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    journal1    2018, 26 (4): 349-351.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-26-04-01
    Abstract143)      PDF (689KB)(302)      
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    Research progress on applied behavioral analysis intervention in autism spectrum disorders
    DAI Zhen-zhen, JIANG Zhi-mei, ZHU Jun-li
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (6): 623-626.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0350
    Abstract190)      PDF (469KB)(197)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder found in early childhood,mainly characterized by social disorder,stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests,all of which limit and impair children's daily life functions.In recent years,there are more and more kinds of interventions for ASD,and applied behavior analysis (ABA) is currently the only form of treatment for ASD endorsed by the US Surgeon General.Its effectiveness has been proven and it is now widely used in the treatment of ASD children.This paper reviews the basic theory,function and effect of ABA compared with other intervention methods.
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    Research advances in missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents
    ZHOU Yu-hang, ZHAO Hong-bo, GUO Lan-min, JIANG Zhi-mei
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (4): 409-413.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0161
    Abstract151)      PDF (600KB)(121)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social communication disorders of varying severity,repetitive behaviors and a narrow range of interests.ASD has become one of the important causes of mental disability in children and adolescents in China,and early intervention is beneficial to the prognosis of children.However,there are often missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis phenomena in the diagnosis of ASD.Based on previous studies,this review combs the manifestation types and causes of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of ASD,and discusses possible countermeasures.
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    Principles of monitoring and intervention for micronutrient deficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder
    LI Ting-yu, TAN Mei
    journal1    2021, 29 (1): 1-4.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-1787
    Abstract160)      PDF (559KB)(236)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common and complex neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no specific treatment and the clinical practice is mainly based on behavioral interventions,causing a huge economic burden to the families and society.The etiology of ASD is unclear and is recognized as the result of interaction of a complex genetic background with environmental risk factors,resulting in different clinical manifestations of children with ASD.Current evidence suggests that malnutrition,especially micronutrient deficiencies in utero and in early postnatal period,may be associated with the onset and clinical manifestations of ASD.These measures,including ensuring sufficient micronutrients during pregnancy,strengthening micronutrient monitoring for ASD children,and timely and reasonable intervention,may reduce the incidence of ASD and improve the behaviors of children with ASD to some extent.
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    Management of family intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder
    XU Xiu
    journal1    2021, 29 (1): 5-8.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-2106
    Abstract218)      PDF (586KB)(304)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder onset in the early stage of development.There is a consensus that early identification,early detection and early intervention of ASD can greatly improve the prognosis of children with ASD.In the early intervention of ASD,the role of family intervention has attracted more and more attention,and has gradually become the research hotspot of early intervention of ASD in the world.This paper discusses the aspects that may be involved in the management and evaluation of family intervention for young children with ASD.
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    Review in neurobiological mechanisms of somatosensory disorders in autism spectrum disorder
    HU Mei-xin, LI Hui-ping, XU Xiu
    Chinese Journal of Child Health Care    2021, 29 (1): 42-46.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-17501
    Abstract127)      PDF (673KB)(135)      
    Somatosensory disorder refers to abnormalities in the somatosensory system's perception and processing of stimuli from the skin and deep tissues.It is one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD),which seriously affects children's social,communication and adaptation skills development and prognosis.There are many studies on somatosensory disorders,but the mechanism between ASD and somatosensory disorders is still unclear.Therefore,this article will review the neurobiological mechanisms of somatosensory disorders and further analyze the known neurobiological mechanisms of ASD combined with somatosensory disorders,thereby providing an idea for understanding the role of somatosensory disorders in the pathogenesis of ASD and for exploring ASD intervention methods.
