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    Expert consensus on early intervention for neurobehavioral development in high risk newborn

    Infant and Child Development, China Eugenics Association Professional Committee
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 233-236.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0625
    Abstract228)      PDF (821KB)(348)      
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    Chinese norm of General Physical Activity Scale for children aged 3 to 6
    HE Yan-lu, YANG Zhi-yong, LIU Feng, DONG Wen-hong, KUANG Xiao-ni, ZHANG Xue-jiao, WANG Nian-rong, LUO Yan,YANG Lin, WANG Xiao-juan, WU Jian-xin, ZHANG Ting, ZHU Zong-han, WANG Jian, GUAN Hong-yan, TONG Mei-ling
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 594-598.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1495
    Abstract152)      PDF (777KB)(95)      
    Objective To establish Chinese norm of General Physical Activity Scale for children aged 3 to 6, and to explore its cut-off score for the norm, thus to provide a practical tool for clinical application. Methods From August 2020 to May 2021, a stratified cluster sampling approach was utilized to recruit 1 616 children aged 3 to 6 years from eight cities in six major administrative regions of China. The norm distribution and scores were analyzed, and its cut-off score was discussed. Results The scores of each dimension was significantly different among eight cities( F=10.964 - 117.766, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the total score of the scale is 0.937(95% CI:0.916 - 0.957). The maximum Yuden Index(YI) was 0.74, and the corresponding total score was in the 17th percentile( P 17) in the norm, with the sensitivity of 0.871 and specificity of 0.864. When P 15 (76)and P 20(80)were taken as the threshold point, the corresponding YI was 0.69 and 0.72, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity were both above 0.8. Conclusions The norm sample of this study is representative, and the cut-off score is appropriate, which can be popularized and applied in clinic practice.
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    Clinical intervention of language delays and language disorders
    LIU Xue-man
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (8): 813-817.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0871
    Abstract151)      PDF (1370KB)(277)      
    Language delays and language disorders are the most common type of childhood developmental disorders. The exploratory design and initial attempts to implement a Chinese model of an evidence-based clinical intervention pathway for language delays and language disorders were guided by the Clinical Framework of children's language development and the concept of response to intervention (RTI).The early exploratory design also incorporated China's well developed nationwide maternal and children's health care system into the internationally recognized evidence-based tertiary clinical intervention pathway to achieve some initial Results in China.
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    Comparative study of DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5 in diagnosing children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorders
    LIU Rui, WANG Yan, JIANG Yan-rui, BAI Hua, ZHANG Rui-fang
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 306-309.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0102
    Abstract138)      PDF (917KB)(99)      
    Objective To compare the similarities and differences in the diagnosis of children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-Ⅳ) and fifth edition (DSM-5), so as to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Methods From November 2013 to March 2014, all children suspected with ADHD who visited the developmental behavioral pediatric ADHD clinic of Shanghai Children's Medical Center were selected.All children were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5, and were divided into three subtypes of attention deficit type, hyperactivity/impulse type and mixed type ADHD according to their symptoms.The clinical efficacy between the two methods was compared. Result The diagnostic rates of all children suspected with ADHD and the subtypes of ADHD between DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5 were highly consistent, and the positive rate of diagnosis had no significant difference ( χ2=0.881, P=0.076). Conclusions DSM-5 is highly consistent with DSM-Ⅳ in diagnosing each type of ADHD.And DSM-5 is more appropriate for diagnosing ADHD by specifying the items and ages.
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    Development of children's movement skills and the cultivation of exercise habits should be valued in early childhood development
    TONG Mei-ling
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 581-584.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0598
    Abstract134)      PDF (720KB)(169)      
    As a crucial component of early childhood development, physical activity can facilitate the development of children's physical, mental and social abilities. Caregivers incorporate physical activities into daily nurturing care to progressively develop children's movement skills and to cultivate children's exercise habits, which contributes to early childhood development and children's long-term health, and is also an important move to upgrade population quality as well as to strengthen the country and individuals.
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    Preliminary development and evaluation of the Responsive Caregiving Rating Scale for children aged 0 to 4 years
    HUANG Ying, ZHANG Hai-feng, TONG Lian
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 386-391.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0474
    Abstract121)      PDF (702KB)(84)      
    Objective To develop the Responsive Caregiving Rating Scale for children aged 0 to 4 years (RCRS), and to testify its reliability and validity. Methods Based on attachment theory and the existing responsive caregiving scales, the original items of the scale were formed. A total of 2 759 parents whose children aged 0 to 4 years in Shanghai were recruited from March to May 2020, and each parent was asked to fill in an online questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to test the structural validity. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to test the concurrent validity. Results The exploratory factor analysis indicated that RCRS had 16 items grouped into three dimensions, which explained 78.04% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-dimension model fit well (CFI=0.971, TLI=0.965, RMSEA=0.069, SRMR=0.024). The Cronbach's α coefficient for the overall scale was 0.97, which in the dimensions of promotion of cognitive and emotional development, responsive, respect for autonomy was 0.95, 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. The scores of RCRS were significantly different between the normal and the abnormal children evaluated by SDQ( Z=7.071, P<0.05). Conclusion The RCRC is demonstrated to be an ideal tool with good reliability and validity to assess the quality of responsive caregiving.
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    Association between picky eating and core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder
    AI Nü-tian, ZHANG Qian, YANG Ting, CHEN Jie, CHEN Li, DAI Ying, JIA Fei-yong, WU Li-jie, HAO Yan, LI Ling, ZHANG Jie, KE Xiao-yan, YI Ming-ji, HONG Qi, CHEN Jin-jin, FANG Shuan-feng, WANG Yi-chao, WANG Qi, JIN Chun-hua, LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 355-360.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0398
    Abstract115)      PDF (821KB)(83)      
    Objective To investigate the relationship between severely picky eating and the core symptoms among children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD),so as to provide reference for early identification and targeted intervention. Methods From May 2018 to December 2019,1 349 children aged 2 to 7 years were enrolled in this study from 13 hospitals in 13 cities across the country,meanwhile 1 170 typically developed children were recruited. A self-made questionnaire was used to investigate the picky eating status of ASD children. Autism Behavior Scale(ABC),Social Response Scale(SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale(CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of ASD children. Linear regression was used to analyze the impact of severely picky eating on physical growth and core symptoms of ASD. Results The rate of severely picky eating in ASD children was 56.5%(763/1 349),which was 29.7%(348/1 170) in TD children. It was found that ASD and the age of children in two groups were risk factors for occurrence of severe picky eating after adjusting for confounding factors( OR=3.075,1.183,1.156, P<0.05). Severely picky eating significantly affected ASD children's weight,body mass index(BMI),scores of ABC scale and subscales,scores of SRAS scale and subscales( β=-0.220,-0.319,6.305,1.139,2.111,1.043,1.427,0.946,5.908,0.597,1.029,1.517,1.328,1.503, P<0.05). Conclusions There is a high incidence and persistence of severely picky eaters in autistic children. Severely picky eating has significant impact on children's weight growth and BMI,and is associated with core symptoms of ASD. Therefore,clinical medical staff should pay more attention to the assessment of picky eating behaviors in ASD children,so as to carry out early identification and precise intervention of children.
