Table of Content

    06 September 2012, Volume 20 Issue 9
    Association between infancy feeding methods and sleep
    Chinese Infants Sleep Development Study Group
    2012, 20(9):  779-782. 
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    【Objective】 To examine the differences in infants' sleep patterns and sleep behaviors by feeding methods. 【Methods】 Twenty four hour sleep diaries recording of 524 healthy term infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered for 8 times in total from birth to 4 months old.At 4 weeks and 3 months old,all infants' parents completed a Sleep Behavior Questionnaire.General linear models and Chi-square test were conducted to determine the differences in infants' sleep parameters and behaviors by feeding methods. 【Result】 Partially breastfed infants showed less daytime sleep percentage by 4.2% and 5.2% and less 24-h sleep by 1.6% and 2.4%,compared to exclusive breastfed and formula-fed infants.No differences in sleep patterns were observed between formula-fed and exclusive breastfed infants.In nocturnal waking,formula-fed infants showed fewer nighttime waking compared with exclusive and partial breastfed babies.All three feedingmethods preferred co-sleeping with one of adults,and also presented similar in sleep-onset and nighttime awakening transitional objects needs,however,differed in detailed types of sleep-onset transitional objects. 【Conclusion】 Partially breastfed infants presented poor self-comfort ability,shorter sleep length and more interrupt during nighttime sleep,compared with the other two feeding methods.Certain interventions to improve their sleep health should be concerned.
    Influences of weekend catch-up sleep on sleep quality and academic achievements
    SUN Wan-qi,JIANG Yan-rui,CHEN Wen-juan,WANG Yan,LI Feng,LI Sheng-hui,YAN Chong-huai,JIN Xing-ming,SHEN Xiao-ming,JIANG Fan
    2012, 20(9):  783-786. 
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    【Objective】 To study the situation of weekend catch up sleep in fifth grade children in Shanghai,and to explore the influences of weekend catch-up sleep on sleep quality and academic achievements. 【Methods】 Totally 2 249 grade-fifth children were sampled by stratified cluster random sampling from 10 primary schools in Shanghai.Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was used to assess children's sleep duration and quality (total score≥41 was defined as poor sleep quality ); The School Achievement Questionnaire (teacher version) was applied to evaluate children's achievement.T-test and ANCOVA were adopted to compare the sleep quality and academic achievement among children with different type of sleep. 【Results】 The mean age was (10.81±0.38) years old,49.3% were boys.The mean bedtime and get up time was(37±40) minutes and (86±54)minutes later on weekends,respectively.The mean weekend catch-up sleep was(48±58) minutes,ranging from 3~5.5 hours.Children with poor sleep quality had more catch-up sleep (t=3.82,P<0.001).The ANCOVA results,after adjusted for age,gender and parental education level,showed that children slept ≤9 hours in both weekday and weekend and children had ≥1 catch-up sleep got higher score in The School Achievement Questionnaire than children slept≥10 hours in both weekday and weekend (F=10.99,P<0.001),representing for lower academic achievement. 【Conclusion】 Weekend catch-up sleep will do harm to rather than improving children's sleep quality and academic achievement as insufficient sleep.
    Association between sleep duration and adiposity among Chinese preadolescents
    JIANG Yan-rui,CHEN Wen-juan,SUN Wan-qi,WANG Yan,LI Sheng-hui,SHEN Xiao-ming,JIANG Fan
    2012, 20(9):  787-789. 
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    【Objective】 To investigate the association between sleep duration and adiposity among Chinese preadolescents. 【Methods】 Totally 1 588 fifth-grade students were sampled by stratified cluster random sampling from 10 primary schools of Shanghai.Socioeconomic status and sleep duration were from parental or self reported questionnaires.Height,weight,body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,Z scores of BMI and waist circumference,waist -height ratio and body fat percentage were assessed.Among children participated,boys accounted for 52.08 %( 827).The mean age o f the sample was 10.82±0.39 years old (9.42~14.08). 【Results】 The prevalence of obesity overall was 11.9% (boys 15.0%,girls 8.5%,P<0.001).Compared with those who slept ≥10 h,those who slept < 9 hours had a significantly higher BMI,BMI Z score,waist,waist Z score,waist/height ratio and body fat percentage after adjusting for potential confounders. 【Conclusion】 Short sleep duration was significantly associated with higher adiposity indices in Chinese adolescents,suggesting this may be a modifiable risk factor for adiposity.