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    Research progresson voltage-gated calcium channel-encoding genes in autism spectrum disorders
    JIAO Cui, LIU Tao
    journal1    2021, 29 (1): 47-51.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0945
    Abstract96)      PDF (465KB)(73)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder with social disorders and narrow interest as common symptoms.Genetic contributions are its main pathogenesis.Research on ASD susceptibility genes is a hot topic in the medical field at home and abroad.Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) are essential for the regulation of neuronal action potential and neurotransmitter release.Currently,all 10 subtypes of the VGCC encoding genes have been found to be associated with ASD.So this review aims to summarize the research progress of the 10 genes encoding VGCC and ASD.
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    Research progress on the mechanism of vitamin D in autism spectrum disorders
    YANG Jing, HU Yan
    journal1    2020, 28 (12): 1347-1350.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1480
    Abstract139)      PDF (521KB)(147)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder.At present,the pathogenesis of ASD is not clear,and there is no effective treatment.In recent years,many studies have shown that vitamin D plays an important role in brain development and the occurrence and development of ASD.This review combs the progress on the mechanisms of vitamin D in ASD.
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    Research advances on the role of vitamin D in autism spectrum disorders
    XIA Yang, YANG Shu-fen
    journal1    2020, 28 (10): 1122-1125.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1760
    Abstract91)      PDF (459KB)(108)      
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is one of the serious public problems affecting children′s health,characterized by social communication disorder,narrow interest or activity range and repetitive stereotyped behavior.In recent years,increasing studies have shown that the level of vitamin D (Vit D) in ASD children is significantly lower than that of healthy children with the same age,and vitamin D deficiency may be related to the pathogenesis of ASD.This paper reviews the research progress on vitamin D and ASD.
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    Review on school performance and social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders
    KONG Mian, GUO Feng-yi
    journal1    2020, 28 (10): 1126-1130.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1305
    Abstract124)      PDF (571KB)(121)      
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by barriers to social interaction in varying degrees, and narrow interests and stereotypes. Symptoms appear early in childhood and usually persist throughout the life cycle. In the Second National Disability Survey and Standards published in 2006 in mainland of China, ASD was included in the category of mental disorders, and the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Children with Autism were established. Despite increasing public awareness of ASD in China, most studies are more focused on early diagnosis and comprehensive intervention. Researches regarding the school placement, performance and social skills of ASD children are still at early stage. This review briefly describes the performance and social skills development of ASD children to future support school-age children with autism in China.
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    Application of artificial intelligence in autism spectrum disorder rehabilitation
    YOU Jia, LI You-jun, CHEN Yan-ni
    journal1    2020, 28 (8): 883-886.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1215
    Abstract197)      PDF (599KB)(196)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental diseases with retarding social-emotional interaction, language and nonlinguistic communication, as well as fellowship with peers, resulting in inferior social development.Conventional diagnostic instruments such as Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Revised (ADOS-R) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R) have been used in screening, and methods of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH), as well as Social Story have been applied in treatments.However, great challenges are still in front of the facts of early accurate diagnosis and workable intervene with ASD.Rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) has led medicine into a smart age.With the application of AI in medicine, ASD have the potential to be identified timely and accurately, and get progress in treatment in the core symptoms.Meanwhile, AI also makes it possible to better resolve the issues of inadequate medical resources and large treatment costs.This article has reviewed recent literature on AI in ASD and unveiled the research results related to machine learning, virtue reality technology, robot--mediated intervention, and the ethics and prospect of AI in autism rehabilitation.
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    Advances on the application of immersive virtual reality technology in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders
    CHEN Jing, DU Ya-song
    journal1    2020, 28 (5): 543-546.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0615
    Abstract163)      PDF (545KB)(218)      
    The treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited and the burden of this disease is heavy. This paper is aimed to introduce the advances on the application of immersive virtual reality technology in the treatment of ASD,thereby providing new ideas for the treatment of ASD patients.
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    Research advances on the genomic biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder
    WEI Nian-jin, WANG Yu
    journal1    2020, 28 (5): 551-554.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0762
    Abstract260)      PDF (514KB)(98)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by impairment social interaction,repetitive behaviors and restricted interest. Recent studies have demonstrated dramatically increasing prevalence of ASD,reaching to 1∶59. However,the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD remain unknown. Early diagnosis and early intervention are crucial to the rehabilitation of ASD. In recent years,researches on biological markers of ASD has made great progress,especially in genomics,including gene mutation,copy number variation,single nucleotide polymorphism and epigenetic. This review will summarize the research progress on genomic biomarkers of ASD.
