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Table of Content

    10 July 2015, Volume 23 Issue 7
    original articles
    Evaluation study on a new method of dietary assessment with instant photography applied in preschool children's dietary survey.
    SONG Cheng-lin,WANG Wen-yuan,LIU Xiao,WANG Hui-xin,JIANG Ting-ting,WANG Zhi-xu.
    2015, 23(7):  684-688.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-04
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    Objective To assess the usefulness and efficiency of a new method of dietary assessment with instant photography applied in preschool children's dietary survey.Methods Sixty preschool children and their parents were recruited with informed consent for a dietary assessment study.The preschool children were served with a meal at noon with foodstuff accurately weighed before cooking.The parents were asked to take photographs of all dietary items by the designed way in which three views of foods in different angle were recorded with a smart phone or a digital camera.The remainder foods were also photographically recorded after the meal.In next day,the parents were interviewed for food amount supplied to their children by investigators by a 24 h dietary recall.The digital files of dietary images were then transferred by internet to investigators.The works of the dietary recall,the image quantification and weighing method were operated by three different groups.Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the meal. Results Compared to the data from 24 h dietary recall,food amount data estimated by image quantification were more correlated with weighed data except fruits and beltfish.Also they were more close to weighed data and had smaller standard deviation except meat and beltfish.Values of energy and almost all the nutrients calculated based on food weight from image quantification were more close to those of weighed data compared to the 24 h dietary recall.Conclusion The method of dietary assessment with instant photography can be effectively used in preschool children's dietary survey and has more efficiency than conventional 24 h dietary recall.
    Current situation research on dietary of rural left-behind children in Shandong province.
    HAO Mei-lun,LIN Xin-ying,LI Wen-rui,GAI Ruo-yan.
    2015, 23(7):  689-691.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-05
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    Objective To research the current dietary situation of rural left-behind children in Shandong Province,put forward to improve rural left-behind children dietary,and to provide the scientific basis for the relevant decision making. Method With stratified random sampling method,735 children aged 0~5 years old were selected from 7 townships of Shandong Province and investigated with a questionnaire. Results Among the 735 children,269 cases (36.6%) were left-behind children.Compared with the non left-behind children,the energy,fat,vitamin C and protein intake dysplasia detection rate of the left-behind children were higher.Logistic regression models showed that family economic status,whether the guardian emphasis on children diet and guardians receive any parental education were significant factors affecting dietary status of rural children left-behind.Conclusion s Left-behind children in rural areas of Shandong province have poorer dietary.The current dietary situation should be improved on left-behind children in child maintenance person,guardian and social security system aspects.
    Study on preschool children's dietary nutrition status in some rural areas of Shandong Province.
    ZHAO Si-qi,XU Xin,CHEN Zhao-jun,XU Ling-zhong,GAI Ruo-yan.
    2015, 23(7):  692-694.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-06
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    Objective To study the preschool children's dietary nutrition status who aged 2 to 7 years old in some rural areas of Shandong province,provide reality basis to scientific and reasonable diet,nutrition targeted intervention and promote the healthy growth of children.Methods The 24 hours dietary retrospective was used to survey children's 3 day diets and calculate the main energy,protein and other nutrients intakes;Height,weight were measured by the Z score method to evaluate growth and development. Results The children had a unreasonable dietary structure and insufficient intake consumption rate was low;Respectively 32.7% and 35.9% of the children's energy and protein intake were less than 80% of RNIs;The intake of micro nutrition were not up to the standard of the RNIs;Children with low weight rate was 4.1%,the growth delay rate was 4.3%.Conclusion s It has a serious dietary nutrition problems in some rural areas of Shandong province among children.The nutrition knowledge's propaganda and education should be strengthened,the nutrition intervention be carried out,and the healthy growth of children be ensured.
    Effects of intervention on infants' feeding behaiors in cities.
    TANG He,JIANG Jing-xiong,GONG Li-min,HUANG Xiao-na,WANG Yan.
