中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 899-903.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0269

• 临床研究与分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

学龄前儿童气质和家庭环境对适应行为的影响

齐晶1, 龙磊2, 梁静1, 李红娟1, 高红1, 王朝晖1   

  1. 1 西安市第四医院儿童保健中心, 陕西 西安 710004;
    2 西安市新城区妇幼保健计划生育服务中心, 陕西 西安 710005
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-12 修回日期:2020-03-24 出版日期:2020-08-10 发布日期:2020-08-10
  • 通讯作者: 王朝晖, E-mail:Wangzhaohui1965@126.com
  • 作者简介:齐晶(1986-), 女, 甘肃人, 心理治疗师, 硕士学位, 应用心理学专业, 主要从事特殊儿童心理行为干预工作
  • 基金资助:
    西安市科技计划项目[(201805098YX6SF32(8)]

Effects of temperament and family environment on adaptation behavior in preschool children

QI Jing1, LONG Lei2, LIANG Jing1, LI Hong-juan1, GAO Hong1, WANG Zhao-hui1   

  1. 1 Health Center of the Children, Xi'an Fourth Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China;
    2 Xin'cheng District Maternal and Child Health Family Planning Service Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710005, China
  • Received:2020-02-12 Revised:2020-03-24 Online:2020-08-10 Published:2020-08-10
  • Contact: WANG Zhao-hui, E-mail:Wangzhaohui1965@126.com

摘要: 目的 研究学龄前儿童适应行为发展的特点, 探讨气质和家庭环境对适应行为的影响, 为促进儿童适应行为的发展提供参考依据。方法 于2019年10月采取随机整群抽样的方法选取西安市3所幼儿园304名4~6岁儿童家长进行问卷填写, 采用方差分析、相关分析和回归分析探讨学龄前儿童气质、家庭环境对适应行为的影响。结果 1)学龄前儿童独立因子、认知功能因子、社会/自制因子及适应能力商数(ADQ)在年龄上差异有统计学意义(F=15.49、6.31、18.17、20.91, P<0.05), 适应行为随着年龄的增长不断发展。2)节律性、适应性、反应强度、持久性、反应域、亲密度与ADQ显著相关(r=-0.18、-0.17、0.15、-0.13、0.18、0.28, P<0.05);节律性、适应性、亲密度、矛盾性与独立因子显著相关(r=-0.16、-0.18、0.26、-0.13, P<0.05), 节律性、持久性、亲密度、知识性与认知功能因子显著相关(r=-0.14, -0.17、0.18、0.11, P<0.05);反应强度、注意分散、反应域、亲密度、组织性与社会因子显著相关(r=0.19、0.13、0.21、0.21、0.13, P<0.05)。3)家庭亲密度(β=0.28)、气质的节律性(β=-0.15)和反应阈(β=0.14)可以共同预测适应行为(F=14.75, P<0.001)。结论 学龄前儿童的适应行为的发展受年龄、气质和家庭环境的影响, 因此, 根据儿童的气质特点, 创造适宜的家庭环境, 能够促进学龄前儿童适应行为的全面发展。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 气质, 家庭环境, 适应行为

Abstract: Objective To study the characteristics of preschool children's adaptive behavior development, and to explore the influence of temperament and family environment on adaptive behavior, in order to provide basis for promoting the children's adaptive behavior. Methods A random cluster sampling method was used to select 304 parents of 4- to 6-year-old children from 3 kindergartens in Xi'an in October 2019.Parents were asked to fill out the questionnaire.ANOVA, correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to explore the influence of temperament and family environment on adaptation behavior in preschool children. Results 1)There were significant differences on independent factors, cognitive function factors, social/self-control factors and adaptive quotient (ADQ) in preschool children of different age groups(F=15.49, 6.31, 18.17, 20.91, P<0.05), and adaptive behavior developed with age.2) Rhythm, adaptability, response intensity, persistence, response domain, intimacy were significantly correlated with ADQ (r=-0.18, -0.17, 0.15, -0.13, 0.18, 0.28, P<0.05).Rhythm, adaptability, intimacy and contradiction were significantly related to independent factors (r=-0.16, -0.18, 0.26, -0.13, P<0.05).Rhythm, persistence, intimacy and knowledge were significantly related to cognitive function factors (r=-0.14, -0.17, 0.18, 0.11, P<0.05).Response intensity, attention dispersal, response domain, intimacy and organization were significantly related to social factors (r=0.19, 0.13, 0.21, 0.21, 0.13, P<0.05).3) Family intimacy (β=0.28), temperamental rhythm (β=-0.15) and response threshold (β=0.14) could jointly predict adaptive behavior (F=14.75, P<0.001). Conclusions The development of adaptive behaviors in preschool children is influenced by age, temperament, and family environment.Therefore, creating a suitable family environment according to the characteristics of children's temperament, could promote the all-round development of preschool children's adaptive behavior.

Key words: preschool children, temperament, family environment, adaptive behavior

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