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    Study on the development characteristics of 3- to 6-year-old children′s gross movements
    WEN Rui-xiang, JIANG Gui-ping, ZHAO Pan-chao, LI Jia-hui
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1072-1076.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0211
    Abstract198)      PDF (1100KB)(121)       Save
    Objective To explore the developmental characteristics of 3- to 6-year-old children′s gross movements,so as to provide data support for clinical diagnosis,treatment and educational intervention. Methods From April to July 2019,640 children aged 3—6 were randomly selected from two public kindergartens in Beijing,and Gross Motor Development Test(TGMD-3) was used for gross motor development test. Two-way ANOVA method was used to compare the differences in gross movement scores among children among different age and gender groups. Results There was no significant interaction effect between sex and age in the development of gross movements of 3- to 6-year-old children( P>0.05). There was a significant age main effect on the total score of gross movement,locomotor skills,object control skills and 13 sub-items( P<0.001). The score of rough movements increased with the increase of age. There was a significant gender main effect on the total score of locomotor skills,hop and skip in the 4- to 6-year-old group( P<0.05),which were better in girls than those in boys. The gender main effect also appeared in the score of object control skills,two-hand strike,forehand strike,kick and dribble( P<0.001),and which were better in boys than those in girls. Conclusions The scores of gross movements of 3- to 6-year-old children continue to increase with the increase of age. The locomotor skills of girls are better than those of boys,and the object control skills of boys are better than those of girls. It is suggested to give differential teaching according to the age and gender characteristics of the rough movements development at the age of 3 to 6 years old.
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    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 233-236.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0625
    Abstract158)      PDF (821KB)(246)       Save
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    Current status of the rehabilitation assessment system for children with brain injury in China
    PANG Wei
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1157-1160.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1600
    Abstract147)      PDF (669KB)(170)       Save
    Accurate assessment is crucial to the diagnosis, determination of severity and prognosis, development of rehabilitation plans and evaluation of rehabilitation outcomes in children with brain injury. This paper briefly reviews the development of rehabilitation assessment tools for children with brain injury in China in terms of brain imaging technology, developmental screening and diagnosis, motor ability, language and intelligence assessment, and makes suggestions for future development, aiming to promote the development of a comprehensive rehabilitation assessment system for children with brain injury in China.
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    Characteristics of neurodevelopment in 18- to 36-month-old children with language delay
    ZHAO Li, CAI Shi-zhong, WU Ying, ZHANG Li-jun, JI Yi-ting, CHEN Yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1237-1241.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2031
    Abstract142)      PDF (633KB)(132)       Save
    Objective To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of neurodevelopment in children with language developmental delay aged 18 to 36 months, so as to provide theoretical evidence for further assessment and intervention. Methods Children with language problems aged 18 to 36 months from 2018 to 2019 were enrolled in this study from Children′s Hospital of Soochow University. Children′s neurodevelopment was assessed by Chinese Children Development Scale and Early Language Milestone Scale, which divided them into two groups according to the results: simple language delay and global developmental delay. The development quotients(DQ) of each dimension and early language development were compared within two groups. Positive detection rate of autism was analyzed. Results A total of 700 children were included. There were no significant differences in age( t=-1.73, P=0.09) and gender( χ 2=2.06, P=0.15)between the two groups. The development of language areas, gross motor, fine motor, adaptability and social interaction in global developmental delay group was significantly worse than that in simple language delay group( t=15.08, 20.26, 25.68, 18.76, 39.79, P<0.001). In addition, early language development in general language development, language understanding, expression and auditory perception, and visual-related language decreased significantly in global developmental delay group compared with simple language delay group ( t=8.20, 10.23, 9.18. 11.39, P<0.001). Language delay was related to the DQ of fine motor, adaptability and social interaction in simple developmental delay group ( r=0.127, 0.146, 0.238, P<0.001), while it was associated with the DQ of each dimension in global developmental delay group( r=0.154, 0.392, 0.390, 0.435, P<0.001). The positive detection rate of autism screening in global developmental delay group was significantly higher ( χ 2=61.69, 105.17, P<0.05). Conclusion Children with early language delay combined with backwardness in multiple dimensions have a significant lag in language development and should be further examined to identify neurodevelopmental disorders.
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    Development and evaluation of Child Eating Behavior Scale
    YIN Ke, ZHANG Ting, SONG Zhi-xiao, ZHANG Li, QIAO Xiu-yun, LI Yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1115-1119.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2099LB
    Abstract137)      PDF (648KB)(76)       Save
    Objective To develop Eating Behavior Scale for children with high reliability and validity,so as to provide a scientific and reliable tool for the evaluation of children′s eating behavior in China. Methods A total of 349 parents of children aged 1—3 years were investigated. Then the initial questionnaires were formed. Factor analysis,discriminant analysis,Cronbach′s α coefficient and Spearman correlation analysis were used to screen the initial items. And 1 021 parents of children aged 1—3 years were asked to fill out primary questionnaire. Finally the formal questionnaire was formed. The reliability and validity of the formal questionnaire was tested by Guttman split-half reliability analysis,retest reliability analysis,exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Results 1) Finally the Eating Behavior Scale of children consisted of 39 items with 7 dimensions was formulated. The Cronbach′s α coefficient of scale was 0.889,Guttman split-half reliability was 0.922,the retest reliability of the scale was 0.735,and the correlation coefficient between each factor and the scale ranged from 0.455 to 0.817. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the values of x2/ df,GFI,CFI,RFI and RMSEA of the scale were 2.980,0.815,0.802,0.708 and 0.062,respectively. 2) Children′s weight was related to birth weight,family structure and bad eating habits( P<0.05). The length was related to family structure and low salt diet( P<0.05). The education level of parents had a significant effect on children′s eating behaviors( P<0.05). Family income had a significant effect on children′s food preference( P<0.05). The effects of different family structures on food response,satiety response and common meal opportunity were significantly different( P<0.05). Conclusion Children′s Eating Behavior Scale is a scientific and reliable tool with good reliability and validity,which can objectively evaluate the dietary behavior problems of 1- to 3- year-old children in China.