    2015, 23(7):  695-698.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-07
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    Objective To analyze the effects of intervention on infants feeding in cities,and to provide tips for improving infants feeding behaviors and children's health.Methods Intervention was performed on children aged 0~18 months in 15 cities for one year,including leaflets,wall papers,parental lectures,CD,parenting websites,etc.The contents included breastfeeding,complementary foods introducing,feeding skills,nutrition evaluation and feeding guidance,prevention and treatment of eating behavior problems,prevention of malnutrition diseases,etc.The effects were analyzed by comparing the feeding behaviors before and after intervention. Results For children aged 0~6 months,the average time of introducing complementary foods (4.4m) delayed after intervention,and intakes of the first food (59.3% rice flour,29.1% yolk) and juice (60.5% intake no juice,only 16.8% often intake) were improved.For children aged 7~12 months,the average time of introducing complementary foods (5.0m) and stopping breastfeeding (5.2m) delayed after intervention,the intakes of first food (58.9% rice flour,28.4% yolk),meat (37.8% had lean more than three times a week,48.6% had animal liver or blood more than once a week) and juice (only 33.5% often intake) were improved,so were the patterns of eating (74.1% were feed face to face) and introducing eating (54.9% were introduced by praising,49.9% would keep encouraging when being refused ).For children aged 13~30 months,the intakes of meat (50.9% had lean more than three times a week,56.9% had animal liver or blood more than once a week) and juice (only 29.5% often intake) were improved,so were the patterns of eating (90.1% cook separately,45.3% were feed face to face and encouraged to feed themselves meanwhile) and introducing eating (64.2% were introduced by praising,47.2% would keep encouraging when being refused ),training skills (84.1% were trained to eat by spoons).Lectures (35.7%) and leaflets (36.0%) were accepted widely for convenience and practicability.Conclusion s The intervention improved the infants' feeding behaviors significantly.Interventions carried out by lectures or leaflets are recommended as for their high acceptability.
    Relationship between growth hormone receptor gene polymorphism and idiopathic short stature in Guangxi Yao nationality children.
    ZENG Ting,YAN Ti-zhen,TANG Ning,LI Hong-hui,LI Wu-gao,LI Zhe-tao,ZHANG Yu.
    2015, 23(7):  699-702.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-08
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) in Guangxi Yao nationality children.Methods A total of 100 ISS children and 100 normal control children were recruited.Height,body mass index (BMI) and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level were measured.Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes,and the GHR gene rs4410646,rs2940913,and rs12515480 polymorphisms were genotyped by SNaPshot method. Results The genotype frequencies of rs4410646 (A/C) in ISS children were significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05).The allelic frequencies of rs4410646 in ISS children were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05).The genotype and allelic frequencies of rs2940913 (A/C) and rs12515480 (C/T) in ISS children were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05).The IGF-1 level within the ISS group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion GHR gene rs4410646,rs2940913,and rs12515480 polymorphisms are not associated with idiopathic short stature in Yao nationality children of Guangxi province.
    Effect of intervention on eating behavior problems among rural preschool children.
    LUO Hui-wen,XU Ling-zhong,MO Xiu-ting,GAI Ruo-yan.
    2015, 23(7):  703-705.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-09
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    Objective To improve the eating behavior of preschool children through the intervention of eating behavior among rural preschool left behind children.Methods Firstly,select Liaocheng as the field.Secondly,villages were randomly divided into intervention and control groups.The intervention and control groups had three towns.Thirdly,eligible households and target children were identified. Results After the intervention,the ratios of snack (31.1% vs 59.4%) (all P<0.05)) and eating while watch TV (51.7% vs 66.5%) were lower than the control group,knowing children's dieting regularly and supporting nutrition education were higher than the control group.In intervention group,snack's number of children decreased from 73(48.3%) to 47(31.1%),having no breakfast's number decreased from 28(18.5%) to 12(8.0%),food face's number of children decreased from 101(66.9%) to 78(51.7%),anorexia's number of children decreased from 66(43.7%) to 25(16.6%),telling children to take care products' number of parents decreased from 43(28.5%) to 28(18.5%).Conclusion After the intervention,the eating behavior of the preschool left-behind children is better.
