中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 88-92.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0740

• 临床研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

儿童体质发展情况分析

郭碧舟1,2, 浦虹2, 谢露2, 黄田1,2, 丁晓燕1,2, 郑佳芸2, 刘冬娇2   

  1. 1.昆明市妇幼健康服务中心儿童保健科,云南 昆明 650000;
    2.昆明市妇幼保健院,云南 昆明 650000
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-13 修回日期:2021-06-08 出版日期:2022-01-10 发布日期:2022-02-15
  • 作者简介::郭碧舟(1983-),男,云南人,主治医师,本科学历,主要研究方向为儿童保健、儿童早期发展。
  • 基金资助:
    昆明市科技保障名声发展计划重点项目(2019-1-s-25318000001356)

Analysis on physical fitness development of 3- to 6-year-old children in Kunming from 2017 to 2019

GUO Bi-zhou*, PU Hong, XIE Lu, HUANG Tian, DING Xiao-yan, ZHENG Jia-yun, LIU Dong-jiao   

  1. *Children Health Care Division,Kunming Maternal and Child Health Service Center,Kunming Yunnang 650000,China;
    Kunming Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Kunming, Yunnan 650000,China
  • Received:2021-05-13 Revised:2021-06-08 Online:2022-01-10 Published:2022-02-15

摘要: 目的 对昆明市城区连续三年3~6岁学龄前儿童体质测试结果进行分析,寻找学龄前儿童体质发展中的不平衡点,为制定体格锻炼、全面提高学龄前儿童身体素质的相关措施提供建议。 方法 选取2017-2019年连续进行体质测定的昆明市城区幼儿园38所,采用SPSS 20.0统计软件对结果进行数据分析。相关指标包括:身高、体重、10米折返跑、立定跳远、网球掷远、双脚连续跳、坐位体前屈、走平衡木8个体质项目,以及年龄别身高、年龄别体重、身高别体重3个生长发育评价结果。 结果 2019年体质测定的优秀率从2018年的32.5%提高到35.7%(χ2=62.512,P<0.05)。坐位体前屈0分值比率从2018年的1.7%上升到2019年的3%;除10米折返跑外,其余五个项目5分值比率2019年较2018年上升了1.8%~8.8%。与正常儿童6个项目相比,身高低常儿童平均分低1.855分(t=-16.416,P<0.05),体重低常儿童平均分低1.856分(t=-17.346,P<0.05);体重超常儿童平均分低0.277分(t=-2.798,P<0.05),消瘦儿童平均分低0.917分(t=-6.073,P<0.05),肥胖儿童平均分低0.571分(t=-5.490,P<0.05);身高超常儿童平均分高0.812分(t=7.123,P<0.05),且这生长发育异常的儿童在6个体质项目表现中,大部分项目的低分(0~2分)比率高于正常儿童。 结论 重视儿童柔韧性、平衡性锻炼,加强对家长的健康教育及认识的提高,做好儿童健康管理,做到早期预防及治疗生长发育相关疾病,才能持续促进体质健康发展,保障儿童健康。

关键词: 儿童, 体质, 身体素质, 生长发育, 体型

Abstract: Objective To analyze the results of physical fitness test of 3- to 6-year-old children for three consecutive years, and to find out the imbalance in the development of children's physical fitness, so as to provide suggestions for the development of children's physical exercise and the comprehensive improvement of preschool children's physical fitness. Methods Data of 38 kindergartens in Kunming City from 2017 to 2019 were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.The related indexes included height,weight,10 meter turn back run, standing long jump, tennis throw, two feet continuous jump, sitting forward bending, walking balance beam eight physical fitness items, as well as three growth and development evaluation results(age-specific height, age-specific weight, height specific weight). Results The excellent rate of physical fitness increased from 32.5% in 2018 to 35.7% in 2019(χ2=62.512, P<0.05).The 0-point ratio of sitting forward flexion increased from 1.7% in 2018 to 3% in 2019.Except 10 meter turn back run, the 5-point ratio of the other five items increased by 1.8%—8.8% in 2019 compared with 2018.Compared with the six items of normal children, the average score of children with low height was 1.855 points lower (t=-16.416, P<0.05), and that of children with low weight was 1.856 points lower (t=-17.346, P<0.05).Compared with the six items of normal children, the average score of overweight children was 0.277 points lower (t=-2.798, P<0.05), the average score of emaciated children was 0.917 points lower (t=-6.073, P<0.05).The average score of obese children was 0.571 points lower (t=-5.490, P<0.05), and the average score of height abnormal children was 0.812 points higher (t=7.123, P<0.05).Moreover, in the six physical items of children with abnormal growth and development, the ratio of low score (0-2 points) of most items was higher than that of normal children. Conclusions It is supposed to emphasize children's flexibility and balance exercise, strengthen health education for parents, improve their understanding, do a good job in children's health management, prevent and early treat growth and development diseases, so as to continuously promote healthy development of physique and protect children's health.

Key words: children, physical fitness, physical quality, growth and development, somatotype

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