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    Exercise ability and early childhood development
    GUO Jian-jun, WANG Chao
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 591-593.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0565
    Abstract113)      PDF (455KB)(122)      
    Early childhood development is crucial for the wellbeing and health of individuals in adulthood and even in old age. It has attracted more and more concerns from society. This paper summarizes the role of motor ability development in early education from the perspective of early physical growth, intellectual development, neuropsychological development and its effect on the intervention of special children's diseases, in order to find pathways and directions to promote children's healthy growth.
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    Evaluation and intervention of hot- and cool-executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    YANG Bin-rang, CHEN Qiao-ru
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (12): 1277-1281.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-1315
    Abstract111)      PDF (734KB)(144)      
    Executive function impairment emerges as a primary cognitive deficit in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), involving prefrontal cortex and multi-level brain network dysfunction. Executive function has been functionally classified into cool and hot. Cool-executive function impairment mainly manifests in response inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility, while hot-executive function impairment usually involves delayed gratification, reward/punishment-related decision-making, self-regulation and emotion regulation. A variety of traditional paradigms have been used when assessing executive function in ADHD children, some of which are reliably modified and culturally adapted. Based on the literature, clinical practice should not focus exclusively on cool executive function. Children′s impairment in hot executive function (with emotional and social components) should also be noted as significant indicators when evaluating the state of children′s condition. Additionally, dynamic follow-up and intervention should be required to achieve the best results in the long term.
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    Advances and reflections on nutrient signalling pathways as biomarkers of autism spectrum disorders
    LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 349-351.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0335
    Abstract103)      PDF (465KB)(101)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common and complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Nutrition plays an important role in the growth and development of children, and there is a certain relationship with the occurrence, development and prognosis of ASD subtypes. With the deepening of research, correlating ASD symptoms with serum nutrient levels has been extremely challenging. This manuscript takes folic acid and vitamin A (VA) as examples to review the new ideas of using nutrient signaling pathway as a potential biomarker of ASD, hoping to provide reference for further exploring the occurrence, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.
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    Guidelines of health nurturing care for children under 3 years old (trial implementation)
    National Health Commission of the People′s Republic of China
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2023, 31 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-1446
    Abstract100)      PDF (3768KB)(149)      
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    Validity of the Chinese version of Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (the Second Edition) for toddlers aged 12 to 35 months
    ZHANG Jing, BIAN Xiao-yan, SQUIRES Jane, SONG Wei, PENG Yong-mei, DU Li, ZHU Li-ping
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 249-253.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0919
    Abstract96)      PDF (548KB)(79)      
    Objectives To investigate the validity of the Chinese version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, Second Edition (ASQ:SE-2) for toddlers aged 12 to 35 months, so as to provide an appropriate assessment tool for the early social-emotion development of children. Methods From 22nd May to 29th October 2020, a total of 560 children aged 12 to 35 months were selected from Children's Hospital of Shanghai, Huangpu, Jing'an, Hongkou and Jiading Districts Maternal and Child Healthcare Center of Shanghai and child health care department of several community health service centers.The questionnaires for 12-, 18-,24-, 30- and 36-month-old toddlers in Chinese version of ASQ:SE-2 covering children aged 12 - 35 months were used, and the Chinese Infant-Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (CITSEA) were used as validation criteria. Results The questionnaires for 12-, 18-,24-, 30- and 36-month-old toddlers in ASQ:SE-2 had good validity, significant correlations of the social, emotional, social-emotional scores and total scores of ASQ:SE-2 with the scores of the externalizing domain, the internalizing domain, the dysregulation domain and the competence domain of CITSEA were found ( r=0.31 - 0.72, 0.19 - 0.70, 0.23 - 0.75, -0.74 - -0.42, P<0.05).And the correlation coefficient r between the factors of the two scales in the total sample ranged from |0.40| to |0.61| ( P<0.01).When samples above the cut-off scores was identified as social-emotional delay, the sensitivity and specificity of ASQ:SE-2 was 60.48% and 95.41%, respectively, and the percentage of the agreement between the ASQ:SE-2 and the CITSEA was 87.68%.When samples in the monitoring zone was identified as social-emotional delay, the sensitivity and specificity of ASQ:SE-2 was 76.61% and 82.80%, respectively, and the percentage of the agreement between the ASQ:SE-2 and the CITSEA was 81.43%.Exploratory factor analysis of ASQ:SE-2 showed that the factor loading of social, emotional, social-emotional scores and total scores of the questionnaires for 12-, 18-,24-, 30- and 36-month-old children ranged from 0.84 to 0.99. Conclusions ASQ:SE-2 has good validity and can be used to screen and monitor social and emotional behavior development of children in mainland China.
