中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 962-966.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0968

• 科研论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

家庭环境和教养方式对小学生学业成绩的影响研究

雷晓梅1, 宁宁1, 刘利2, 陈丽3   

  1. 1 西安交通大学第二附属医院,陕西 西安 710004;
    2 西安交通大学第一附属医院,陕西 西安 710061;
    3 西安交通大学医学院,陕西 西安 710061
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-01 出版日期:2019-09-10 发布日期:2019-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 宁宁,E-mail:769749733@qq.com
  • 作者简介:雷晓梅(1974-),女,陕西人,副编审,硕士学位,主要从事儿童心理卫生的研究
  • 基金资助:
    陕西省自然科学基础研究计划一般项目(面上)(2019JM-002);陕西省软科学研究计划项目—面上项目(2016KRM104)

Study on effect of family circumstance and upbringing styles on academic performance of pupil

LEI Xiao-mei1, NING Ning1, LIU Li2, CHEN Li3   

  1. 1 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi′an Jiaotong University,Xi′an,Shaanxi 710004,China;
    2 The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi′an Jiaotong University,Xi′an,Shaanxi 710061,China;
    3 Xi′an Jiaotong University Health Science Center,Xi′an,Shaanxi 710061,China
  • Received:2019-07-01 Online:2019-09-10 Published:2019-09-10
  • Contact: NING Ning,E-mail:769749733@qq.com

摘要: 目的 研究家庭环境和教养方式非智力因素对小学生学业成绩的影响,为促进儿童全面发展提供参考依据。方法 2016年5月采用随机整群抽样方法对陕西省关中地区两个贫困县的4所小学4~6年级学生共841人进行问卷调查。采用自制一般情况问卷获悉学生的基本情况和考试分,采用家庭教养方式问卷(Family Upbring Style Questionaire,FUSQ)对学生的教养方式进行评估,并对教养方式与小学生学业成绩进行相关性分析。结果 家庭类型、父母文化程度、父母职业、父母关系及主要抚养人在高分组和低分组之间比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=37.82,31.84,23.71,12.14,13.99,P<0.05或<0.001)。高分组和低分组学生在激励-惩罚、民主-独裁、理解-责备、尊重-羞辱、温情-粗暴维度得分上,差异有统计学意义(U=1.699,3.352,3.424,2.821,3.036,P<0.05或<0.01),且低分组学生得分低于高分组学生,说明低分组学生的教养方式偏消极。相关分析发现,高分组儿童的学业成绩与理解-责备、尊重-羞辱、激励-惩罚、温情-粗暴维度上教养方式得分均呈正相关(r值分别为0.645、0.345、0.404、0.357,P<0.05)。低分组学生的学业成绩与尊重-羞辱、理解-责备、民主-独裁、温情-粗暴教养方式得分呈负相关(r值分别为-0.112、-0.184、-0.131、-0.169,P<0.05)。结论 家庭环境和教养方式对小学生的学业成绩有一定影响,应为儿童创造良好的成长环境,采用积极的教养方式,提高其非智力能力,以提升小学生的学业成绩

关键词: 家庭环境, 教养方式, 学业成绩, 小学生

Abstract: Objective To Study on effect of family circumstance and upbringing styles on academic performance of pupil,in order to stimulate Comprehensive child development. Methods By random sampling,841 students of grade 4-6 in two poor counties of the central Shaanxi plain were collected in May 2016.The basic information and test scores of all subjects were investigated by homemade general questionnaire.The upbringing styles was evaluated by Family Upbring Style Questionaire(FUSQ).The correlation was analysed between upbringing styles and FUSQ. Results There were differences in Family style,parents′culture level,parents′ occupation,parental relations and Principal dependant between highe-score group and low-score group(χ2=37.82,31.84,23.71,12.14,13.99,P<0.05 or <0.001).The score differences were existed in award-penalty,democracy-dictatorship,understanding-blame,respect-shame,tolerant-acolasia between highe-score group and low-score group(U=1.699,3.352,3.424,2.821,3.036,P<0.05 or <0.001),and the higher scores in highe-score group than in low-score group,and maintain negative upbringing styles in students of low-score group.The academic performances of highe-score students were positively related to understanding-blame,respect-shame,award-penalty and tolerant-acolasia(r=0.645,0.345,0.404,0.357,P<0.05).The academic performances of low-score students were negatively related to respect-shame,understanding-blame,democracy-dictatorship and tolerant-acolasia(r=-0.112,-0.184,-0.131,-0.169,P<0.05). Conclusions Family circumstance and upbringing styles effect on academic performance of pupil.Good environment for growth and positive upbringing styles should be created in order to improve non-intellectual ability and academic performance of pupil.

Key words: family circumstance, upbringing styles, academic performance, pupil

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