    Study on the relationship between sleep problems in infant and sleep quality and depression of mothers
    LIU Min-na,XIAO Lin,GAO Xue-ting,LEI Yan,HUANG Zhe
    2012, 20(9):  790-793. 
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    【Objective】 To explore infant sleep problems through the study of infant sleep status in Xian,and analyze the risk factors.To provide a scientific basis to solve infant sleep problems for children health care work. 【Methods】 Totally,1 196 normal children,without severe illness and abnormal delivery history,aged 1 to 12 months.Under strict quality control system,their parents were interviewed with questionnaire to look into the sleep-related factors.Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were adopted to assess sleep quality and depression on the mothers of 1,6,12 months infants. 【Results】 Prevalence of sleep problems in infants was 40.47% in Xian.PSQI results showed: the mothers with infants of sleep problems had higher scores than those of normal group,which had significant differences between the two groups.Mothers of infants with sleep problems reported higher scores in SDS than those of normal group. 【Conclusion】 Prevalence of sleep problems in infants was high.Maternal sleep quality and depression could infect sleep of infants directly.It is necessary to provide practical guidances to prevent the sleeping problem.
    Epidemiological investigation of sleep disorders for the children of 3~6 years in Nanjing city
    XIE Hai-hong,GUO Xi-rong,QU Hong-ming,ZHU Li-jun
    2012, 20(9):  794-796. 
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    【Objective】 To investigate the sleep conditions and correlative factors of children 3~6 years old children in Nanjing. 【Method】 1 327 children aged 3~6 years old were randomly selected for investigation in Nanjing. 【Results】 There was a higher prevalenee rate of sleep disorders in children in Nanjing city than the level of investigations in other cities,it was 52.67%.Among their symptoms of sleep disorder,hyperhidrosis was 34.51%,molar teeth 14.47%,restless sleep 10.78%,sleep snoring 10.32%,night talking 9.34%,mouth breathing 6.41%,limber spasm 4.60%,sleep long time in daytime and less in night 2.03%,screeching or crying during sleeping 2.03%,going to sleep early1.96%,choke gargling 1.28%,night awakenings 0.98%,limber spasm 0.38%,sleep apnea 0.23%,sleep walking 0.08%.The prevalences of hyperhidrosis,sleep long time in daytime and less in night of boys were larger than girls.The prevalence of night talking of girls was larger than boys.The main factors those affected the sleep disorders were 5 including the having diseases,feelings before sleep,sleep time,sleep posture,playing games outside.There were many factors those affected the sleep problems of children including children's age,heredity and environmental factors.
    Prevalence of concealed penis among school boys in Shanghai and its relationship with obesity
    WANG Wen,SHI Hui-jing,LI Dan,ZHANG Yue,ZHANG Bo-lin,WANG Qun,JIANG Xiao-xiao
    2012, 20(9):  797-799. 
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    【Objective】 To describe the incidence rate of concealed penis among the primary and secondary school boys in Shanghai and preliminarily explore the correlation between concealed penis and Body Shape Index of school boys. 【Methods】 Stratification sampling method was applied and then a total of 1 787 students were selected from primary school and secondary schools.Strict physical and genitalia examination were conducted to obtain the data of the participant boys at different ages and different pubertal stages in order to describe the general situation of concealed penis and the correlation was explored between concealed penis and obesity-related indicators based on the method of 1∶4 conditional Logistic regression analysis. 【Results】 The incidence rate of concealed penis of the sample school boys was 2.5%.The higher incidence rate of concealed penis emerged at the age of 11 to 15.There were statistically significant correlations between the obesity-related indicators (BMI,weight and waistline,hip circumference,waist-hip ratio,subscapular,skinfold,triceps skinfold) and concealed penis (their ORs were 1.730,1.158,1.252,1.297,13.734,1.248,1.229 respectively). 【Conclusion】 The prevalence of the concealed penis is higher than before.All the obesity-related indicators are risk factors of the concealed penis,moreover,the central obesity is attributed to the concealed penis among the boys.Actually,the influence of children obesity towards concealed penis should be paid high attention.
    Relationship between serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vitamin A metabolic index in preschool children
    CHEN Ke,ZHANG Lan,CHENG Xin-ran,LUO Hong-yi,GAO Ning,WANG Jin,FU Gui-ying,MAO Meng
    2012, 20(9):  800-802. 