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    Characteristics and influencing factors of parent-child interaction in children with developmental language disorder
    GONG Yan-hui, GUO Ling-ling, CHE Chao, CHEN Kun-ping, CHAI Run-yu, CAO Ai-hua, TONG Lian
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 259-263.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0902
    Abstract96)      PDF (616KB)(103)      
    Objective To study the characteristics of parent-child interaction in children with developmental language disorder (DLD), and to analyze the influencing factors of DLD, so as to provide basis for early clinical detection and early intervention. Methods Thirty children with DLD diagnosed in the Child Health Care Clinic of Cheeloo Hospital of Shandong University were selected into this study from January 2018 to March 2020. Meanwhile, 30 normal children who took physical examination in the Child Healthcare Clinic of Cheeloo Hospital of Shandong University and the Child Healthcare Clinic of Shandong University Central Campus Hospital were selected as control. The Chinese version of the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment Scale and video analysis were used to assess the interactive behaviors of the children and their caregivers. Results There was significant difference in the scores of parent-child interaction between the DLD group and the control group ( t=4.548, P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the higher the scores of autonomy and social emotion of parent-child interaction, the higher the risk of DLD ( OR=5.935, 8.833, P<0.05); While the higher the scores of empathy, respect for autonomy and the cultivation of cognitive ability in parent-child interaction, the lower the risk of DLD ( OR=0.165, 0.417, 0.202, P<0.05). Higher education level of mothers ( OR=0.159, 95% CI: 0.031 - 0.805), better family rearing environment ( OR=0.051, 0.140) and family annual income>10 5 yuan ( OR=0.013, 95% CI: 0.033 - 0.380) were protective factors for DLD, while the daily video time>1 h/d ( OR=21.605, 95% CI: 3.214 - 145.225) was a risk factor for DLD in children. Conclusions In community primary medical institutions, children with DLD can be identified early with the help of parent-child interaction, so as to get chance for early screening and intervention. Improving family rearing environment and reducing screen time may reduce the occurrence of children's language disorder.
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    Physical activity and early childhood development of preschool children
    WANG Jian
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 585-590.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0597
    Abstract93)      PDF (1112KB)(86)      
    Physical activity is the main form of play, games and daily life for preschool children and the important means of early nurturance, education and medical rehabilitation. It plays a positive and beneficial role in promoting the early brain, body, cognition, emotion and social development of children, shaping the overall life development trajectory and physical-mental health of children. This article highlights the latest research advances and future research perspectives in the areas of physical activity and early physical development, brain, cognitive development and social development.
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    Assessment and treatment for sleep disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder
    CHEN Cen, CHENG Hui, JIANG Fan, SHEN Min, WANG Guang-hai
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 637-641.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0195
    Abstract91)      PDF (689KB)(91)      
    Sleep disorders, as one of the most common comorbid disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have attracted extensive clinical and research attention in recent years.Sleep disorders are significantly related to the core symptoms of ASD, affect the children's function, quality of life and efficacy of intervention and rehabilitation, and also cause great parenting distress and economic burden on parents.At the international level, sleep disorders especially for insomnia have been integrated in the assessment and treatment for ASD, yet the relevant work in China is much less developed and pediatric professionals has insufficient ability to assess and treat sleep disorders in ASD children.Therefore, this review introduces the assessment and treatment strategies for sleep disorders in ASD children in order to inform clinical and research work.
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    Rehabilitation efficacy of suspension training combined with MOTOmed intelligent training for children with spastic cerebral palsy
    WANG Jing, YUE Ling, CHEN Zhi-hong, SUN Su-zhen, MA Gui-lin, BAI Bing, CHEN Cui-ying
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 240-243.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0971
    Abstract91)      PDF (517KB)(57)      
    Objective To explore the clinical effect of suspension therapy combined with MOTOmed intelligent training in children with spastic cerebral palsy, in order to provide reference for clinical improvement of related intervention programs. Methods A total of 150 children with spastic cerebral palsy and treated in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from May 2020 to May 2021 were included and divided into observation group and control group by random number table, with 75 cases in each group.The control group received MOTOmed intelligent training, and the observation group received suspension therapy additionally.The intervention lasted for 8 weeks.Trunk control ability, Berg Scale Score, Gross Motor Function Measure(GMFM) and Modified Barthel Index(MBI) score, serum nerve growth factor(NGF) and endothelin(ET) level were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results After treatment, the total trunk control ability, the front and back trunk control ability, the left and right trunk control ability of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group ( t=2.992, 6.860, 8.380 ,P<0.05).The Berg score, GMFM score, MBI score of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=2.192, 2.126, 2.331, P<0.05).The level of NGF in the observation group was higher than that of the control group, while the level of ET was lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=3.560, 2.806, P<0.05). Conclusions Suspension therapy combined with MOTOmed intelligent training can effectively improve children's trunk control ability, promote their gross motor development, improve children's balance function and activities of daily living.Moreover, the combined efficacy is better than that of MOTOmed intelligent training alone, which can be popularized and applied in clinic.
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    Research progress in the motor difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorder
    LONG Dan, LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 396-400.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2163
    Abstract90)      PDF (543KB)(67)      
    Children with autism spectrum disorders(ASD) are often accompanied with motor difficulties,and perform as early motor delay,motor learning difficulties,slow movement,fitness decline and so on,which is affected by heredity,age,core symptoms,comorbidity,intervention and other factors. The motor difficulties of ASD children are often ignored,which disturb their learning and social activities. Pediatricians should monitor the early motor difficulties of ASD children,and carry out individualized training according to their characteristics in order to promote motor development and improve core symptoms,thus improving their quality of life.
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    Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers
    XIAO Ting, XIAO Xiang, CHU Kang-kang, KE Xiao-yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 381-385.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0484
    Abstract89)      PDF (661KB)(61)      
    Objective To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Quantitative Checklist for autism in toddlers (Q-CHAT), so as to provide an appropriate tool for early screening of autism spectrum disorder(ASD). Methods From July 2019 to January 2020, a total of 91 18- to 48-month-old ASD children diagnosed by DSM-5, alongside 45 age-matched individuals with other developmental disabilities (DD) and 60 typically developed (TD) children were screened by the Q-CHAT and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Results The test-retest reliability was satisfactory ( r=0.89).In addition, the Cronbach's α coefficient for internal reliability was 0.67( P<0.05).The Q-CHAT score was significantly correlated with the total CARS score ( r=0.44, P<0.001).And correlation coefficients of 0.22—0.60 were obtained between the Q-CHAT score and total CARS score for various items.ROC analysis of ASD versus unaffected control subjects showed an area under the curve of 0.87, yielding maximum sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.92) with a cutoff of 45 points.Q-CHAT scores were significantly higher in ASD children compared with control children( t=9.42, P<0.01), revealing sufficient discriminant validity. Conclusion Chinese version of Q-CHAT can be used for early screening of ASD children in urban Mandarin Chinese speaking populations with acceptable reliability and validity.
