中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (9): 962-966.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1358

• 科研论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国城市3~5岁儿童家庭常见养育问题的现状调查

李文灏1,2, 张悦2, 杨金柳行2, 冯围围2, 唐鹤2   

  1. 1 北京大学公共卫生学院妇幼卫生学系,北京 100191;
    2 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-14 出版日期:2020-09-10 发布日期:2020-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 张悦,E-mail: zhangyue0416@163.com
  • 作者简介:李文灏(1995-),女,在读硕士,主要研究方向为儿童生长发育/肥胖流行病学。
  • 基金资助:
    中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心科技创新项目

Cross-sectional study of parenting difficulties in children aged 3 to 5 years in urban China

LI Wen-hao1,2, ZHANG Yue2, YANG Jin-liu-xing2, FENG Wei-wei2, TANG He2   

  1. 1 Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China;
    2 National Center for Women and Children′s Health, China CDC, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2020-07-14 Online:2020-09-10 Published:2020-09-10
  • Contact: ZHANG Yue, E-mail: zhangyue0416@163.com

摘要: 目的 通过了解我国城市地区3~5岁儿童家庭养育中常见问题,为我国儿童保健专业人员开展有针对性的家庭养育指导提供依据。方法 于2017年在全国14省15个城市的2 286名3~5岁儿童家长中开展家庭养育问卷调查,内容涉及社会人口情况、3~5岁儿童家庭常见养育问题及其处理难度,采用χ2检验、Logistic回归分析社会人口学因素对于家庭养育问题重度处理困难的影响。结果 在过去三个月中92.9%的家长报告遇到1个以上的养育问题,3.7%的家长遇到3个及以上的重度处理困难的养育问题。家长报告的3~5岁儿童常见家庭养育问题的发生率在52.48%~13.91%之间,其中最常见的问题依次为挑食(52.48%)、不自己吃饭(49.66%)、睡眠问题(46.54%)、不听话(46.07%)等。Logistic回归分析发现,男童(OR:1.25,95%CI:1.02~1.53)是家长报告出现重度处理困难家庭养育问题的风险因素,而年龄较大(OR=0.84,95%CI:0.75~0.95)、母亲分娩年龄大(OR=0.96,95%CI:0.93~0.99)、核心家庭(OR=0.77,95%CI:0.61~0.97)是保护因素。结论 我国3~5岁学龄前儿童家长普遍面临家庭养育方面的困扰,医务人员有必要通过咨询指导为家长提供喂养、睡眠及行为等方面的养育支持,特别是针对低龄、男童、年轻母亲、非核心家庭等家长。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 行为问题, 家庭养育困难

Abstract: Objective To support the child-health medical staffs give targeted parenting guidance, by surveying the parenting problems in parents of preschool children in urban area of China. Methods In 2017, the parenting survey was conducted among 2 286 parents of 3-5 years old children in 15 cities, 14 provinces across the country. The parenting survey was about the social demographic status, the parenting problems and the severity of each specific problems. Chi-square test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the influence of social demographic factors on the serious parenting difficulties. Results 92.9% of parents reported experiencing more than one parenting problems and 3.7% of parents encountered at least 3 parenting difficulties which was very difficult to deal with. Parents reported that the incidence of specific parenting problems among 3-5 years old children was between 52.48% and 13.91%. The most common problems were "picky eating"(52.48%), "not eating by herself/himself"(49.66%), "sleep problems"(46.54%) and "disobey"(46.07%). Logistics regression analysis showed that boys(OR=1.25,95%CI: 1.02-1.53) was the risk factors for parents to report serious parenting difficulties, while elder children(OR=0.84,95%CI: 0.75-0.95), mother′s age at delivery(OR=0.96,95%CI: 0.93-0.99) and nuclear family(OR=0.77,95%CI: 0.61-0.97) were the protective factors. Conclusions Parents of children aged 3-5 years old in urban China are generally faced with parenting problems. It is necessary to provide universal and professional parenting support for parents. The medical staffs should provide parents with feeding, sleeping and behavioral support, especially to the parents with young children, boys, young mothers, and non-nuclear families.

Key words: preschool children, behavior disorders, parenting problems

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