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    Literature review on coparenting and related scales or questionnaires commonly used
    WU Ru-xing, CHENG Xu-wen, CHEN Jin-jin, CHEN Ru-nan, ZHU Da-qiao
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1218-1222.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1410
    Abstract122)      PDF (578KB)(81)       Save
    Coparenting was firstly proposed by American scholars,and its conceptual definition has not been completely consistent. Although the research on coparenting started relatively late in China,domestic scholars discovered new dimensions with cultural characteristics (such as red/white face) in the process of introducing and cross-cultural adjustment of coparenting assessment scales and questionnaires. This paper attempts to carry out a conceptual analysis of coparenting and to sort out the commonly used scales and questionnaires systematically,so as to provide reference for domestic scholars to select reasonable and effective assessment tools.
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    Research progress on the influence of family nurturing environment on early childhood development
    LI Jia, WANG Xue-na, DU Wen-wen, ZHANG Meng, YU Li-ping
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1096-1099.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1280
    Abstract119)      PDF (573KB)(117)       Save
    Early childhood development is of great significance to individual, family and society. Improving the parental competence and family nurturing environment is the key and core to promote the early development of children. This paper focuses on the family nurturing environment and early childhood development from the perspective of related concepts, theories, influence and intervention practice, aimed to provide the basis for the relevant empirical research in China, and to provide reference for the improvement of children′s health care work, so as to promote the comprehensive development of early childhood.
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    Research progress on growth retardation of infants and toddlers
    WU Hua-hong, LI Yang, LI Hui
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1105-1108.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2173
    Abstract108)      PDF (523KB)(90)       Save
    In recent years,the children′s growth retardation rate has been decreased worldwide,but the regional difference is still prominent. The growth retardation rate of children in poor areas of China is still almost 10%. Growth retardation has an impact on children′s physical growth,cognitive development,increases the risk of chronic diseases,decreases their income level in adulthood,and impairs social and economic productivity. The infant and toddler stage is the most prone ages of growth retardation,and also the key window period of intervention for growth retardation. So this review focuses on this stage,analyzes the causes,prevention and intervention methods and common clinical problems of growth retardation in this stage,in order to contribute to the understanding,prevention and intervention of growth retardation.
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    Current situation and prospect of X-linked hypophosphatemia rickets
    LI Wen-xin, REN Li-hong
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1223-1227.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1919
    Abstract105)      PDF (631KB)(79)       Save
    X-linked hypophosphatemia rickets(XLH) is a hereditary metabolic bone disease with a complex pathogenesis and is relatively rare clinically. Its main clinical manifestations are skeletal malformation and short stature with a high disability rate. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of XLH is of great significance to the rehabilitation of patients. Traditional treatment mainly focuses on supplementing phosphate and vitamin D analogue. With the gradual deepening of scholars′ research on the pathological mechanism of XLH, new therapeutic methods such as molecular targeted therapy have emerged, bringing good news to patients through multidisciplinary joint diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, treatment status and future development trend of XLH will be reviewed.
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    Comparative study of DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5 in diagnosing children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorders
    LIU Rui, WANG Yan, JIANG Yan-rui, BAI Hua, ZHANG Rui-fang
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (3): 306-309.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0102
    Abstract104)      PDF (917KB)(84)       Save
    Objective To compare the similarities and differences in the diagnosis of children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-Ⅳ) and fifth edition (DSM-5), so as to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Methods From November 2013 to March 2014, all children suspected with ADHD who visited the developmental behavioral pediatric ADHD clinic of Shanghai Children's Medical Center were selected.All children were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5, and were divided into three subtypes of attention deficit type, hyperactivity/impulse type and mixed type ADHD according to their symptoms.The clinical efficacy between the two methods was compared. Result The diagnostic rates of all children suspected with ADHD and the subtypes of ADHD between DSM-Ⅳ and DSM-5 were highly consistent, and the positive rate of diagnosis had no significant difference ( χ2=0.881, P=0.076). Conclusions DSM-5 is highly consistent with DSM-Ⅳ in diagnosing each type of ADHD.And DSM-5 is more appropriate for diagnosing ADHD by specifying the items and ages.
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    Feeding practice and gut health during infancy
    HU Yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1041-1043.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1303
    Abstract103)      PDF (494KB)(121)       Save
    Gut health largely depends on stable intestinal microbiota and mature immune status. Dietary factors play an important role in maintaining gut health. Good feeding practice in infants,such as breast-feeding,introduction of solid food on time,increasing food diversity and healthy eating habits,can promote gut health by establishing normal intestinal microbiota and effective immune function.
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    Associations of sleep duration with overweight and obesity in school-age children
    ZHANG Xue-rong, CHEN Tian-jiao, MA Jun
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1176-1180.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1604
    Abstract102)      PDF (741KB)(120)       Save
    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of night sleep time and its relationship with overweight and obesity in children, so as to provide scientific reference for taking interventions of overweight and obesity. Methods A total of 1 175 students from 8 schools(4 primary schools in urban and rural areas, respectively) in Fangshan District, Beijing, were recruited by a stratified cluster random sampling method in October 2012. The distribution characteristics of sleep time and its relationship with overweight and obesity were analyzed by using multivariate binary Logistic regression model. Results The sleep insufficiency rate of school-age children(<10 h/d) reached 68.5%. Demographic characteristics affected the sleep time of children, and urban students and boys had less sleep time ( P<0.001).Body mass index(BMI) and the rates of obesity and overweight increased with the decreasing of sleep duration ( P<0.01).The average daily sleep duration <9 h/d was a risk factor for overweight and obesity of school-age children. After the adjustment of gender, residence, family income, parents′ educational level, physical activity and sedentary behavior time, only the average daily sleep duration <9 h/d on weekends was associated with overweight and obesity of school-age children[ OR=1.570 (1.074-2.295), P=0.02]. Conclusions Sleep insufficiency may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children, especially the average daily sleep duration of weekends. The prevalence of overweight and obesity should be prevented and controlled through targeted improvement of children′s sleep duration and lifestyle.