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    Three-level Meta-analysis of the relationship between parental
    control and depression in children and adolescents
    WEI Xing, GAO Shuang, XU Jiang, WANG Wen-juan, ZHAO Yuan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 417-421.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0875
    Abstract89)      PDF (602KB)(69)      
    Objective To systematically review the published articles on parental control and depression in children and adolescents using a three-level Meta-analysis method, so as to provide ideas for the treatment of depression. Methods English and Chinese database were searched to retrieve articles related to parental control and depression in children and adolescents.R language was used for data analysis, and the correlation coefficient Fisher's Z value was selected as the effect size to assess the overall model. I 2 distribution was used to evaluate heterogeneity, and Funnel plot calculation method was used to evaluate publication bias, then Meta-regression was used to perform subgroup and moderation analysis. Results A total of 18 articles were included.The results showed that parental control was positively correlated with students' depression (Fisher's Z= 0.278, P<0.001, I2=87.36%).Meta regression showed that the moderating effect of different control types was significant.Parental behavior control has no significant impact on students' depression (Fisher's Z=-0.067, P>0.1), while other control types were not only related to children and adolescents' depression symptoms (Fisher's Z=0.279, P<0.001), but even induced depressive personality in children and adolescents(Fisher's Z=0.272, P<0.05).This correlation was detected in many countries. Conclusions Parental control is related to children's depression.Therefore, family factors should be considered in the intervention of children and adolescents' depression.
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    Analysis of clinical and electroencephalogram features in children with autism spectrum disorder combined with epilepsy
    DU Ya-kun, WANG Xia, CHEN Fang, LI Bao-guang, SUN Chen-bo, SUN Su-zhen
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 427-430.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0141
    Abstract88)      PDF (810KB)(41)      
    Objective To analyze the clinical and electroencephalogram(EEG)features in children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD)combined with epilepsy,in order to provide clues for optimizing the clinical treatment of these children. Methods A total of 120 children with ASD combined with seizures in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from January 2017 to December 2019 were enrolled in this study. Their clinical features and EEG features were retrospectively analyzed. Results The features of seizures in ASD children combined with epilepsy were mainly focal seizures(83.3%),which peaked at 5 to 7 years old,and the proportion of children with low intelligence level was high.EEG discharges were most common in the frontal region(40%) and temporal area(30%).The intelligence level of the patients was negatively correlated with the interictal epileptiform activity(IEA)( r=-0.736, P<0.001). Conclusions ASD combined with epilepsy has its own clinical features.As a method to evaluate brain function,EEG has a high application value in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
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    Investigation on current situation and influencing factors of pupil's behavioral problems in Zhengzhou
    FANG Shuan-feng, ZHANG Yi-xia, YE Bei, REN Ling-min, JIAO Min
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 441-445.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1491
    Abstract88)      PDF (535KB)(43)      
    Objective To investigate current situation and influencing factors of pupil's behavioral problems in Zhengzhou, so as to provide reference for targeted intervention of behavioral problems of primary school students. Methods A total of 3 180 pupils were randomly selected in Zhengzhou. Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a self-designed questionnaire were used to assess behavioral problems and collect demographic data. Results A total of 3 180 questionnaires were distributed, and 2 832 (89.1%) valid questionnaires were collected. The detection rate of behavioral problems was 7.8% (222/2 832) in pupils, which was significantly higher in 12- to 14-year-old pupils than 6- to 11-year-old pupils (12.2% vs. 7.3%, χ2=83.168, P<0.001).The detection rate of behavioral problems in boys was significantly higher than that in girls (8.9% vs. 6.6%, χ2=4.788, P = 0.029).Compared with other grades, first-grade pupils had lower detection rate of behavioral problems ( χ2=13.592, P=0.018). Pupils whose fathers were teachers, mothers were workers, boys, premature, mothers or fathers with less than high school education, fathers addicted to the internet or alcohol, and pupils with intracranial haemorrhage at birth all had higher overall scores of behavioral problems, and the differences were statistically significant( P<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of behavioral problems among primary school students in Zhengzhou varies by gender, age and grade, and is also related to parental occupation, parental education, health status at birth and father's behavioral problems. It is suggested to improve the behavioral problems among primary school students in Zhengzhou by the cooperation of family, school and medical staffs.
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    Preliminary development, reliability and validity of Screening Questionnaire of Autism in Toddlers
    ZHENG Rui-xuan, ZHANG Li-li, ZHOU Zi-yun, CAO Jia-yan, ZHOU Xing, QIAN Yu-qian, DU Fei-yu, CHENG Zao-huo
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 376-380.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0250
    Abstract88)      PDF (552KB)(52)      
    Objective To develop a screening questionnaire of autism suitable for children with Chinese cultural background, and to test its reliability and validity. Methods Screening Questionnaire of Autism in Toddlers (SQAT) was compiled based on the relevant research results and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Totally 238 children in outpatients or physical examination and 392 children in rehabilitation training institutions were selected for the SQAT assessment, 28 of them were retested 2 to 4 weeks later, and some children were tested by criteria scale.The item selection, reliability and validity of the questionnaire were made by expert evaluation, item analysis, correlation analysis, factor analysis and ROC analysis. Results Thirteen items with good responsiveness (0.394 - 0.626), discrimination (0.465 - 0.697) and common factor loading (0.317 - 0.605) were selected to form the SQAT, which included social and behavioral components.The S-CVI/UA and S-CVI/Ave of expert evaluation was 0.99 and 0.89, respectively.The Cronbach'α coefficients, split-half reliability and retest reliability of the total scale and two components were 0.770 - 0.851, 0.838 - 0.890 and 0.601 - 0.734, respectively.Exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors with eigenvalue >1 and accounted for 50.2% of variance, and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two factor model of SQAT had a good fit (RMSEA=0.055, NFI=0.872, IFI=0.926, CFI=0.924).The correlation coefficients of total and component scores with ABC and M-CHAT-R/F were 0.518 - 0.656 and 0.305 - 0.833, respectively ( P<0.01), and total score of ASD group (23.26 ± 4.73) was higher than that of GDD group (17.32 ± 3.39) and TD group (15.85 ± 2.01) ( P<0.01).The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the SQAT in screening ASD were 82.00%, 80.60% and 96.46%, respectively. Conclusion SQAT has good reliability and validity, which can be used as a preliminary screening tool for children with ASD.