    Screening of hypertensive children using blood pressure to height ratio in Guangzhou.
    LIANG Jing-jing,ZHANG Zhe-qing,LIU Bu-yun,YE Xiao-fang,HUANG Zhe-lan,MA Jun,JING Jin.
    2015, 23(7):  706-709.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-10
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    Objective To investigate the prevalence of hypertension in children in Guangzhou,China and to determine the optimal cutoff values of blood pressure to height ratio (BPHR) for screening hypertensive children.Methods A total of 5 471 children aged 6~10 years old were enrolled by means of whole population random sampling.Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were measured.The areas under receiver operating curves were applied to determine the predictive capability of BPHR to discern children with hypertension. Results The optimal cutoff values of systolic BPHR and diastolic BPHR were 0.80 mmHg/cm and 0.51 mmHg/cm in boys,and 0.78 mmHg/cm and 0.49 mmHg/cm in girls,respectively.The negative predictive values were larger than 99% for hypertension in both gender,the positive predictive values were 17.2% and 15.9%,respectively.The prevalence of hypertension were 3.54% in boys and 3.67% in girls,respectively.Conclusion BPHR is simple and accurate for screening hypertensive children aged 6~10 years old in Guangzhou.
    Association between polymorphisms of IGF-1R gene and idiopathic short stature in Jiangxi province.
    YANG Yu,HUANG Hui,YU Zhen,WANG Wei,YANG Li,HUANG Wei,XIE Li-ling.
    2015, 23(7):  710-712.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-11
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    Objective To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) gene and idiopathic short stature(ISS) in Jiangxi area,and provide new thinking for preventing and treating of ISS.Methods A total of 295 Chinese subjects with clinically diagnosed ISS and 314 normal controls in Jiangxi area were recruited.SNPs were genotyped using the SNaPshot Multiplex System. Results Significant association of SNP rs2684788 with ISS was found in Jiangxi area population among allelic model(G vs.A,OR=1.685,95%CI=1.272,2.233,P<0.001),genotypes(GG v.s GA vs.AA,χ2=13.724,P<0.001),dominant model(GG+GA vs.AA:OR=1.887,95%CI=1.352~2.634,P<0.001).Significant association of SNP rs2684788(GG+GA genotypes) with IGF-1SDS was found (P<0.004).Conclusion Human IGF-1R gene SNP rs2684788 might be associated with ISS genetic susceptibility in Jiangxi area population,and might be associated with ISS clinical phenotype.
    Aberrant regulation of dopamine system function in pre-adolescent schizophrenia rats.
    LIU Li,WANG Yi-zhi,XIE Wen,CHEN Li.
    2015, 23(7):  713-716.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-12
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    Objective To discuss the relationship of aberrant regulation of dopamine system function and schizophrenia.Methods Pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were obtained at MAM (methylazoxymethanol acetate,diluted in saline,25mg/kg,i.p.) or saline was administered on GD17.Post-weaning,pre-adolescent rats were defined as postnatal day 35~40,whereas adult rats were over 10 weeks of age.Test 1:normal pre-adolescent rats and MAM-treated pre-adolescent rats;Adult normal rats and adult MAM-treated rats were implanted electrodes into ventral hippocampus (vHipp) to exam the effect of electric stimuli and apomorphine on locomotor activity of rats.Test 2:The spontaneous firing activity of dopamine neurons in VTA was recorded with normal or MAM-treated pre-adolescent rats,and the effect of MK-801 was observed on the dopamine neurons' firing activity. Results MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons throughout the VTA without significant changes in firing rate or burst firing,which could be withdraw by MK-801 injecting intra-vHipp.Adult MAM-treated rats presented an increase locomotor activity,and electric stimulation in vHipp Results in an augmented locomotor were responsed to amphetamine administration followed.However,these behavioral changes did not happen on the pre-adolescent normal or MAM-treated rats.Conclusion s The pathophysiological changes of schizophrenia have already happened in pre-adolescent period,which do not Results the abnormal behavior activity till adult.Puberty is onset of dopamine receptors' functional changes.Therefore,pre-adolescent is a critical period for Prevention and screening of schizophrenia.