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    Research progress on common comorbidities in children with autism spectrum disorders
    ZHOU Yu-nan, ZHAO Hong-bo, JIANG Zhi-mei
    journal1    2020, 28 (5): 555-558.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0996
    Abstract196)      PDF (483KB)(244)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that occurs in early life. ASD children are often comorbid with ADHD,epilepsy,sleep disorders,gastrointestinal problems,immune abnormalities,anxiety,affective disorders and other diseases. This review focuses on the current research on ADHD,epilepsy,sleep disorders,gastrointestinal problems,respectively and summarized in terms of the epidemiological characteristics,the impact on clinical symptoms and treatment methods of ASD children.
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    Review of the family-mediated intervention models and effects on children with autism spectrum disorders
    GE Dong-mei, DAI Ying
    journal1    2020, 28 (2): 167-171.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0458
    Abstract168)      PDF (613KB)(206)      
    With the increasing prevalence rate of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) worldwide,a series of intervention models appear,which create new possibilities for the prognosis of ASD children.Among them,the family-mediated intervention mode has attracted more and more attention,but it is still short of formal and systematic one at home.By reviewing different family-mediated intervention models and effects on ASD children at home and abroad,this review aims to provide some guidance for the domestic family-mediated intervention models in the future.
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    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 1-2.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1865
    Abstract161)      PDF (459KB)(321)      
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    Research progress on the genetics of autism spectrum disorder
    LI Sheng, JIANG Hong, FEI An-xing, ZOU Tian-tian
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 45-47.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0454
    Abstract134)      PDF (485KB)(270)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a deficit in social behaviors,repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.ASD children usually have cognitive and emotional disorders,mainly caused by factors such as early development,genetic and abnormal brain functions.This review combs the advances in genetics of ASD.
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    Early prediction of autism spectrum disorders based on eye movement research
    LI Fei-rong, CHEN You-qing
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 48-51.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0273
    Abstract110)      PDF (579KB)(143)      
    Autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is generally characterized by social disorders,narrow range of interests,behavioral stereotypes and eye fixation. Abnormal eye fixation is one of the clinical manifestations of ASD and an early biomarker for children with ASD. Eye movement technology has been gradually applied in clinical and related research of ASD. The current early predictions using eye movement technology mainly focus on the gaze time of the face,the eye movement characteristics of visual search and the attention to geometric figures. It is more consistent that the fixation time of the face and eye area is short,the fixation time of the geometric figure is long,and the advantage in visual search can be used as an early predictor of ASD. This review summarizes the early prediction of ASD using eye movement technology in the past few years in order to provide reference for the early detection of ASD.
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    Review of methods for assessing mealtime behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder
    ZHANG Peng-fei, LUO Yan
    journal1    2019, 27 (12): 1327-1330.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0880
    Abstract145)      PDF (549KB)(169)      
    Due to the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder(ASD), the mealtime behavior of ASD children, compared with healthy contemporaries, often present extreme food selectivity, food refusal and rapid eating.It also includes unusually persistent preference for the traits and texture of certain foods and aggressive, self-injurious, ritual mealtime behaviors.These poor mealtime behaviors affect the intake of nutrients and the development of typical mealtime behaviors in children with autism.If mealtime behavior problems of children with ASD were discriminated and identified in time, it will be beneficial to rehabilitation and growth of children with ASD.A comprehensive, accurate, objective and detailed assessment of mealtime behavior problems can serve as a reference and basis for mealtime behaviors interventions and treatments for children with autism.Therefore, this review summarizes and elaborates on the assessment methods of ASD children's mealtime behaviors.
