difference between boys and girls (P>0.05). The average scores of working memory,inhibit and shift were 2.40±0.80,0.76±0.16 and 14.08±3.49,respectively,and there was no difference between boys and girls (P>0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that of shift test score was correlated with vigorous intensity physical activity (r=0.199,P=0.040). Children were divided into different groups by whether they met the guidelines criteria of screen time,total physical activity and moderate to vigorous activity,and it was found that there was no difference on EYT score between different groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Daily physical activity is insufficient among preschoolers. Besides,there is a correlation between executive function and physical activity,and the association was influenced by physical activity intensity.

Key words: preschooler, physical activity, executive function, sedentary behaviour, screen time

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