    Conductive education early intervention on hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy infants and correlation analysis between Peabody and Gesell Scales.
    ZHANG Lan,TANG Jiu-lai.
    2015, 23(7):  730-732.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-17
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    Objective To observe the effect of conductive education(CE) early intervention on infants with moderate hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE),compare two different Results which evaluated by Peabody Developmental Motor Scales 2 (PPMS-2) and Gesell Scale,and analyze the correlation of them.Methods A total of 106 HIE infants within 1~3 months were divided into two groups.Control group (n=51,28 cases were boys,23 cases were girls) was applied by routine rehabilitation intervene measures.Observation group (n=55,22 cases were boys,33 cases were girls):CE early intervention was added to the base of routine rehabilitation intervention measures.At the age of 11 months,the development state with Gesell scale and PDMS-2 were evaluated. Results The Results of PDMS-2 showed that the number cases of observation group (51/55)was significant higher than that of control group(40/51)(P<0.05).The Results of Gesell scales showed that the normal number of observation group(50/55)was significant higher than that of control group(39/51)(P<0.05).Both Results improved that the effect of routine rehabilitation intervene adding CE intervene was more effective than that of pure routine rehabilitation intervene.And the total quotient /DQ of PDMS-2 and Gesell scales were very closely,which showed high correlation(r=0.925).The correlation coefficient of gross motor quotient was the greatest(r=0.911)while that of fine motor quotient was lower slightly.Conclusion s The routine rehabilitation intervene measures adding CE early intervention is more effective on infants with HIE.There are significant correlations between the PDMS-2 and Gesell Scales,especially in the gross motor.
    Analysis of current development constitution of 3~6 years old collective children in Changping district,Beijing.
    DU Ya-ting,YANG Chen,QI Dong-ming.
    2015, 23(7):  733-735.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-18
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    Objective To know the urban and rural collective physical conditions of children aged 3~6 years old in Changping district and to provid more scientific basis for the better development of children physical exercise work.Methods With the stratified cluster sampling principle,physical fitness test was performed on 1 356 children aged 3~6 years old,and the Results were analyzed. Results The physical development status of girls were better than boys and urban children were better than rural children.The physical quality of overall development was improved by age,boys were better than girls and urban children were better than rural children.Boys were better at sensitivity,explosiveness,strength and balance than girls,while girls were better at coordination and flexibility.Urban children were better at explosiveness,coordination and balance,while rural children were better at sensitivity and flexibility.Urban children aged 3~4 years old were better than rural children with their upper limb strength,while rural children aged 5~6 years old were opposite.Conclusion According to the region and gender differences of collective children aged 3~6 years old,effective scientific physical exercises should be done with the consideration of their physical development characteristics in order to promote the healthy development of children.
    Exploration of magnetic resonance imaging to identify girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche.
    ZHANG Rui-jie,SHI Yun-ju,CHENG Mei-ying,ZHANG De-fu.
    2015, 23(7):  736-738.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-19
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    Objective To analyse the imaging features of the girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) and premature thelarche (PT),and to explore the role of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis.Methods A total of 35 girls with ICPP and 35 PT girls which from a provincial hospital in Henan were selected as observed objects,all the children had MRI scans of the cranial saddle area and the pituitary height were measured,and the developmental level of the pituitary gland was divided by Elster law. Results The mean value of pituitary height of ICPP group was (5.18±1.01) mm and (4.30±0.38) mm of the PT group,there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05);The Elster's grade of pituitary morphology which was equal or greater than IV grade of ICPP group and the PT group were accounted for 82.86% and 11.43% respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion s The pituitary height in ICPP group is higher,the upper edge of the pituitary Morphology is full;The pituitary height in PT group is lower,the upper edge of the pituitary Morphology is mainly flat or low-lying.The examination of the pituitary by MRI is non-invasive and painless,and has important reference value in the differential diagnosis between ICPP and PT,and it can be used as the auxiliary examination of the precocious puberty.