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    Development of children's movement skills and the cultivation of exercise habits should be valued in early childhood development
    TONG Mei-ling
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 581-584.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0598
    Abstract98)      PDF (720KB)(112)       Save
    As a crucial component of early childhood development, physical activity can facilitate the development of children's physical, mental and social abilities. Caregivers incorporate physical activities into daily nurturing care to progressively develop children's movement skills and to cultivate children's exercise habits, which contributes to early childhood development and children's long-term health, and is also an important move to upgrade population quality as well as to strengthen the country and individuals.
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    Chinese norm of General Physical Activity Scale for children aged 3 to 6
    HE Yan-lu, YANG Zhi-yong, LIU Feng, DONG Wen-hong, KUANG Xiao-ni, ZHANG Xue-jiao, WANG Nian-rong, LUO Yan,YANG Lin, WANG Xiao-juan, WU Jian-xin, ZHANG Ting, ZHU Zong-han, WANG Jian, GUAN Hong-yan, TONG Mei-ling
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 594-598.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1495
    Abstract96)      PDF (777KB)(67)       Save
    Objective To establish Chinese norm of General Physical Activity Scale for children aged 3 to 6, and to explore its cut-off score for the norm, thus to provide a practical tool for clinical application. Methods From August 2020 to May 2021, a stratified cluster sampling approach was utilized to recruit 1 616 children aged 3 to 6 years from eight cities in six major administrative regions of China. The norm distribution and scores were analyzed, and its cut-off score was discussed. Results The scores of each dimension was significantly different among eight cities( F=10.964 - 117.766, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the total score of the scale is 0.937(95% CI:0.916 - 0.957). The maximum Yuden Index(YI) was 0.74, and the corresponding total score was in the 17th percentile( P 17) in the norm, with the sensitivity of 0.871 and specificity of 0.864. When P 15 (76)and P 20(80)were taken as the threshold point, the corresponding YI was 0.69 and 0.72, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity were both above 0.8. Conclusions The norm sample of this study is representative, and the cut-off score is appropriate, which can be popularized and applied in clinic practice.
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    Research progress on the serious games in the intervention of the children′s developmental coordination disorder
    XU Zi-han, HOU Shi-lun
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1198-1202.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1288
    Abstract96)      PDF (541KB)(88)       Save
    Exercise therapy is one of the treatment methods of children′s developmental coordination disorder(DCD),while the traditional exercise approach has many limits,including the boring experience of training and the relatively low compliance of patients. Serious games,whichcombine electronic games with exercise therapy to build the oriented task form of intervention for DCD,has better performance in the flexibility of treatment,the richness of content,and the patient′s compliance. Recent researches in home and abroad indicate that serious games play a positive role in the intervention for children with DCD.
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    Clinical effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with extracorporeal shock ware treatment on lower limb function in children with hemiplegia
    YUN Guo-jun, WANG Jing-gang, LI Rui-hao, TONG Nan, CAO Jian-guo, GUO Ying-ying
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1265-1268.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0987
    Abstract93)      PDF (484KB)(43)       Save
    Objective To observe the clinical effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) treatment on the lower limb function of children with hemiplegia, so as to provide scientific reference for the rehabilitation of these children. Methods A total of 60 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to the study group and control group.Both groups received conventional rehabilitation therapy and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, while participants in the intervention group underwent rTMS treatment additionally.Muscle tone, plantar pressure, plantar area and GMFM-88 of the children in two groups were evaluated before and after treatment. Results After treatment, muscle tone ( t=4.521,3.789), plantar pressure ( t=8.412,7.354), plantar area ( t=4.585,10.251)and GMFM-88 D and E scores ( t=11.247,9.254,8.738,6.254) in both groups were significantly improved compared with baseline ( P<0.05).After treatment, muscle tone of children in the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group, plantar pressure, plantar area, GMFM-88 D and E scores of study group were significantly higher than those in control group ( t=7.213, 5.134, 4.233, 8.646, 7.463, P<0.05). Conclusion rTMS combined with ESW therapy can effectively improve the lower limb motor function and gait performance in children with hemiplegia.
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    Progress on food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder
    AI Nü-tian, LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1087-1090.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1951
    Abstract92)      PDF (479KB)(81)       Save
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a kind of neurodevelopmental disorder. In addition to the core symptoms, food selectivity is also common in children with ASD. However, clinicians pay less attention to it. Thus,the medical staff need to know more about the food selectivity of ASD children in order to guide clinical work. In this paper, the status quo, related factors, influence and treatment progress of food selectivity in ASD children are reviewed.
