中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (9): 1033-1036.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0369

• 临床研究与分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

新型冠状病毒肺炎流行期间学龄前儿童心理健康状况调查及影响因素分析

梁静, 王朝晖, 李燕晖, 李红娟, 齐晶, 何溪, 白瑞北   

  1. 西安市第四医院,陕西 西安 710004
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-09 出版日期:2020-09-10 发布日期:2020-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 王朝晖,E-mail:Wangzhaohui1965@126.com
  • 作者简介:梁静(1982-),女,陕西人,主治医师,硕士学位,主要从事儿童心理行为干预工作。
  • 基金资助:
    陕西省科技厅资助项目(2018SF-081);西安市科技局资助项目(201805098YX6SF32(8))

Investigation on the mental health of preschool children and the relevant factors during coronavirus disease 2019

LIANG Jing, WANG Zhao-hui, LI Yan-hui, LI Hong-juan, QI Jing, HE Xi, BAI Rui-bei   

  1. Xi′an Fourth Hospital,Xi′an,Shaanxi 710004,China
  • Received:2020-03-09 Online:2020-09-10 Published:2020-09-10
  • Contact: WANG Zhao-hui,E-mail:Wangzhaohui1965@126.com

摘要: 目的 调查新型冠状病毒肺炎(CoV-19)流行对儿童心理健康造成的影响,为突发重大公共卫生事件下儿童心理干预提供依据。方法 于2020年2月12-20日通过问卷星形式随机抽取全国32个省、市自治区20 579名学龄前儿童进行调查,由父母填写自编“新型冠状病毒流行期儿童心理健康状况调查表”,一般性资料采用描述分析,对儿童心理健康及相关因素采用非参数检验Kruskal-Wallis H检验,Spearman相关分析及多元线性回归分析。结果 1)73.70%家庭亲子互动时间增加,69.85%家庭亲密度增加,63.63%儿童电子屏幕使用时间增多,37.39%作息不规律,31.26%出现活动过多行为,20.37%睡眠异常;2)不同居住地学龄前儿童行为比较差异有统计学意义(H=80.891,P<0.001);3)独生子女和非独生子女儿童家长在情绪、家庭亲密度、疫情压力方面差异有统计学意义(H分别为14.824、10.914、18.254,P<0.01);不同居住地儿童家长在情绪、认知、家庭亲密度、疫情压力方面差异有统计学意义(H分别为68.398、50.240、56.027、54.250,P<0.001);4)家长情绪、家长认知、疫情压力与儿童行为呈负相关,家庭亲密度与儿童行为呈正相关(P<0.001),回归分析家长情绪、家庭亲密度、认知、疫情压力依次进入方程(F=733.447,P<0.01,△R2=0.125),可以解释儿童行为12.5%的变异。结论 CoV-19流行期间儿童行为问题主要表现为电子屏幕使用时间延长、作息不规律、活动过多及睡眠问题;在疫情期应给予城市和乡镇学龄前儿童更多关注;维持疫情期间儿童良好的心理状态,家庭环境是不可忽视的重要因素。

关键词: 新冠疫情, 学龄前儿童, 行为问题, 心理健康

Abstract: Objective To investigate the influence of coronavirus disease 2019(CoV-19)on children′s mental health,so as to provide basis for children′s psychological intervention under the emergency of major public health events. Methods A total of 20 579 children from 32 provinces and autonomous regions were randomly selected from February 12th to 20th,2020 via online questionnaire.Parents filled out self-made questionnaire on mental health status of children in the epidemic period of CoV-19.The general data were described and analyzed.Kruskal-Wallis H test,Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the influencing factors of children′s mental health. Results 1)Among 20 579 children,73.70% had increasing parent-child interaction time,69.85% had increasing family density,63.63% used more electronic screens,37.39% had irregular work and rest,31.26% had excessive activities,and 20.37% had abnormal sleep.2) Significant difference on children′s behavior scale was found among children with different residential areas (H=80.891,P<0.001).3)There were statistically significant differences between parents of only children and non-only children in terms of emotion,family intimacy and epidemic pressure (H=14.824,10.914,18.254,P<0.01).Parents of children living in different places had significant differences on emotional,cognitive,family intimacy,epidemic pressure(H=68.398,50.240,56.027,54.250,P<0.001).4) Parents′ cognitive,emotion,epidemic pressure were negatively correlated with children′s behavior,family intimacy were positively related to children′s behavior (P<0.001),which all entered the regression equation (F=733.447,P<0.001,△R2=0.125) explaining 12.5% of the children′s behavior. Conclusions Children′s abnormal behavior during the epidemic of CoV-19 is mainly manifested in the prolonged electronic screen time,irregular work and rest,excessive activities and sleep problems.More attention should be given to preschool children in cities and towns during the epidemic period.Moreover,family environment is an important factor to maintain good psychological state of children during the epidemic.

Key words: coronavirus disease 2019, preschool children, behavior, mental health

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