    Assessment and analysis of fitness in 67 preschool obese children in the clinic.
    HE Yan-lu,DOU Shu-juan,ZHANG Guang-bao,LI Xi-ling,CHI Xia,TONG Mei-ling,ZHANG Min,SHAN Chun-lei.
    2015, 23(7):  739-741.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-20
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    Objective To assess of fitness in preschool obese children,and to provide the basis for making the individualized exercise prescription. Method Questionnaire method and standardized testing were used to acquire the children's daily physical activity and fitness level. Results The average daily sleep,meditation,activity time and activity intensity were got.The statistical analysis found that obese children in preschool average daily meditation for a long time,activity time was short,and activity intensity was low.Boys were all failure and only 16 percent of girls qualified.Physical individual indicators,obese boys,sit-and-reach,tennis throw away,continuous feet jump,shuttle run,standing long jump,walk the balance beam,passing rates were 28.6%,4.8%,4.8%,11.9%,7.1%,0%.Obese girls sit-and-reach,tennis throw away,continuous feet jump,shuttle run,standing long jump,walk the balance beam passing rate was respectively 24%,28%,16%,8%,16%,8%.Conclusion Obese children with low levels of daily physical activity,physical fitness is poor,personalized,targeted exercise training for them is necessary.
    Association between polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor genes and asthma in children.
    MO Li-ya,DENG Yong-chao,HUANG Cai-zhi,LIU Jian-long.
    2015, 23(7):  742-744.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-21
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    Objective To investigate the genetic predisposing factor of childhood bronchial asthma through a study of the relation of the children's polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and bronchial asthma in Hunan province.Methods There were 71 children of the bronchial asthma group and the same number of normal children of the control group.Their polymorphisms of VDR genes including ApaI and BsmI were detected and compared by the use of polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragments length polymorphism(RFLP).The level of vitamin D and interleukin 4 and 12 were detected through enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results There were both statistical differences in the polymorphism of ApaI gene and the frequency of distribution of its allele between two groups (P<0.05),while the difference of them of BsmI gene was no significance (P>0.05);Comparing with the control group,the average levels of serum 25(OH)D3 and interleukin 12 were significant lower while interleukin 4 was significant higher (P<0.05).Conclusion s Childhood bronchial asthma is correlated with the polymorphisms of VDR-ApaI,but it has no relation to the VDR-BsmI.The VDR-ApaI may be a genetic susceptibility gene.As an immune regulator,vitamin D is closely associated with the occurrence and development of childhood bronchial asthma,increasing the intake of vitamin D perhaps could reduce the incidence of asthma in a certain extent.
    Feeding status and influencing factors of 0~24 months infants in Pengshui county of Chongqing.
    TAN Ming-tian,LIU Qin,WANG Xing-lin,WANG Xu,WEI Xin-ling,PU Xin,WU Guang-qin,XIANG Xue-hua,SHAO Jian-chao.
    2015, 23(7):  745-747.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-22
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    Objective To investigate feeding status and its influencing factors of infants aged 0~2 years old in Pengshui county of Chongqing.Methods By convenience sampling,a total of 606 infants' breastfeeding status and their semisolid feed were investigated by questionnaire in seven communities and eight selected townships in Pengshui county of Chongqing.Epidata 3.1 was used for data processing,and SPSS 19.0 was used for data analysis. Results Exclusive breastfeeding rate of infants under 4 and 6 months were 63.6% and 35.3% respectively.63.9% mother started breastfeeding after 24 hours of birth.Vegetables,fruits,cereals,eggs,beans and livestock,fish were added too late for most of the infants.The multivariate logistic regression showed that living in rural townships and first breastfeeding earlier were the protect factors of exclusive breastfeeding of infants within 4 months;the fosters older than 40 years old and with higher breastfeeding knowledge scores were risk factors.Conclusion s It's not timely for the infants to have the first breastfeeding in the survey.The exclusive breastfeeding rate and duration time should be improved.The timing of introducing semisolid food is unreasonable,and introducing too late seems to be a big problem.Correct feeding guidance should be provided for the main fosters of infants.