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    Very early intervention with parents as mediators for autism spectrum disorder
    KE Xiao-yan
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 3-5.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-1644
    Abstract166)      PDF (433KB)(225)      
    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that seriously affects the development of children.For professional reference,this paper focuses on the research progress of very early intervention for autism spectrum disorder and the importance and necessity of parental involvement.
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    Review of the main characteristics and measurement of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorder
    LIAO Shan, LI Meng-qi, DAI Ying
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 41-44.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0211
    Abstract161)      PDF (553KB)(219)      
    Restricted and repetitive behaviors(RRBs) is a common behavior pattern in childhood.In typically developing children,repetitive behavior is the repeated practice of children′s behavior,language and games,with the aim of mastering skills.But in other developmental disorders among children,RRBs is closely related to the abnormal developmental process.The clinical evolution and evaluation of these behaviors in children with different developmental states,especially in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD),deserve much attention.This review aims to shed light on the problem obove and provide reference for further research by combing the relevant literature.
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    Research advances on pathogenesis and interventions of sleep disorders for children with autism spectrum disorder
    ZHAO Qin, SHAO Zhi
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 52-56.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0471
    Abstract171)      PDF (624KB)(207)      
    Sleep disorders are commonly reported comorbidities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD),which might not only exacerbate the core symptoms of ASD,but also adversely impact the intervention efficacy.The potential mechanism for sleep disorders of ASD is not clear so far,it might be due to the abnormal sleep regulation,ASD core symptoms,the co-occurring comorbidities,medical conditions,nutritional deficiency,and the medications commonly used.There are no specific therapeutic interventions for sleep problems of ASD currently,and parent education combined with behavioral interventions is recommended.
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    Research advances on early interventional programs for children with autism spectrum disorders
    MA Chen-huan, WANG Yu
    journal1    2020, 28 (1): 57-60.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0614
    Abstract237)      PDF (546KB)(276)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex,multidisciplinary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication disorders,repetitive and stereotyped behaviors,and narrow interests.At present,the prevalence of ASD is on the rise worldwide,and most ASD children have poor prognosis.Early intervention can significantly improve the poor prognosis of ASD children.This paper combs related intervention programs,including applied behavior analysis (ABA),pivotal response treatment (PRT),early start Denver model (ESDM),floortime,treatment and education of autistic and communications handicapped children (TEACCH) as well as social communication,emotional regulation and transactional support (SCERTS).
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    Research advances on intestinal microbes and childhood autism spectrum disorders
    BAI Mao-fei, WANG Xia
    journal1    2019, 27 (9): 986-989.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0134
    Abstract124)      PDF (508KB)(128)      
    Autism spectrum disorders(ASD)is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder,and its core symptoms include the lack of social function,social communication barriers,limitations of interest and stereotyped behavior,caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Intestinal microorganisms are a large number of microorganisms present in the intestine,which not only affect the ability to digest and absorb,but also affect the brain development and function through the gut-brain axis. Specific probiotics can regulate the balance of human micro-ecology,maintain normal metabolic absorption and immune defense functions. Intestinal microbial disorders in critical stages of infant development may increase the risk of ASD,and affect the development of ASD in children through neuroendocrine,immune,and metabolite pathways. Therefore,probiotics treatment is promising to be a new adjuvant treatment for ASD.
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    Discussion on the necessity of routine screening for inborn errors of metabolism in children with autism spectrum disorder
    REN Shuang, LI Chen-yang, QIAO Chong, LI Jing
    journal1    2019, 27 (4): 397-399.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-1367
    Abstract129)      PDF (449KB)(135)      
    Autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders,and its etiology is very complicated.Some children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) accompanied by ASD or autistic symptoms, can relieve ASD to a certain extent by the treatment of IEM, so IEM is probably one of the causes of ASD.This review discusses whether IEM screening should be routinely carried out in ASD children.
