中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 30-33.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1060

• 科研论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市学龄前儿童园外身体活动及其社区家庭运动环境调查

许梦雪1*, 王晓娟1*, 王博3, 江媛媛4, 朱宗涵5,6, 张霆2, 关宏岩1,2   

  1. 1.首都儿科研究所,婴幼儿照护服务研究指导中心,北京100020;
    2.首都儿科研究所儿童发育营养组学北京市重点实验室;
    3.中国疾控中心辐射安全所;
    4.东城区妇幼保健计划生育服务中心;
    5.首都儿科研究所;
    6.妇幼健康研究会儿童早期发展专委会
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-14 修回日期:2021-07-29 出版日期:2022-01-10 发布日期:2022-02-15
  • 通讯作者: 关宏岩,E-mail:hongyanguan@126.com
  • 作者简介:许梦雪(1989-),女,宁夏人,硕士研究生,实习研究员(初级),主要研究方向为养育照护质量与养育环境评估及相关干预研究;王晓娟(1994-),女,山西人,本科学历,主要研究方向为儿童早期身体活动。注:*共同第一作者。
  • 基金资助:
    北京市卫生系统高层次卫生技术人才培养计划卫生(2015-3-88);首都儿科研究所青年科研基金(QN-2018-01);北京市属医学科研院所公益发展改革试点项目(2019-11)

Status of physical activity outside kindergarten among Beijing urban preschoolers as well as family and community environment

XU Meng-xue*, WANG Xiao-juan*, WANG Bo, JIANG Yuan-yuan, ZHU Zong-han, ZHANG Ting, GUAN Hong-yan   

  1. *Nurturing Care Center, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020,China
  • Received:2021-07-14 Revised:2021-07-29 Online:2022-01-10 Published:2022-02-15
  • Contact: GUAN Hong-yan,E-mail:hongyanguan@126.com

摘要: 目的 了解北京市部分城区学龄前儿童园外身体活动现状并探究相关社区家庭运动环境,为园外儿童身体活动评估及干预提供依据。方法 采用方便整群抽样方法于2018年5—6月在北京东城区招募3所幼儿园527名学龄前儿童,采用自编学龄前儿童身体活动问卷,调查儿童身体活动、电子屏幕、睡眠时间及社区家庭运动环境。同时参照《学龄前儿童(3~6岁)运动指南》对各类身体活动时间、户外活动时间、屏幕时间和睡眠时间达标率进行分析。结果 上学日和周末儿童园外每天总活动时间分别为(86.39±59.75)min、(155.67±81.56)min。中高强度活动时间分别为(57.58±55.16)min、(83.14±61.22)min;户外活动时间分别为(67.77±46.26)min、(181.31±96.11)min;屏幕时间分别为(30.42±23.52)min、(51.06±41.25)min;睡眠时间分别为(10.94±0.83)h、(10.47±1.05)h。周末总活动时间、中高强度活动时间、户外活动时间、屏幕时间及睡眠时间达标率分别为30.9%、65.1%、81.7%、83.5%、80.2%。家庭运动养育环境得分与儿童睡眠时间和户外活动时间均呈显著正相关(r=0.110~0.270,P<0.05)。结论 学龄前儿童存在园外身体活动普遍缺乏,中高强度活动不足、屏幕时间过多的问题。改善社区及家庭运动环境可能对儿童户外活动及睡眠时间有积极作用。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 园外, 身体活动, 屏幕时间, 睡眠

Abstract: Objective To know about the status of physical activity outside kindergarten among Beijing urban preschoolers, and to explore related influencing factors in family and community, so as to provide evidence for assessment and intervention of preschooler's physical activity. Methods A convenient cluster sampling method was utilized to select 527 preschoolers from three kindergartens in Dongcheng district, Beijing from May to June, 2018. Caregivers were asked to fill out a self-designed questionnaire targeting daily physical activity time, outdoor activity time, screen time and sleep time. The compliance rate of each category mentioned above was analyzed referring to physical activity guideline for Chinese preschoolers aged 3-6 years. Results The time for physical time on school day and weekend was as follows, total activity:(86.39±59.75) min vs. (155.67±81.56) min, moderate to vigorous activity:(57.58±55.16) min vs. (83.14±61.22) min, outdoor activity time:(67.77±46.26) min vs. (181.31±96.11) min. The screen time and sleep time on school day and weekend were (30.42±23.52) min vs. (51.06±41.25) min, (10.94±0.83) h vs. (10.47±1.05) h, respectively. The compliance rate of total physical activity time on weekend, moderate to vigorous physical activity time, outdoor activity, screen time and sleep time were 30.9%, 65.1%, 81.7%, 83.5% and 80.2%, respectively. Family and community environmentscores were positively related to children's sleep and outdoor time (r=0.110 - 0.270, P<0.05). Conclusions Preschoolers lack physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity activity, but have excessive screen time outside kindergarten. Improving family and community environment may have a positive effect on outdoor activity and sleep time.

Key words: preschooler, outside kindergarten, physical activity, screen time, sleep

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