    Cytogenetic analysis of 20 infants with fetal growth restriction.
    XIANG Ping-xia,LIU Ling,LENG Pei,HU Xi-jiang.
    2015, 23(7):  748-749.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-23
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    Objective To seek related genetic pathogenic factors by cytogenetic analysis in 20 infants with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods A total of 20 FGR infants were recruited in Wuhan Maternal and Children Health Care Center from January 2012 to June 2014.The samples of the peripheral blood lymphocytes were prepared with routine cytogeneticMethods ,G-banding was employed for karyotype analysis. Result Cytogenetic analysis revealed 10 cases with chromosomal abnormalities,5 cases of Down's syndrome,1 case of Edward's syndrome,4 cases of chromosome structural abnormalities.Conclusion s Chromosome aberrations related to the fetal growth restriction.It is suggested that more chromosomal information of FGR infants should be acquired,it benefits for early management and intervention of genetic diseases.
    Study on onset time and influencing factors of anemia in very low birth weight infants.
    LUO Gang,JIANG Hong,YIN Xiang-yun,SONG Zhen-feng.
    2015, 23(7):  750-752.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-24
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    Objective To explore the anemia onset time and influencing factors in very low birth weight infants(VLBWI).Methods A total of 147 VLBWI hospitalized in neonatal ward of affiliated hospital of Qingdao University from January 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 4 groups according to the anemia time.The perinatal factors with the anemia were analysed respectively in the groups. Results The average time for onset of anemia was (12.26±7.95)d.The incidences of early anemia was 29.9%,the late anemia was 70.1%.Compared with each other of the four VLBWI groups,accumulation of blood loss and the amount of blood transfusion within 4 weeks after birth in VLBWI had statistically significant differences(P<0.01).Compared with each other groups,the level of initial hemoglobin and the initial HCT of VLBWI had statistically significant differences(P<0.01).The differences in the following aspects:placental abruption,fetal distress,intracranial hemonhage of the newborn (ICH),complications during neoynatal stage were statistically significant (P<0.05).Logistic analysis showed that the latrogenic blood loss and the level of Hb related with anemia.Conclusion s Anemia is a common complication in the VLBWI.The latrogenic blood loss and the level of Hb are important high risk factors of the occurrence of anemia.Blood transfusion is the routine even the preferred method to cure anemia in VLBWI.
    Research of community screening method of infant motor developmental delay.
    LIANG Ming-li,LIANG Ai-min,YAN Shu-juan.
    2015, 23(7):  753-755.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-25
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    Objective To research and design suitable development delay screeningMethods for monitoring 0~1 year old infants within the community,and to provideMethods for early screening and monitoring of children with cerebral palsy.Methods 1)ScreeningMethods design:monthly screening content was designed to cover ages from 1~12 months,and passed through the expert argumentation.2)Study of the reliability,validity and application:Cluster sampling (n=2 711) was performed in infants aged 1~12 months from 6 community health service centers of three city districts.A positive group with positive cases (n=59) and a negative control group with negative cases (n=177) were all performed the test-retest reliability study,and two groups all carried out Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) to research criterion-related validity.Developmental condition and muscular tension of the positive referral cases evaluated for application study.3)Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS17.0. Results 1)Reliability:the method provided 100% professional reliability and test-retest reliability.2)Validity:the method possessed criterion-related validity and the positive testing of motor screening were significantly correlated with DDST Results and gross motor developmental delay (r=0.77,P=0.000 respectively).3)Application:screening positive rate was 2.18%.Gross Motor developmental delay was diagnosed in 65.63% of the positive referral cases,but total rates of gross motor developmental delay and edge state was 100%,including 43.75% with abnormal tension of muscle.The diagnosis of cerebral palsy,central coordination disorder and muscular tension dysfunction each included 1 case.Conclusion The screening method is suitable to child health care doctors for motor developmental delay screening among 0~1 year old infants within the community,and with good reliability and validity has value in its application.