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    Design and application of abdominal muscle strength trainer in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy
    SONG Fu-xiang, KONG Xiang-ying, GUO Jin, LIN Ping, ZHANG Peng, LI Xin
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 339-342.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0554
    Abstract85)      PDF (616KB)(45)      
    Objective To design an abdominal muscle strength trainer, and to observe its clinical efficacy in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP). Methods An abdominal muscle strength trainer was designed, consisting of three important parts: a seat plate, a base plate and a back training plate. Forty spastic diplegia CP children were enrolled in this study from January 2018 to December 2019, and were randomly divided into observation group ( n=20) and control group ( n=20). All children were treated with routine rehabilitation training with the frequency of once a day, 5 d/week. The control group received conventional rehabilitation, while the observation group received abdominal muscle strength trainer exercise training for 5 - 10 min per day. Children in both groups were assessed with manual muscle testing at the beginning and at the end of the three months of treatment course. Results After three-month treatment, MMT scores of children in both groups were improved significantly than those before training ( t=2.517, 7.768, 2.179, 8.718, P<0.05).MMT scores of children in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( t=3.454, 2.886, P<0.01). Conclusions The abdominal muscle strength trainer is easy and safe for children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy to use, and it can significantly improve the rehabilitation efficacy.
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    Current status of eye health management in children and adolescents
    LI Ling, ZHANG Hong
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 413-416.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1710
    Abstract85)      PDF (496KB)(62)      
    Eye health is an indispensable foundation in the process of human growth, and it is related to the academic achievement, mental health and social development of children and adolescents. However, the eye health of children and adolescents is not optimistic. The visual impairment of young people, especially myopia, poses a major public health challenge. During the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, the demand for eye health is increasing. The government, schools and families attach great importance to eye health and actively explore eye health management models. Therefore, protecting the eye health of children and adolescents requires the whole society to take action. This article reviews the eye health management of children and adolescents at home and abroad in recent years from the four levels of policy, school, family and individual, thereby providing references for further improving the level of eye health of children and adolescents.
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    Research on family factors related to adolescent depressive symptoms
    XIE Xiao-min, FENG Bei, LI Ya-li, LIANG Ya-hong, WANG Yue, LIN Yan, JIANG Xun
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 446-449.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0278
    Abstract84)      PDF (560KB)(44)      
    Objective To investigate the occurrence of depressive symptoms in adolescents,and to analyze their related family factors. Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 650 middle school students from two junior high schools and two high schools in Xi'an as the survey objects in November 2019. Surveys were conducted by using the general situation questionnaire,the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale,the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Short-Egna Minnen Barndoms Uppfostran. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore related family factors influencing the level of adolescent depression symptoms. Results The score of depressive symptoms in adolescents in this survey was 16.00(9.00,20.00),and the positive screening rate for depressive symptoms was 19.7%. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gender,marital status of parents,emotional abuse,physical neglect,paternal overprotection,maternal overprotection,paternal emotional warmth,maternal emotional warmth were the main influencing factors for depressive symptoms of adolescents( β=-0.028,0.030,0.103,0.267,0.467,0.047,-0.279,-0.272, P<0.001, R 2=0.923). Conclusions The positive screening rate for depressive symptoms in adolescents is relatively low. Gender,marital status of parents,emotional abuse,physical neglect,overprotection of parents,and emotional warmth of parents mainly affect the depressive symptoms in adolescents.
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    Effect of Peabody Developmental Motor Scales and the motor activities program in early intervention of children with motor development retardation
    ZHOU Feng, JIANG Li-yan, GAO Ping-ping
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 603-606.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0674
    Abstract84)      PDF (524KB)(50)      
    Objective To study the early intervention effect of Peabody Developmental Motor Scales 2 (PDMS-2) and the motor activities program in children with motor development retardation, so as to provide scientific reference for the early intervention of motor development retardation. Methods From June 2019 to June 2020, a total of 101 children diagnosed with motor development retardation who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected into this study, and were divided into the intervention group ( n=51) and control group ( n=50) according to different training methods. Both groups received routine early intervention training. Children in the observation group received motor activities program additionally based on the evaluation results of PDMS-2. After a course of treatment, PDMS-2 was used to evaluate the motor function of children in two groups, and the PDMS-2 evaluation results before and after intervention were compared between the two groups. Results Before intervention, there were no significant differences in gross motor quotient (GMQ), fine motor quotient (FMQ) and total motor quotient (TMQ) between the intervention group and control group ( P>0.05). GMQ, FMQ and TMQ of the intervention group were significantly improved after intervention( t=4.00, 3.17, 3.97, P<0.01), which were also significantly higher than those in the control group after intervention ( t=2.13, 2.04, 2.44, P<0.05). Before intervention, the proportion of children with fine or gross movement deviation was significantly different between groups ( χ2=2.60, P<0.05).Which was significant difference before and after intervention in the intervention group( χ 2=7.71, P<0.01), but which was not significantly different before and afterinterventionin the control group( χ 2=3.73, P>0.05). Conclusion PDMS-2 and the motor activities program in the early intervention training can effectively improve the development of motor function of children with motor development retardation
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    Associations of maternal anxiety with emotional and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder
    LIU Si-yu, LIN Li-zi, WANG Xin, DAI Mei-xia, CHEN Qian, CHEN Jia-jie, CAO Mu-qing, JING Jin
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 361-365.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0756
    Abstract84)      PDF (627KB)(50)      
    Objective To compare maternal anxiety between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with typical development (TD), and to explore the associations of maternal anxiety with emotional and behavioral problems in children with ASD. Methods A total of 55 ASD children and 74 TD children aged 6 to 12 years were recruited in this study. Station-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate maternal anxiety, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess children's emotional and behavioral problems. Results Mothers of ASD children had a higher level of maternal anxiety including state anxiety score and trait anxiety score ( t=5.272, 4.484, P<0.05). In terms of SDQ, ASD children had higher scores of emotional and behavioral problems, hyperactivity/attention deficit, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems and conduct problems( t=10.791, 7.482, 4.295, 12.925, 3.544, P<0.05), and lower score of prosocial behaviors than TD children ( t=5.084, P<0.01). In children with ASD, both maternal state anxiety and trait anxiety score were positively associated with total difficulties score [S-AI: β=0.83 (95% CI: 0.19 - 1.46), T-AI: β=0.60 (95% CI: 0.05 - 1.14), P<0.01] and emotional symptoms score [S-AI: β=2.28 (95% CI: 0.72 - 3.84), T-AI: β=2.04 (95% CI:0.74 - 3.33), P<0.01]. In TD children, maternal state anxiety score was positively associated with total SDQ score [ β=0.50 (95% CI: 0.03 - 0.96), P<0.05] and conduct problem score [ β=1.74 (95% CI:0.19 - 3.30), P<0.05], maternal trait anxiety score was positively related to conduct problem score [ β=1.54 (95% CI: 0.09~3.00), P<0.05]. Conclusions Mothers of ASD children have higher levels of anxiety than those of TD children. Maternal anxiety is associated with emotional problems in ASD children, while it is associated with conduct behaviors in TD children.
