中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (6): 589-593.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0622

• 科研论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国九城市学龄前儿童饮食行为与体格生长的关系研究

武华红, 李辉, 宗心南, 张亚钦   

  1. 首都儿科研究所生长发育研究室,北京 100020
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-02 修回日期:2021-04-27 出版日期:2021-06-10 发布日期:2021-06-04
  • 通讯作者: 李辉,E-mail:huiligrowth@163.com
  • 作者简介:武华红(1984-),女,山西人,助理研究员,硕士学位,主要研究方向为儿童生长发育。
  • 基金资助:
    国家卫生和计划生育委员会妇幼健康服务司委托项目(2015-42);北京市医院管理中心儿科学科协同发展中心专项经费资助(XTZD20180403)

Study on dietary behavior and physical growth of preschool children in nine cities of China

WU Hua-hong, LI Hui, ZONG Xin-nan, ZHANG Ya-qin   

  1. Department of Growth and Development,Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China
  • Received:2021-04-02 Revised:2021-04-27 Online:2021-06-10 Published:2021-06-04
  • Contact: LI Hui, E-mail:huiligrowth@163.com

摘要: 目的 分析中国九城市学龄前儿童的饮食现状及不同饮食状况对儿童体格生长的影响,为针对性的饮食行为干预提供循证依据。方法 数据来源于2015年6-10月实施的 “中国九市7岁以下儿童体格发育调查”,采用分层整群抽样方法在9个城市调查3~7岁儿童53 155名。体格测量由统一培训的人员、采用统一配置的测量工具现场完成,饮食行为采用自制问卷、面对面询问儿童的日常生活主要照顾人完成。比较不同饮食行为的儿童体格生长的差异,并采用多元Logistic回归分析,探讨影响体格生长的主要因素。结果 1)3~7岁学龄前儿童中34.0%存在挑食现象;饮奶率为96.0%、食用鸡蛋的比例为96.2%,其中54.3%的儿童每日摄入牛奶、30.6%每日摄入鸡蛋;2)不挑食儿童的生长水平较挑食者高,不挑食者的身高标准差分值(SDS)和体重SDS分别为0.17±1.01和0.17±1.15,挑食者分别为0.01±1.00和0.10±1.10,且挑食者中最不喜欢吃肉、蛋类的儿童生长水平较其他类低(组间比较P<0.01);3)牛奶、鸡蛋摄入频率高的儿童生长水平较摄入频率低的儿童高:每周食用6个以上鸡蛋的儿童身高SDS和体重SDS分别为0.26±0.99和0.25±1.13,不食鸡蛋的分别为-0.12±1.02和-0.20±1.10;每周喝6袋以上牛奶的儿童身高SDS和体重SDS分别为0.17±1.01和0.14±1.14,不喝牛奶的为-0.14±1.04和-0.21±1.15(组间比较P<0.01);4)多因素分析发现,不挑食有利于儿童体格生长,而牛奶、鸡蛋摄入频率低和挑食者不喜欢摄入肉蛋类不利于儿童的体格生长。 结论 我国学龄前儿童饮食状况改善、蛋奶摄入比例提高,均衡膳食和肉蛋奶的规律、适量摄入是儿童体格生长的有利因素。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 饮食行为, 身高, 体重, 体格生长

Abstract: Objective To know about the dietary status of preschool children in nine cities of China, and to analyze the influence of different dietary behaviors on children's physical growth, so as to provide evidence for the targeted intervention. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine cities of China from June to October in 2015, including Beijing, Harbin, Xi'an, Wuhan, Nanjing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming.A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 53 155 children aged 3-7 years.The physical measurement was completed by uniform trained personnel and uniform measurement tools on site.The dietary behaviors were collected by self-designed questionnaire.The differences of physical growth between different dietary behaviors groups were compared, and the main factors affecting physical growth was determined by multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results 1) Among preschool children in nine cities, 34.0% were picky eaters; the percentage of drinking milk and eating eggs was 96.0% and 96.2%, respectively, and 54.3% drank milk and 30.6% ate eggs every day.2) The growth level of picky eaters was lower than non-picky eaters, the height SDSand weight SDS of picky eaters were 0.01±1.00 and 0.10±1.10, and those of non-picky eaters were 0.17±1.01 and 0.17±1.15.Moreover, among picky eater, the growth level of those who did not like meat, eggs was significantly lower than that of other groups (P<0.01).3) The growth level of children with high frequency of milk and eggs intake was higher than other groups.The height SDS and weight SDS of children who ate more than 6 eggs per week were 0.26±0.99 and 0.25±1.13, which were -0.12±1.02 and -0.20±1.10 for those who did not eat eggs.The height SDS and weight SDS of children who drank more than 6 packets of milk per week were 0.17±1.01 and 0.14±1.14, which were -0.14±1.04 and -0.21±1.15 for those who did not drink milk(P<0.01).4) Multivariate analysis showed that non-picky eating behavior was a favorable factor for children's growth level, while lower frequency of milk and eggs intake and picky eaters did not like meat, eggs and fish were the unfavorable factors for children's growth level. Conclusions The proportion of eggs and milk intake in preschool children has increased.Non-picky eating behavior, regular and adequate intake of meat, eggs and milk are favorable factors for children's physical growth.

Key words: preschool children, eating behavior, height, weight, physical growth

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