    Effect of diet intervention on prevention of allergic disease in high risk infants:an 12-month follow-up study.
    ZENG Yan,LIU Xiao-yun,DENG Quan-min.
    2015, 23(7):  756-758.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-26
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    Objective To learn the effect of diet intervention on prevention of allergic disease in high risk infants.Methods A total of 200 high risk infants were recruited and randomly divided into intervention group(diet control) and non-intervention group.A randomly controlled trial was conducted to compare the development of allergic diseases between two groups for 12 months. Results 1) After 6 months and 12 months follow up,the incidences of eczema and asthma in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the non-intervention group (P<0.05).After 12 months,the incidence of allergic rhinitis in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the non-intervention group (P<0.05).After the 12 months intervention,the severity of eczema,asthma and allergic rhinitis decreased significantly (P<0.05).2) There were significant differences in allergen detection Results and food allergen detection Results between intervention group and non-intervention group after 6 months and 12 months (P<0.05).After 12 months,the TPTEF/TF and VPEF/VE in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the non-intervention group (P<0.05).Conclusion Early diet intervention can reduce the incidence of allergic diseases and alleviate the development of allergic diseases in high risk infants.
    Correlation of dietary diversity and growth of children aged 2~6 years old in poor areas,Yunnan.
    ZHANG Qiang,WAN Qing-qing,YU Si-yang,LIU Zhi-tao,ZHAO Jiang,LI Juan-juan,WANG Xiao-wen,RUAN Yuan,WAN Rong.
    2015, 23(7):  759-761.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-27
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    Objective To analyze the nutritional status of children in poor areas of Yunnan,and to explore the correlation among dietary scores (DDS) and the index of growth and development.Methods Participants of 2006-2009 nutritional surveillance project from four poor counties of Yunnan were included.Indexes,such as DDS9,the-height-for-age Z score (HAZ),the-weight-for-age Z score (WAZ),the-weight-for- height Z score (WHZ) and the prevalence of malnutrition were constructed using the database.Then the correlation of these indexes was analyzed. Results A total of 1 686 children were included in this study.The prevalence of underweight,stunting and wasting among these children were 24.3%,24.7% and 7.5% respectively.Average DDS9 was 6.0±1.38,which was positively associated with HAZ (r=0.11,P=0.00)and WAZ(r=0.063,P=0.01).However,the same association was not found with WHZ(r=-0.02,P=0.327).Binary Logistic regression suggested the lacking of milk、meat and aquatic food consumption were risk factors for malnutrition.Conclusion Preschool children in poor areas of Yunnan faced the lacking of food diversity and many of them suffered from malnutrition.DDS9 is correlated with some growth indexes,and could be applied in the work of nutrition improvement.
    Epidemiological studies on blood lead levels and influencing factors among children attended outpatient clinic in Zhuzhou.
    HE Wen-bing,ZHAO Cheng-shun,LI Ji-hong,YUAN Ying-lan,LAN Jing-fang,LIU Guang-ling.