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    Correlation analysis of the motor development assessment between Peabody Motor Development Scale-2 and Gesell Development Scale
    CHEN Jun-lin, ZHOU Wen-zhi, YANG Xia
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (2): 203-206.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1785
    Abstract92)      PDF (718KB)(78)       Save
    Objective To analyze the correlation of the motor development assessment between Peabody Motor Development Scale-2(PDMS-2) and Gesell Development Scale(GDS) in children with different birth conditions and different gestational ages. Methods A total of 900 infants, who were 3 to 12 months old and in the rehabilitation department of Chengdu Women′s and Children′s Central Hospital, were enrolled in this study and were assessed by PDMS-2 and GDS. The assessment results between PDMS-2 and GDS were described and their correlation was analyzed. Results The gross and fine motor assessment results between PDMS-2 and GDS were positively correlated among extremely low birth weight infants, low birth weight infants and full-term infants( r=0.386-0.530, P<0.001).With the increasing of age, the correlation became stronger, and it was highest at the age of 12 months old(ELBWI: r=0.641, 0.601; LBWI: r=0.678, 0.647; full-term infants: r=0.896, 0.749).The correlation between PDMS-2 and GDS in terms of gross motor assessment and fine motor assessment of full-term infants( r=0.530, 0.483) were higher than those in LBWI( r=0.496, 0.459) and ELBWI( r=0.449, 0.386). Conclusions Children′s motor function should be assessed according to their birth condition and age, as well as the sensitivity of the assessment scale, so that the assessment results will be more scientific and accurate.
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    Study on the combined influence of parental screen time and restrictive behaviors on screen time of children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years from 7 provinces in China
    MA Ying, SU Bin-bin, HUO Jia-kang, CHEN Man-man, LI Yan-hui, GAO Di, DONG Yan-hui, MA Jun
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1063-1067.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2213
    Abstract89)      PDF (538KB)(64)       Save
    Objective To analyze the combined influence of parental screen time and restrictive behaviors on screen time of children and adolescents,and to understand whether decreasing parental screen time combined with restrictive behaviors on screen time of children and adolescents will help control the screen time of children and adolescents within two hours more effectively,so as to provide reference for developing healthy lifestyle. Methods Students aged 6—17 years were selected from 93 schools in 7 provinces and cities in China,with a stratified cluster sampling method. Parental screen time,restrictive behaviors on children′s screen time and children′s screen time were measured by structured questionnaires. A multivariable Logistic regression model was used to analyze the combined influence of parental screen time and restrictive behaviors on screen time of children and adolescents. Results A total of 37 984 students were enrolled into this study with an average age of (10.7±3.2) years old. There were 8 543 students(22.5%) whose daily screen time exceeded 2 hours.Compared with control group,the odds ratio of children′s screen time >2 h/d in the group without parental restriction on screen time and parental screen time >2 h/d group were 1.25(95% CI: 1.09—1.43, P=0.002) and 1.52(95% CI: 1.44—1.60, P<0.001),respectively. And the odds ratio of children′s screen time >2 h/d in the group of parental screen time>2 h/d without restrictive behaviors on children was 1.93 times higher than that in control group(95% CI: 1.72—2.17, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors such as gender,residence place,age and parental education level with stratified analysis,there was also a consistent result with the overall. Conclusions Parental screen time <2 h/d and restrictive behaviors on screen time of children and adolescents are both the protective factors of controlling children′s screen time,and there is a combined influence of the two factors. In order to further reduce the obesity and other health problems of children and adolescents caused by too long screen time,parents should not only limit the children′s screen time,but also need to control their own screen time.
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    Effect of biomechanics correction insole on lower limb function and gait of spastic cerebral palsy children with hallux valgus
    KONG Ya-min, LI Hua-wei, XIE Ke-gong, MA Bing-xiang
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1161-1166.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0488
    Abstract89)      PDF (1707KB)(112)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effect of biomechanics orthopedic correction of insole(ICB insole) on lower limb function and gait in spastic cerebral palsy children with hallux valgus, in order to provide effective treatment and clinical basis for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy children with hallux valgus. Methods From January 2017 to December 2019,80 children with spastic cerebral palsy were enrolled in this study and were randomly divided into control group ( n=40) and observation group ( n=40).The control group received rehabilitation training, while the observation group was given ICB orthopedic insole additionally.After 6 months of treatment, medial longitudinal arch (MLA), each stage of support phase, arch index (AI), step length, step frequency, step speed, Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores were measured. Results 1) After treatment, MLA, each stage of support phase, AI, step length, stride frequency, stride speed, GMFM-88 and BBS scores in control group and observation group showed a significant downward trend ( P<0.01).2) After treatment, there were significant differences in right MLA, each stage of support phase, AI, step length, stride frequency, stride speed, BBS GMFM-88 and D.E region of scores between control group and observation group ( t=2.571、0.827、1.449、1.670、3.512、3.202、5.828.5.585、2.675、4.721、2.345, P< 0.05).3) After treatment, there was no significant difference in the left inner arch angle between control group and observation group ( P>0.05), but the downward trend of observation group was better than that of control group. Conclusions ICB orthopedic insole combined with rehabilitation training can improve the valgus foot of children with spastic cerebral palsy, improve the motor function and walking ability of both lower limbs, and can be used as an auxiliary method for the clinical treatment of valgus foot in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
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    Research advances on the diagnosis and treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets in children
    XU Yu-yan, ZHU Liu-yan, SHAO Jie
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1213-1217.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1413
    Abstract89)      PDF (683KB)(104)       Save
    Hypophosphatemic rickets(HR),also known as familial hypophosphatemia,is a hereditary disease characterized by hypophosphatemia and renal phosphate loss,mainly manifested as bone mineralization disorders. It includes a group of diseases with similar phenotypes but different genotypes,hereditary patterns and etiologies. The most common HR is X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(XLH). Uncommon HR may be caused by autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. Activation mutation of fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23) gene and inactivation mutation of regulation gene involved in FGF-23 regulation have been confirmed and proved to be related to the pathogenesis of these disorders. The pathophysiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,diagnosis and treatment of HR will be reviewed in this paper reviews.