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    Status and influencing factors of visual health of 2 036 children and adolescents in Songjiang District, Shanghai
    TANG Min-hua, ZHAO Gen-ming, JIANG Yong-gen, ZHU Hong, LI Yong-mei, CHEN Ni-er, HE Yu-ping, YAO Chun-xia
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 319-324.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0595
    Abstract83)      PDF (610KB)(82)      
    Objective To investigate the current situation of visual health of children and adolescents in the primary, junior, and high schools in Shanghai Songjiang District in 2020, and to analyze its influencing factors, so as to provide guidance for the timely intervention of children and adolescents with poor vision. Methods From September to December in 2020, 7 schools in Shanghai Songjiang District were randomly selected as vision monitoring sites to check naked distal vision and the dilated refractive status under non-cycloplegia, including 2 primary schools, 2 junior high schools, and 3 high schools. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 036 students to conduct a questionnaire survey. Then the influencing factors of poor eyesight were analyzed. Results Among 2 036 students, there were 1 381(67.83%) students with poor eyesight and 1 111(54.57%) students with myopia. The rates of myopia in primary school junior high school, and high school students were 25.40%, 73.44% and 88.99%, respectively. With the higher of grade, the rate of myopia increased continuously and the linear trend was significant ( Z=26.204, P<0.001). Students have many bad habits of using eyes, such as using eyes too close, using eyes for a long time, not positively taking rest and so on. Multivariate analysis showed that female ( OR=1.354,95% CI:1.116 - 1.642), myopia of parents ( OR=1.470, 95% CI:1.207 - 1.790), and longer time for doing homework ( OR=2.903, 95% CI:2.080 - 4.050) were risk factors for poor vision, while outdoor exercise( OR=0.678, 95% CI:0.533 - 0.863) and rest after continuous eye use for 30~40 min( OR=0.686, 95% CI:0.511 - 0.920) were protective factors. Conclusions The rates of poor vision and myopia in children and adolescents in Shanghai Songjiang district are relatively high, which was closely related to the habits and duration of using eyes. It is necessary to increase children and adolescents'outdoor exercise time, to strengthen eye hygiene and health education, and to take regular vision examination and early interventions.
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    Effect of women dietary patterns during pregnancy on infants' cognitive development in rural Yunnan
    LI Yu-ping, CHEN Ying, CHEN Shu-qi, XIAO Xia, QI Zhi-ye, LI Yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 244-248.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0992
    Abstract83)      PDF (597KB)(50)      
    Objectives To investigate the association between pregnant women's dietary patterns (DP) and cognitive development of infants, in order to provide reference for facilitating cognitive development of rural infants. Methods An ambispective cohort study on the effects of women's dietary patterns during pregnancy on infants' cognitive development was established based on a birth cohort study of rural areas in Yunnan, and maternal dietary information during pregnancy was collected.A total of 228 mother-child pairs were enrolled and followed in the study from January 2018 to December 2019.A self-designed questionnaire survey was conducted among infant's mother or primary caregivers, including infants' health status, supplementary foods, main caregivers and so on.Meanwhile, children's cognitive development at 12 months old was assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition (BSID-Ⅲ).Women's dietary patterns during pregnancy were obtained through principal component analysis (PCA).Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the effects of dietary patterns during pregnancy on infants' cognitive development. Results Three dietary patterns were extracted in three trimesters as well as in the combined second and third trimester of pregnancy, including pickled food(ham, Chinese sauerkraut), animal protein (animal organs, livestock meat, poultry meat, fish and shrimp) and traditional food (potato/sweet potato, rice, flour and related products, vegetables).The average score of cognitive development in 228 infants was 98.84±16.66, and 20 (8.8%) infants were detected with developmental delay.Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that traditional dietary pattern was negatively associated with cognitive development of 12-month-old infants ( β=-12.272, P=0.002), while primary caregivers with high school degree or above was positively associated with cognitive development of 12-month-old infants ( β=12.476, P=0.035). Conclusions The cognitive development level of infants in rural Yunnan is slightly lower than other areas and needs to be improved.Traditional dietary pattern during pregnancy may delay the cognitive development of infants.
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    Reliability and validity of grammar subscale of Children's Language Development Scale
    CHEUNG Hin-Tat, LI Xue, LIAO Min
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (8): 822-827.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0131
    Abstract83)      PDF (663KB)(83)      
    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of grammar subscale of Children's Language Development Scale(CLDS). Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to randomly select 1 704 preschool children(including 852 boys and 852 girls) in Chengdu from December 2018 to June 2019. Children's language ability was evaluated with CLDS, then the reliability and validity of the grammar subscale of CLDS were tested. Results There were 1 701 completed Results in sum. The grammar scale contained 40 items of picture selection after listening to a sentence. Internal consistency reliability Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.834, and the half-fold reliability was 0.795. The infit and outfit MNSQ values of the subjects and the items were 1.00, 0.93 and 0.99, 0.93 respectively. The discrimination validity was 1.73, and the reliability of the scale was 0.75. The infit MNSQ values of 40 items were between 0.86 and 1.2 logits, which fitted well with the Rasch model. The difficulty value of items ranged from -2.55 to 1.82 logits, and the individual ability value was between -2.78 and 5.0 logits. Conclusions The grammar subscale of the CLDS has good reliability and validity. It can be applied to simply and effectively measure 3- to 6-year-old children's grammar development, so as to provide reference for diagnosing and treating speech and language disorders in Chinese children.
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    Electronic health programs for behavioral intervention and management of autism spectrum disorder
    WU Li-jie
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 352-354.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0336
    Abstract82)      PDF (446KB)(64)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex of neurodevelopmental disorder. There are no targeted drugs to ASD, and the main treatment is behavioral intervention. Electronic health (e-health) programs for intervention and management of ASD have attracted considerable attention. This paper focuses on the research progress in e-health for ASD, so as to provide evidence for professionals.