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    Research progress on the correlation between intestinal flora and autism spectrum disorder
    KUNG Wei-yen, WANG Yu
    journal1    2019, 27 (4): 407-410.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-1166
    Abstract107)      PDF (543KB)(198)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly characterized by social communication disorders, repetitive behaviors and narrow interests.The etiology of ASD is complex, and it focuses on the genetic and environmental factors.As the pathogenesis is unknown, there is no effective treatment.It is found that gastrointestinal diseases and changes of intestinal flora are common in ASD children.Recent studies have shown a two-way interaction between the gut nervous system and the central nervous system, called the microbiota-gut-brain axis.Gut flora regulates brain function through neuroendocrine, immune and intestinal nervous systems and thus affects brain development and behavior.Therefore, the imbalance of intestinal flora may be related to the occurrence of ASD.This article will summarize the effect of intestinal flora on ASD and the progress of related treatment.
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    Intervention principles for children with autism and BSR model
    ZOU Xiao-bing
    journal1    2019, 27 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-1611
    Abstract337)      PDF (1254KB)(513)      
    Autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is mainly characterized by social communication deficits, restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behavior. Research evidences prove sufficiently that early diagnosis and early intervention can improve the prognosis of ASD significantly. According to the national conditions in China, the core mission for ASD intervention must be addressed on improving social communication deficiency, adhered to scientific evidence-based intervention, personalized intervention, and family-community based intervention. Therefore, the author proposes three educational principles for ASD children and the BSR intervention model, which refers to using behavioral management strategy as basic method, using structural teaching as basic framework, and using social communication as basic components.
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    Research progress on zebrafish models of autism spectrum disorder
    WANG Yi, LIU Chun-xue, XU Xiu
    journal1    2019, 27 (1): 46-50.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-0529
    Abstract128)      PDF (1459KB)(146)      
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions,characterized by social deficits and the presence of repetitive stereotypic behaviors and restricted interests. The biological mechanisms of ASD have not been completely identified. As a fundamental research tool,animal model is comprehensively applied to study genetic basis,neuropathological mechanisms as well as pharmaceutical researches. Zebrafish models have been popularized as typical ASD models based on the advantages of the external fertilization,high fecundity,rapid development,optical transparence of embryos and larvae which allow real-time imaging of developing pathologies,drug screening on a large scale economically. This review thus aims to summarize the achievements of zebrafish for modeling ASD.
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    Research progress on the brain development of children with autism spectrum disorders
    LIU Jia-ning, CHEN Yan-hui
    journal1    2019, 27 (1): 51-55.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-0484
    Abstract129)      PDF (834KB)(186)      
    Researches on the structure,neural pathways and neuronal excitability of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have progressed rapidly in recent years. Studies indicated that abnormalities of brain development in ASD children can be found in early childhood by imaging and elctroencephalogram(EEG) examination,such as abnormalities in the corpus callosum and confusions in the nerve pathways of the white matter.On the other hand,the excitability abnormalities of some neurons is related to the behavioral changes of ASD,and the abnormalities were related to some receptor activities and some signaling pathways. These findings are helpful to explain the pathogenesis mechanism and behavioral manifestation of ASD,and related biological changes could also help to diagnose ASD and provide a breakthrough point for the treatment of ASD.
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    Advance on insulin-like growth factor-1 in autism spectrum disorders
    HONG Xiao-wen, CHEN Yan-hui
    journal1    2019, 27 (1): 56-58.   DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-1095
    Abstract139)      PDF (472KB)(116)      
    The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly dependent on behavioral symptoms,and most children could not receive accurate diagnosis until 4 years old when the impairment of social interaction presents typically and the best period of intervention has been missed. It is worth noting that scientists have made a lot of theoretical and practical research on the pathological mechanism and drug target of ASD. And more and more studies have shown that the biomarker,insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1),plays an important role in the development and progression in ASD. This review will summarize the role of IGF-1 in ASD in order to elucidate that IGF-1 is expected to be a biomarker of early diagnosis and early prevention of ASD,and to explore the application of IGF-1.
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