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    Nutrition and metabolism level of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its correlation with brain function
    LAN Hong-yan, HUO Yan-yan, WU Dan, ZHANG Yuan-yuan, LI Yi-cheng, REN Yu-qian, WANG Xiu-lian, CHEN Jin-jin
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (1): 11-14.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0778
    Abstract89)      PDF (531KB)(100)       Save
    Objective To assess nutrient level and body fat metabolism of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to analyze the correlation between nutrient metabolism and cerebral cortex function, thus to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Methods Children diagnosed with ADHD in theDepartment ofChild Health Care in Shanghai Children's Hospital were enrolled in this study from January to December 2020. Children who had regular physical examinations during the same period were recruited. Demographic data were collected from parents, then clinicians conducted interviews and assessments with children using body composition analyzers and brain function quantitative imaging devices to test body fat metabolism and brain function indicators. Venous blood tests were performed on all participants to obtain vitamins, trace elements, 25-hydroxyl vitamin D [25(OH)D] and other nutrients levels. Results Totally 60 effective samples were selected after screening, including 30 children in ADHD group and 30 children in control group. Vitamin B12 levelsof children in ADHD group and control group were (375.45±69.25) pm/ml and (421.68±103.72) pm/ml, respectively,and the difference was significant( t=2.031, P<0.05).Compared with children in control group, the body mass index (BMI) and body fat rate of ADHD children increased significantly ( t=2.026, 2.106, P<0.05). The impairment of cerebral cortex function of ADHD was most prominent in the dorsolateral right prefrontal lobe. The levels of 25(OH)D and vitamin E were related to the degree of cerebral cortex activation ( r=0.695, -0.571, P<0.05). Conclusions ADHD children have a higher risk of obesity. 25(OH)D is positively correlated with the degree of cerebral cortex activation,which may provide reference for auxiliary treatment of ADHD.
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    Investigation and clinical phenotypic analysis of gene copy number variation in 120 children with intellectual disability/developmental delay in Anhui province
    CHEN Lu-lu, TONG Guang-lei, ZHOU Tao-cheng, LI Hong, XU Yan-hong, SU Wei, LUO Yuan-yuan, LIANG Dong
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1172-1175.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1808
    Abstract88)      PDF (472KB)(63)       Save
    Objective To investigate the detection of pathogenic and likely pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) in 120 children with intellectual disability (ID)/developmental delay (DD) in Anhui province, and to analyze the clinical phenotype of the children, so as to clarify the genetic etiology of ID/DD children. Methods A total of 120 children with unexplained ID/DD who were treated in the Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation of Anhui Children′s Hospital from May 2019 to June 2020 were selected and tested for the presence of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA).The clinical phenotype and characteristics of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs were analyzed. Results Among 120 children with ID/DD, pathogenic CNVs were detected in 18 cases (15.00%), likely pathogenic CNVs in 2 cases (1.67%), variation of uncertain significance CNVs in 39 cases (32.50%), and likely benign and benign CNVs in 61 cases (50.83%). Among 20 children with pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs, 5 had congenital malformations/special faces, and 14 had one or more other diseases. There were 3 cases, 12 cases and 5 cases with mild, moderate and severe mental retardation, respectively. There were 21 pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs in 20 children with ID/DD, including 13 microdeletion fragments (61.90%) and 8 microduplication fragments (38.10%) with a ratio of 1.63∶1. The average fragment size was 6.34 Mb. Twenty one pathogenic and possibly pathogenic CNVs were detected most on chromosomes 2 and 22 (3 locations).Among the 20 children with ID/DD, 10 cases (50.00%) had known syndromes, and 10 cases (50.00%) had still undefined syndromes or disease areas in the database. Conclusion For children with unexplained ID/DD, CMA detection can clarify the genetic etiology, which is of great significance for the treatment of children and guidance for their parents to reproduce.
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    Epidemiologic status and influencing factors of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years in Henan province
    ZHANG Yao-dong, WANG Yi-ran, HUANG Xiao-pei, WEI Hai-yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1181-1185.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1326
    Abstract88)      PDF (534KB)(56)       Save
    Objective To understand the epidemiologic status of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years in Henan Province, and to explore the influencing factors, in order to provide reference for developing effective intervention measures. Methods Questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted among 6- to 17-year-old students with a stratified cluster sampling method in seven cities of Henan Province in 2019. Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance and Logistic regression model were used to data analysis. Results A total of 19 390 children and adolescents were included in this study. The detection rate of overweight and obesity was 42.3%, of which 4 415 (22.8%) weredetected with overweight and 3 790 (19.5%) were detected with obesity. The detection rates of overweight and obesity in the 10 390 boys were 23.0% and 20.8%, respectively. The detection rates of overweight and obesity in the 9 000 girls were 22.5% and 18.1%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of boys. The detection rates of overweight and obesity in elementary school students were higher than those of high school students and junior high school students. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors of overweight and obesity included paternal overweight ( OR=1.842), maternal overweight ( OR=2.586), preferring to eat sweets and puffed food ( OR=3.161), eating too fast ( OR=3.268), eating out frequently ( OR=1.882), watching TV and playing mobile phone for more than 2 hours everyday ( OR=2.376) and insufficient sleep time everyday ( OR=2.640). Conclusion The detection rates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents are relatively high in Henan Province, so targeted intervention measures should be implemented to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity effectively.
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    Clinical intervention of language delays and language disorders
    LIU Xue-man
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (8): 813-817.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0871
    Abstract87)      PDF (1370KB)(147)       Save
    Language delays and language disorders are the most common type of childhood developmental disorders. The exploratory design and initial attempts to implement a Chinese model of an evidence-based clinical intervention pathway for language delays and language disorders were guided by the Clinical Framework of children's language development and the concept of response to intervention (RTI).The early exploratory design also incorporated China's well developed nationwide maternal and children's health care system into the internationally recognized evidence-based tertiary clinical intervention pathway to achieve some initial Results in China.