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    Preliminary study on genetic factors in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy
    HU Hao, QI Yi-fei
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 237-239.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0177
    Abstract81)      PDF (408KB)(67)      
    Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in children. However, its inherent molecular mechanisms remain unclear.More and more evidences have showed that genetic factors play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy.Our research team has performed in-depth clinical and molecular analysis on 120 idiopathic cerebral palsy families, and identified underlying detrimental genetic variants in 45% of these patients.By a compilation of 114 known cerebral-palsy-related genes, characteristic features has been identified in terms of inheritance and function, from which a dichotomous classification system are proposed according to the expression patterns of these genes and associated cognitive impairments.Using this algorithm, the pathogenic mechanisms of two representative gene mutations, TYW1 and GPAM, are explored in depth.Taken together, our findings provide a novel and interesting mechanism for the etiology of cerebral palsy and insights for future therapeutic strategies.
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    Research progress in gut microbiota and neurological disease in children
    DUAN Yuan-hui, CAO Jie
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 281-284.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0496
    Abstract81)      PDF (462KB)(78)      
    In recent years, with the development of gene sequencing technology, more and more studies have been done on gut microbiota.Each individual's gut microbiota is unique, which is similar to each person's own genes.So it can be compared to " the second fingerprint of human beings".The gut microbiota progress most rapidly in the first three years of life, when was the most critical period of brain development for infants and young children.Their microbial composition changes with age.The brain-gut axis plays an important role in the connection between the brain and the intestinal tract, and intestinal microbiota can directly or indirectly affect the brain-gut axis, thus affecting the brain function through a variety of ways.At present, there are more studies on gut microbiota in adult neurological disorders, but few studies on intestinal flora and childhood neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adolescent depression.Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the recent research progress of intestinal microbiota and neurological disorders in children.
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    Association between screen time and sleep duration and the moderating effect of outdoor activity among preschoolers
    MA Ying, JIAO Ting, HUANG Ya-shen, SHU Guan-yu, SONG Yan-yan, JIANG Lin
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 664-668.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1587
    Abstract81)      PDF (536KB)(54)      
    Objective To examine the association between electronic screen time and sleep duration among preschoolers in Guangzhou, and to explore the moderate effect of outdoor activity, in order to provide reference for facilitating sleep health of children. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, a total of 166 preschoolers in 3 kindergartens in Guangzhou were selected into this study from October to December 2020. Data on electronic screen time, outdoor activities, and sleep duration of children were collected by parental questionnaire. General linear regression models were used to analyze the association of electronic screen time and outdoor activities with sleep duration, and the moderating test was used to explore the moderating effect of outdoor activity. Results Totally 138 preschoolers (83.1%) had a sleep duration less than 10 hours per night, and the daily screen time of 86 preschoolers (51.8%) was more than 1 hours. The mobile electronic screen time was prominently associated with sleep duration ( β=-0.298,95% CI:-0.603 - -0.021), while the TV screen time has no relation with sleep duration ( β=-0.144, 95% CI :-0.382 - 0.089). The moderating test demonstrated a null moderating effect of outdoor activity on the association between screen time and sleep duration ( P>0.05). Conclusion Exposure to mobile electronic screen is adversely associated with the sleep duration among preschoolers, and outdoor activitiesplay no moderating role on this association.
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    Parent-implemented early language intervention strategies for children
    HAO Yan, ZHAO Jin-zhu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (8): 818-821.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0796
    Abstract80)      PDF (473KB)(126)      
    Early language acquisition in children is a complex process. It is important to provide evidence-based interventions for children with language delays in early childhood to improve their prognosis. Conducting child early language interventions in natural contexts and training parents to incorporate language and communication opportunities into daily parent-child interactions, allowing children to learn the language and practice new skills in natural and authentic learning experiences, can maximize opportunities for children to learn the language and generalize skills, yet there is limited knowledge in this area in China. This article provides a review of parent-implemented strategies for early childhood language intervention.
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    Behavioral problems and its influencing factors of 4- to 6-year-old children in Shenyang
    YUAN Ling-hao, WEI Bing, YUE Xiao-zhe, QI Shuang-hui, WANG Huan, JIA Jing-jing, LIAO Shi-e
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 436-440.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0124
    Abstract80)      PDF (542KB)(47)      
    Objective To understand the current situation of behavioral problems of preschool children aged 4 to 6 years in Shenyang, and to analyze its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for preventing behavioral problems. Methods Preschool children aged 4 to 6 years in 36 classes of 18 kindergartens from 9 districts of Shenyang City were selected as the study subjects, and the basic situation questionnaire and Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD) were distributed. According to the score of QCD questionnaire, children were divided into functional impairment group (QCD<30) and non-functional impairment group (QCD≥30). Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was conducted for analyzing the factors associated with behavior problems. Results A total of 900 questionnaires were distributed, of which 877 were returned and 834 were qualified. The overall rate of functional impairment was 13.3%. The rate of functional impairment in boys and girls was 15.1% (67/443) and 11.3% (44/391), with the ratio of 1.34∶1. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis indicated that begging communication( OR=5.878, 95% CI:1.626 - 21.253) and homework time of 30 to 60 minutes( OR=2.372, 95% CI:1.146 - 4.908) were risk factors for children's behavioral problems, while age of 5 to 6 years old(5 years old OR=0.261, 95% CI: 0.137 - 0.497; 6 years old OR=0.522, 95% CI:0.295 - 0.923) and doting education( OR=0.231, 95% CI:0.068 - 0.783) were protective factors ( P<0.05). Conclusions The behavioral problems of 4- to 6-year-old children in Shenyang are prevalent, and the influencing factors are complex. It is supposed to avoid the corresponding risk factors in advance and prevent the occurrence of children's psychological and behavioral diseases in early stage.