    2015, 23(7):  762-764.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-28
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    Objective To investigate the blood lead levels and its influencing factors among children attended outpatient clinic in Zhuzhou,in order to offer advice on how to prevent and treat lead poisoning.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted on 1 200 children who attended outpatient clinic aged 1 month to 14 years old in Zhuzhou.The contents of plumbum,iron,calcium,copper,magnesium and zinc in blood were determined. Results The mean level of blood lead was (96.1±64.4) μg/L.The proportion of children with blood lead level≥100 μg/L was 28.7% in Zhuzhou.By stepwise regression analysis,the blood lead level was insignificantly correlated with iron,calcium,and cuprum in whole blood,positively correlated with magnesium and zinc.Using multiple logistic regression analysis,the protective factors against lead poisoning in children with blood lead level≥100 μg/L mainly included older mother,the nutritional status of calcium,iron,zinc,regular consumption of dairy products,scattered living.The risk factors which influenced blood lead status of children with blood lead level≥100 μg/L were education status of mother,fathers smoking,boy,frequently staying or walking in the heavy traffic areas,without wash their hands before eating,behavior and dietary habit of children,regular eating popcorn,fingernail biting,constantly playing with playdough,taking Chinese herbal medicine,taking regularly canned drinks,houses around the main road,the peeling wall,lower floors,older children.Conclusion s In Zhuzhou,the proportion of children with blood lead level ≥100 μg/L is higher.The local governments and the society should have to work together to reduce the environmental lead exposure on children and lead-induced damage,thought that to improve the environment,strengthen nutrition intervention,popularize the health education and execute behavior guidance.
    Analysis of the universal newborn hearing screening results in Hunan province.
    WU Dan,HUANG Guang-wen.
    2015, 23(7):  765-767.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-29
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    Objective To investigate universal newborn hearing screening(UNHS) status of different areas in Hunan province,and to provide theoretical basis for in-depth UNHS. Method A total of 839 237 babies who born in Hunan province from October 1,2010 to September 30,2013 were investigated for a hearing screening study. Results The coverage rates of first screening was 88.99%,72.47%,54.30% in Changzhutan,Xiangnan and Xiangxi,respectively.The coverage rates of repeated screening was 72.94%,78.36%,64.41%,respectively.The number of newborns who received the hearing evaluation was 3 192,and 1 701 infants confirmed with hearing loss,633 infants were diagnosed with severe or more severe bilateral hearing loss,and 807 newborns had received intervention.Conclusion s UNHS in different areas of Hunan province developed in varying degrees.Establishment of advanced information system and improvement of diagnosis and intervention can enhance UNHS.
    Prevalence of diet behavioral problems among 0~4 years old children.
    CHEN Jiu-xia,YAO Cong,FENG De-hong,WANG Yu-qin,XING Suo-xia,YANG Yu-feng.
    2015, 23(7):  774-775.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-32
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    Objective To investigate prevalence of diet behavioral problems and family feeding conditions among children of 0~4 years old in Xi'an. Mehtods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted.Date included children's socio-demographic,diet behavioral problems and their caregiver's information. Results 21.4%children were identified 1 diet behavioral problem,25% children were identified 2 diet behavioral problems,19% children were identified 3 diet behavioral problems,60.1% of them showed dining distraction,61.9% caregivers induced the children's diet,30.4% caregivers fed the children with nutritional supplements.Conclusion s High percentage of diet behavioral problems exists among children of 0~4 years old in Xi'an,family unit should play an important role in clinical diet behavioral intervention.The training of early diet behaviors should be paid attention and the feeding knowledge andMethods of caregivers should be enhanced.
    Investigation on nutrition knowledge attitude and eating behavior intervention of pupils in downtown of Jinan.
    TIAN Huan,TIAN Tian,LI Jun.
    2015, 23(7):  778-780.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-07-34
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of the nutritional health education to pupils from downtown of Jinan,and to provide the basis for improving the nutritive condition of the children.Methods From 2~5 grade students of three primary schools of different levels,1 609 public were extracted who were intervened by "nutrition class" and "happy ten minutes" for one year,and carried out the questionnaires and physical examination before and after the intervention. Results After the nutrition intervention,the whole questions about pupils' awareness of knowledge improved 60% (P<0.05).The Chinese dietary pagoda population awareness rate growed 26.3%.Pupils' nutrition attitude had improved significantly.The nutrition behavior scores were increased.The improvement of the nutritional status was not obvious.Conclusion "Nutrition class" and "happy ten minutes" activity comprehensive intervention measures improved the students' awareness of knowledge about nutrition,the nutrition and health attitude and the bad eating behavior.They are playing a positive role in prevent the occurrence of obesity.