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    Effect of different feeding patterns on the intellectual development and immune function of infants
    CUI Yi-fan, DONG Ming-ming, HU Dan, XIAO Xu-wu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1049-1052.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0716
    Abstract85)      PDF (495KB)(90)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of different feeding patterns on the intellectual development and immune function of infants, so as to provide evidence for scientific feeding of infants. Methods Totally 87 healthy full-term infants born in Dalian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from May 2019 to June 2020 were enrolled in this study, and were divided into breast feeding group and artificial feeding group.Serum IgG, IgM and IgA tests were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months of age.Intellectual development was assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. Results At 6 months old, the developmental quotient, the scores of fine movement, language and social behavior of infants in the breastfeeding group were significantly higher than those of the artificial feeding group ( t=2.035,3.814, 2.075, 2.229, P<0.001 or <0.05).At the age of 12 months old, the developmental quotient, the scores of fine movement and language of infants in the breastfeeding group were significantly higher than those of the artificial feeding group ( t=2.062, 2.271, 2.066, P<0.05).Serum IgG level of infants in the breastfeeding group was significantly higher at 6 months old than that of the artificial feeding group( t=4.920, P<0.001),but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 3 and 12 months old( t=0.316,0.708, P>0.05).Serum IgM level of infants in the breastfeeding group was significantly higher at 6 and 12 months old than that of the artificial feeding group ( t=2.700, 4.757, P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between the two groups at 3 months old ( t=1.797, P=0.076).Serum IgA level of infants in the breastfeeding group were higher than that of the artificial group at 3, 6 and 12 months old ( t=6.441, 6.115, 6.765, P<0.001). Conclusions There are differences in intellectual development and immune function in infants with different feeding patterns.Breastfeeding is beneficial to the intellectual development and immune function of infants, and should be strongly supported and promoted.
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    Effect of nasal hormone and montelukast sodium in the treatment of children with adenoid hypertrophy on sleep quality and clinical efficacy
    CHEN Yi-hui, YANG Ai-ye, CHEN Peng, YANG Yin-tong
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (1): 93-96.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1377
    Abstract84)      PDF (572KB)(37)       Save
    Objective To analyze the effects of nasal hormones and montelukast sodium in the treatment of children with adenoid hypertrophy on sleep quality and clinical efficacy, so as to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 400 cases of children with adenoid hypertrophy admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology, the Fourth Hospital of Xi'an from December 2019 to December 2020 were selected into this study, and were randomly divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 200 cases in each group. The control group was treated with nasal hormones, and the observation group received nasal hormones and montelukast sodium treatment. The clinical efficacy, sleep quality of the two groups were observed in 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks of treatment, the total effective rate of children in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (92.5% vs. 85.00%, χ2=5.634, P<0.05). The score of sleep disorder was 5.17±1.05 and the A/N value was 0.60±0.05, significantly lower than those of the control group (6.60±1.38, 0.70±0.06, t=11.662, 18.107, P<0.05). Moreover, serum levels of IL-6, IL-4 and IL-1β, the EOS count,the expression levels of sIgE andeosinophil cationic protein(ECP) were significantly lower than those of the control group ( t=30.936, 13.248, 19.718, 23.190, 10.304, 39.316, P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of nasal hormone and montelukast sodium has a significant effect in children with adenoid hypertrophy, which helps to improve the sleep quality and curative effect of children, and is worth in promoting clinically.
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    Food sweeteners and childhood obesity
    JI Chen-bo
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (1): 7-10.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-1858
    Abstract83)      PDF (516KB)(88)       Save
    Childhood obesity seriously endangers children's physical and mental health, and is increasingly prevalent. Most childhood obesity is still simple obesity, which is closely related to poor eating behaviors, especially excessive energy intake or dietary structure disorders (such as high sugar and high fat). With the prevalence of ultra-processed foods in recent decades, food sweeteners have become more diverse, have a more comprehensive application range, and have a sharply increased consumption. Food sweeteners have a long history, and are considered safe.However, growing evidence showed that excessive intake would interfere with the metabolism, whether it is natural sweeteners or artificial sweeteners.Therefore, long-term excessive intake of food sweeteners in children can significantly increase the risk of childhood obesity. This article mainly summarizes related researches on the influence of food sweeteners on metabolism,so as to provide reference for pediatricians.
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    Correlation between quality of life and mental health of left-behind children and influencing factors of their quality of life
    WANG Wen, CHEN Dan-dan, ZHANG Xin-hui
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1245-1248.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0612
    Abstract81)      PDF (529KB)(56)       Save
    Objective To analyze the correlation between quality of life (QOL) of left-behind children and their mental health, and to explore its influencing factors, so as to provide theoretical evidence for improving their QOL. Methods From September 2017 to September 2020, 208 left-behind children in the fourth grade to sixth grade of a primary school in this area were selected for investigation.The Universal Core Scale of Quality of Life for Children (PedsQL4.0) was used to evaluate the QOL of left-behind children, the Mental Health Diagnostic Test (MHT) was used to evaluate their mental health.Pearson correlation analysis method was adopted to analyze the correlation between the QOL of left-behind children and mental health, and the multiple linear stepwise regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors affecting QOL of left-behind children. Results The total score of PedSQL4.0 scale for left-behind children was (80.52±9.58) points, and the MHT test was (8.27±0.99) points.The QOL scores of left-behind children were negatively correlated with their mental health scores ( P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that the factors influencing the total score of the QOL of left-behind children were education level of caregivers, interest and hobbies, frequency of contact with parents, and parents′ working time ( β=3.122, 4.057, 2.524,-2.018, P<0.05). Conclusions Left-behind children′s QOL is closely related to their mental health.Factors such as the education level of caregivers, whether children have hobbies, the frequency of contact with their parents, and duration for their parents going out to work can significantly affect the quality of life of left-behind children.