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    Current situation and related factors of idiopathic scoliosis in primary school children from Qingyang district Chengdu
    HU Ting, ZHOU Jin-song, WANG Zhuo-hui, WU Zhi-jia, XU Jiang, ZHANG Gui-ming, LI Jin
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 617-621.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1301
    Abstract80)      PDF (1024KB)(30)      
    Objective To investigate the current status of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), height growth, visual development and spirometry in children aged 6 - 12 years in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, and to explore the significance of these indicators in the development of AIS in children. Methods Children in all grades of five elementary schools in Chengdu were screened for AIS in 2019. The screening methods included visual physical examination, anterior flexion test and spine measuring tape measurement. Meanwhile, adolescents' bare eye visual acuity levels and spirometry were measured, and questionnaires were administered on their height changes, daily study and exercise hours over the past 1 to 3 years. Then children were grouped according to the screening results, and were divided into different subgroups according to their age. The differences and correlations of the indicators in each group were analyzed. Results Among the 963 children, a total of 928 agreed to undergo AIS screening, including 63(6.79%)positive Adams tests(male-to-female prevalence ratio 1∶6). And 23(2.48%) cases were positive for AIS. Compared with children in the AIS-negative group, children in the AIS-positive group had significantly lower spirometry and reduced daily exercise time ( t=2.088, 2.104, P<0.05). Children were divided into three subgroups according to their age groups:6-7 years old, 8-9 years old, and 10 - 12 years old. Compared with the AIS-negative group, slower increase of stature was found in children of positive group aged 6 to 7 years over the last 3 years and children aged 8 to 9 years over the last 1 and 2 years, and reduced exercise time in children aged 10 to 12 years( t=0.691, 4.176, 4.246, 5.788, P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that positive correlations existed in the increase of stature over the past 1, 2 and 3 years for children in the AIS positive group ( r=0.920, 0.830, 0.813, P<0.001), and the increase of stature was negatively related to everyday exercise time( r=-0.521, -0.533, -0.536, P<0.05).And a positive correlation between spirometry and age was also found in children in the AIS positive group ( r=0.512, P<0.05). For children in the AIS negative group, positive correlations existed in the increase of stature over the past 1, 2 and 3 years for children in the AIS positive group ( r=0.827, 0.765, 0.855, P< 0.001), the increase of stature was negatively related to age( r=-0.109, -0.112, -0.086, P<0.05), and spirometry was related to age and exercise time( r=0.595, 0.148, P<0.001). Conclusions The development and progression of AIS is negatively correlated withexercise duration. Prolonging the exercise duration, enhancing exercise capacity and lung capacity may reduce the incidence of AIS in children.
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    Association of different status of iron and anemia with neurobehavioral development in children aged 6 to 24 months
    ZHENG Juan, LIU Jie, YANG Wen-han
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (7): 725-730.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0413
    Abstract79)      PDF (631KB)(47)      
    Objective To explore the association of different status of iron and anemia with neurobehavioral development in children aged 6 to 24 months, so as to provide suggestions for early intervention of children with neurobehavioral development deviation. Methods A total of 322 children aged 6 to 24 months, who underwent physical examination in Department of Child Health, Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Baiyun District, Guangzhou from January 1st to December 31st, 2020, were selected into this cross-sectional study voluntarily. Blood routine, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein and α-1-acid glycoprotein test for the venous blood were used to determine the status of iron and anemia. The neurobehavioral development was assessed by the China Developmental Scale for Children aged 0 to 6 years. Results The prevalence rates of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 6 to 24 months were 8.07% and 11.49%, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was negatively correlated with the development of gross motor( β=-6.70, 95% CI:-12.84 --0.56), fine motor( β=-6.27, 95% CI:-11.87 - -0.68) and adaptive ability( β=-6.19, 95% CI:-11.91 - -0.47) of children aged 6 to 24 months. There was a negative correlation between iron deficiency with no-anemia and the development of fine motor( β=-1.65, 95% CI:-3.19 - -0.10) and adaptive ability( β=-2.24, 95% CI:-3.86 - -0.63) of children aged 6 to 24 months. Non-iron-deficiency anemia was negatively related to the development of gross motor( β=-1.52, 95% CI:-2.92 - -0.16), fine motor( β=-1.46, 95% CI:-2.70 - -0.23) and adaptive ability( β=-1.39, 95% CI:-2.68 - -0.11) of children aged 6 to 24 months. Conclusions Both iron deficiency and anemia are negatively correlated with the neurobehavioral development of children aged 6~24 months, which may have adverse effects, and its mechanism needs to be further explored.
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    Association of sleep timing and sleep patterns with allergic rhinitis among Chinese adolescents
    LONG Zi-chong, CHEN Yi-ting, ZHAO An-da, HUANG Li-li, XIA Yuan-qing, LYU Jia-jun, LI Sheng-hui
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 254-258.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0773
    Abstract78)      PDF (584KB)(61)      
    Objective To analyze the correlations of sleep timing and sleep patterns with the risk of allergic rhinitis in Chinese adolescents, in order to provide scientific reference for understanding the health effect of sleep. Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to perform a cross-sectional survey among 4 932 middle school students in six administrative districts of Shanghai in 2009. The Modified Version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (M-ASHS) was applied to evaluate sleep-related indicators. Adolescent Behavior and Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate allergic diseases, basic personal information and environmental exposure. Logistic multivariate regression was adopted to analyze the correlations of sleep timing, sleep patterns with allergic rhinitis in adolescents. Results The overall prevalence rate of allergic rhinitis was 17.5%, of which 19.2% for males and 15.8% for females ( P=0.002). After controlling for basic social-demographic characteristics, maternal variables and chronic health-behavioral problems, Logistic regression analysis showed that bedtime and sleep patterns were associated with the risk of allergic rhinitis. The risk of allergic rhinitis was increased by 30% ( OR= 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.60, P=0.013) and 28% ( OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.78, P=0.014) with late bedtime and late bed/late wake-up sleep pattern, respectively. After further adjustment for nocturnal sleep duration, the above effects remained significant ( OR=1.40,95% CI: 1.12 - 1.75, P=0.003; OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.11 - 1.86, P=0.006), respectively. Conclusion Late bedtime and late bed/late wake-up sleep pattern are associated with a higher risk of allergic rhinitis in adolescents, suggesting that sleep management is of great significance in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.
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    Research progress in the mechanism of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined with obesity
    CHEN Shu-jin, WU Dan-dan, LI Xiao-nan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 401-404.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0002
    Abstract77)      PDF (539KB)(45)      
    Epidemiological survey shows that the incidence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder with comorbid obesity is relatively high. Obesity not only increases the risk of hypertension and hyperglycemia, but also impairs the social function of ADHD patients, which brings challenge to the management of ADHD. Recent etiology studies about the comorbidity of ADHD and obesity reveal that brain volume and functional connectivity abnormalities, abnormal neurotransmitters metabolism and high genetic correlations may explain part of the causes.
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