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    Advances and reflections on nutrient signalling pathways as biomarkers of autism spectrum disorders
    LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 349-351.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0335
    Abstract80)      PDF (465KB)(90)       Save
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common and complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Nutrition plays an important role in the growth and development of children, and there is a certain relationship with the occurrence, development and prognosis of ASD subtypes. With the deepening of research, correlating ASD symptoms with serum nutrient levels has been extremely challenging. This manuscript takes folic acid and vitamin A (VA) as examples to review the new ideas of using nutrient signaling pathway as a potential biomarker of ASD, hoping to provide reference for further exploring the occurrence, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.
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    Preliminary development and evaluation of the Responsive Caregiving Rating Scale for children aged 0 to 4 years
    HUANG Ying, ZHANG Hai-feng, TONG Lian
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 386-391.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0474
    Abstract79)      PDF (702KB)(45)       Save
    Objective To develop the Responsive Caregiving Rating Scale for children aged 0 to 4 years (RCRS), and to testify its reliability and validity. Methods Based on attachment theory and the existing responsive caregiving scales, the original items of the scale were formed. A total of 2 759 parents whose children aged 0 to 4 years in Shanghai were recruited from March to May 2020, and each parent was asked to fill in an online questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to test the structural validity. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to test the concurrent validity. Results The exploratory factor analysis indicated that RCRS had 16 items grouped into three dimensions, which explained 78.04% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-dimension model fit well (CFI=0.971, TLI=0.965, RMSEA=0.069, SRMR=0.024). The Cronbach's α coefficient for the overall scale was 0.97, which in the dimensions of promotion of cognitive and emotional development, responsive, respect for autonomy was 0.95, 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. The scores of RCRS were significantly different between the normal and the abnormal children evaluated by SDQ( Z=7.071, P<0.05). Conclusion The RCRC is demonstrated to be an ideal tool with good reliability and validity to assess the quality of responsive caregiving.
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    Differences in feeding behaviors between grandparents and parents and its correlations with preschool children′s eating behaviors
    WU Ru-xing, WANG Jian, WEI Xiao-xue, GUO Yi-bin, CHENG Xu-wen, WU Bao-jin, CHEN Jin-jin, WU Ying-hui, CHEN Ru-nan, ZHU Da-qiao
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1044-1048.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0923
    Abstract79)      PDF (596KB)(80)       Save
    Objective To explore the differences in feeding behaviors between grandparents and parents, and to analyze its correlation with preschoolers′ eating behaviors, so as to further clarify the possible influence of caregivers′ identity and feeding behaviors on eating behaviors. Methods From May 2020 to January 2021, a survey was conducted among primary caregivers of preschoolers from 8 kindergartens and 2 community health service centers in Pudong New Area, Shanghai.The propensity score matching with a ratio of 1∶2 was used to form the grandparents group ( n=72) and the parents group ( n=144) according to primary caregivers′ identity. Results There were statistically significant differences between grandparents and parents in content-restricted feeding ( t=4.72, P<0.001), behavior-restricted feeding ( t=2.13, P=0.036), children′s initiative eating ( t=-4.76, P<0.001), exogenous eating ( t=-5.07, P<0.001) and emotional eating ( t=1.99, P=0.050).Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that behavior-restricted feeding ( F=1.82, P=0.086), encouraging healthy eating ( F=2.46, P=0.019) and content-restricted feeding ( F=3.69, P=0.001) had significant predictive effects on eating behaviors.There was no statistical correlation between primary caregivers′ identity and eating behaviors of preschoolers ( P>0.10). Conclusions Parents use content-restricted feeding and behavior-restricted feeding more frequently than grandparents.Primary caregivers′ feeding behaviors, rather than their identity, are significantly related to eating behaviors of preschoolers.
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    Exercise ability and early childhood development
    GUO Jian-jun, WANG Chao
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (6): 591-593.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0565
    Abstract79)      PDF (455KB)(89)       Save
    Early childhood development is crucial for the wellbeing and health of individuals in adulthood and even in old age. It has attracted more and more concerns from society. This paper summarizes the role of motor ability development in early education from the perspective of early physical growth, intellectual development, neuropsychological development and its effect on the intervention of special children's diseases, in order to find pathways and directions to promote children's healthy growth.
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    Association between picky eating and core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder
    AI Nü-tian, ZHANG Qian, YANG Ting, CHEN Jie, CHEN Li, DAI Ying, JIA Fei-yong, WU Li-jie, HAO Yan, LI Ling, ZHANG Jie, KE Xiao-yan, YI Ming-ji, HONG Qi, CHEN Jin-jin, FANG Shuan-feng, WANG Yi-chao, WANG Qi, JIN Chun-hua, LI Ting-yu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (4): 355-360.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0398
    Abstract77)      PDF (821KB)(51)       Save
    Objective To investigate the relationship between severely picky eating and the core symptoms among children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD),so as to provide reference for early identification and targeted intervention. Methods From May 2018 to December 2019,1 349 children aged 2 to 7 years were enrolled in this study from 13 hospitals in 13 cities across the country,meanwhile 1 170 typically developed children were recruited. A self-made questionnaire was used to investigate the picky eating status of ASD children. Autism Behavior Scale(ABC),Social Response Scale(SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale(CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of ASD children. Linear regression was used to analyze the impact of severely picky eating on physical growth and core symptoms of ASD. Results The rate of severely picky eating in ASD children was 56.5%(763/1 349),which was 29.7%(348/1 170) in TD children. It was found that ASD and the age of children in two groups were risk factors for occurrence of severe picky eating after adjusting for confounding factors( OR=3.075,1.183,1.156, P<0.05). Severely picky eating significantly affected ASD children's weight,body mass index(BMI),scores of ABC scale and subscales,scores of SRAS scale and subscales( β=-0.220,-0.319,6.305,1.139,2.111,1.043,1.427,0.946,5.908,0.597,1.029,1.517,1.328,1.503, P<0.05). Conclusions There is a high incidence and persistence of severely picky eaters in autistic children. Severely picky eating has significant impact on children's weight growth and BMI,and is associated with core symptoms of ASD. Therefore,clinical medical staff should pay more attention to the assessment of picky eating behaviors in ASD children,so as to carry out early identification and precise intervention of children.
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    Research advance in the early developmental motor interventions of preterm infants
    MU Yu-hong *, LI Jing, HU You-fang
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (2): 181-183.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0271
    Abstract77)      PDF (436KB)(71)       Save
    The rapid development of medical technology largely increases the survival rate of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are at risk of adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, including cerebral palsy, motor and cognitive impairments, causing heavy burdens to families and society. The early period of life, when brain is growing fast and easily shaped, is a good time to commence early developmental motor interventions. This review discusses the early developmental motor interventions of preterm infants, in order to provide reference for clinical medical staff to carry out appropriate and effective motor interventions.
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    Perspective on nutrition support for high-risk infants
    HU Yan
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (2): 117-119.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0099
    Abstract77)      PDF (498KB)(122)       Save
    Nutritional support for high-risk infants is special and can be challenging.Regular monitoring with appropriate growth curves, body composition changes during catch-up growth, and individualized nutritional feeding support programs according to high-risk factors or disease characteristics are very important for nutritional support of high-risk infants and improving their prognosis.
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    Nutritional support and health management of high-risk infants
    LIU Xi-hong
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2022, 30 (2): 120-123.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0058
    Abstract76)      PDF (590KB)(105)       Save
    The incidence and survival rates of high-risk infants have been increasing. However, more and more high-risk infants have faced a series of growth and development problems after discharge, which require long-term, systematic, comprehensive and meticulous health management. The health management is recommended to start with nutritional support, combined with capacity promotion, disease management and prevention (including vaccination), implement a three-tier network management model to improve the follow-up rate and compliance, promote the all-round development of high-risk children, make it normal or as close to normal as possible, thereby reducing family anxiety, improving the quality of life and the long-term quality of the population and ultimately reducing the incidence of chronic diseases in adulthood.
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    Cross-sectional survey on the effects of different types of obesity on high blood pressure in children and adolescents from seven provinces in China
    CHEN Man-man, HUO Jia-kang, MA Ying, MA Tao, LI Yan-hui, GAO Di, CHEN Li, DONG Yan-hui, MA Jun
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1053-1057.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0282
    Abstract76)      PDF (636KB)(61)       Save
    Objective To investigate the additive interaction of different types of obesity on high blood pressure in children and adolescents,in order to provide basis for controlling blood pressure level effectively. Methods Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of children and adolescents with a multi-stage cluster sampling in seven provinces and cities in China in 2012. T test and chi-square test were used to analyze the differences between continuous variables and classified variables,respectively. Logistics regression was used to analyze the correlation between different types of obesity and high blood pressure,and the interaction between general obesity and simple abdominal obesity was analyzed. Results A total of 40 015 children and adolescents were included in this study. The proportion of children with general obesity,simple abdominal obesity and compound obesity with high blood pressure was 17.7%,12.0% and 23.2%,respectively. Compound obesity had a greater effect on high blood pressure in boys and urban children and adolescents (boys OR=2.80,95% CI: 2.55—3.07; urban OR=2.95,95% CI: 2.69-3.24),the same results were found for the high systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In children and adolescents with high blood pressure,the additive interaction of general obesity and simple abdominal obesity caused the high blood pressure in 22% of the population. Conclusions General obesity has a greater effect on blood pressure than simple abdominal obesity. Among different types of obesity,compound obesity is still the most risk factor leading to high blood pressure. In children and adolescents with high blood pressure,general obesity and simple abdominal obesity have additive interaction.
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    Research progress on the influencing factors of nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy
    LI Ying-yan, LI Xin, HUANG Xin-ping, XU Hai-lan, PANG Wei
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (11): 1203-1207.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1304
    Abstract76)      PDF (544KB)(57)       Save
    Cerebral palsy is a kind of postural and motor developmental disorder secondary to early central nervous system injury in infants. In recent 20 years,people not only pay attention to the physical disability of children with cerebral palsy,but also give more concern to their nutrition and health. Previous studies have found that children with cerebral palsy have many nutritional problems, which will not only affect the prognosis of cerebral palsy,but also affect the growth and even life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy. Nutrition problems of children with cerebral palsy have been paid attention to by the rehabilitation clinic. In this paper,literature at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed and the factors affecting the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy are analyzed from multiple dimensions,hoping to provide a breakthrough point for the implementation of clinical nutritional intervention for children with cerebral palsy.
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    Research progress on intestinal absorption mechanism and interaction of nutrient trace metal elements
    WANG Hai-wa, YAN Chong-huai
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (10): 1082-1086.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2021-0476
    Abstract76)      PDF (25309KB)(38)       Save
    The nutritive trace metal elements in the human body are mainly absorbed by the intestine and play a very important role in various life activities.This article summarizes the recent research progress in the intestinal absorption mechanism of common trace elements, such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, chromium and cobalt, and explores the forms of interaction between element absorption.Metal elements in the body maintain a steady state through absorption, distribution and excretion, and the whole process requires the body′s overall metabolic regulation.Therefore, the factors that affect the absorption of trace metal elements in the intestine are not only the interference between the metal elements in the diet, but also the chemical form of the metal elements, the ratio of metal elements, other coexisting components in the food, and the intestinal flora, etc.More important is the state of the body.This article will propose clinical nutritional supplement strategies on this basis.
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