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    【Objective】 To explore the correlation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and vitamin A metabolic index,including serum retinol,serum retinol binding protein (RBP),serum transthyretin (TTR) and the molar ratio of RBP to TTR[R-T index,RBP(mol/L)/TTR(mol/L)]. 【Methods】 About 473 preschool children with 2~7 years old were randomly selected from eight kindergartens,including 223 boys and 250 girls with (47.8±14.5) months.Serum retinol was measured by HPLC method,NGAL and RBP by ELISA and TTR by immunoturbidimetric method. 【Results】 There were significant negative correlations between NGAL and retinol and R-T index(The partial correlation coefficients were 0.21 and 0.25;P all<0.000 1).The value of serum NGAL in children with normal vitamin A was markedly lower than that of children with unnormal vitamin A (P<0.05).Children with low R-T index level (cut by R-T index media value) had higher serum NGAL level than those with high R-T index level (P<0.05);However,no significant difference was observed between children with high and low RBP/TTR levels (P>0.05).The serum retinol and R-T index levels in children with Q1 RBP value group (cut by RBP 4 quartile level) was significantly higher than those of children with Q4 RBP value group (P<0.05),but not for serum RBP and TTR values (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 There is close relation between serum NGAL and vitamin A status in preschool children and vitamin A may be able to inhibit the expression of NGAL which against the inhibition of NGAL on hematopoietic system.
    Correlation between mental health and personality of pectus excavatum patients of students
    XIAO Li-jun,ZHAO Jing,LUO Li,ZHOU Zhong-bin
    2012, 20(9):  803-805. 
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    【Objective】 To learn the correlation between the level of the mental health and personality character of students with pectus excavatum,and to supply important basis of comprehensive treatment scheme of Biopsychosocial. 【Methods】 The data extracted from 57 voluntary patients by Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90)and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) effectively in department of thoracic surgery of our hospital between 2009~2011,and it was compared with Chinese norm for students and analyzed with linear correlation. 【Results】 The scores of 5 factors including somatisation,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety and hostility in SCL-90 were higher than those of norm(P<0.05).The score of Neuroticism(N) and Extraversion(E)in EPQ was higher than that of the norm for students(P<0.05).The N of EPQ was positively correlated with all factors in SCL-90,the E was negatively correlated with 6 factors including somatisation,compulsion,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety and paranoia,the P was positively correlated with 2 factors including interpersonal sensitivity and depression,the L was negatively correlated with 5 factors including compulsion,anxiety,hostility,panic and paranoia. 【Conclusions】 The level of mental health of patients with pectus excavatum is worse than those of healthy people,and the character of neuroticism and extraversion may be its personality background.So it is important for the patients making psychological test before the operation to develop a reasonable treatment.
    Study of molecular mechanism on effect of rapid eye movement sleep on synaptic plasiticity in rats hippocampus
    DAI Fei,DING Yu,QU Fei,TIAN Ying,LI Sheng-hui
    2012, 20(9):  806-809. 
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    【Objective】 To investigate the change of GAP-43 expressed in rats hippocampus after rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation and the sleep recovery,and further to explore the possible pre-synaptic mechanisms of learning and memory. 【Methods】 Male Sprague-Dawley rats(n=30)were divided randomly into 5 groups:blank control group,environment control group,48 h REM sleep deprivation group,sleep recovery group (24 h),and sleep recovery group (48 h).The REM sleep deprivation model was established by the modified multiple platform methods.The gene and protein expression of GAP-43 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-blot.Hippocampus slices in rats were observed by immunohistochemistry method. 【Results】 The expression of Gap-43 gene in 48 h sleep deprivation group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05).The expression of GAP-43 protein and its hydrolysis fragment,GAP-43-3 were increased,and the expression of phosphorylation were decreased.But in sleep recovery groups,the expression of GAP-43 protein and GAP-43-3 were decreased,and the expression of phosphorylation were increased.At the same time,the distribution of GAP-43 in rats hippocampus were expanded in 48 h REM sleep deprivation group and 24 h recovery sleep group. 【Conclusions】 The level of GAP-43 expression in rats hippocampus are affected by REM sleep through three ways,transcription,translation and post-translational modification.And finally result in the function of presynaptic regulation in learning and memory.
    Relation ship between heme oxygenase and cytoglobin expression on the hypoxia-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rat
    XIAO Dan-ping,SHI Xue-chuan,YANG Han-hua
    2012, 20(9):  810-813. 
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    【Objective】 To discuss the relation between the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and cytoglobin (CYGB),and whether hemin would reduce the brain damage against hypoxic-ischemic damage. 【Methods】 SD rats of 7-day old were divided into 5 groups randomly,including control group,sham-operated group,HIBD group,HIBD +Hemin group,and HIBD+ZnPP group.The rats of HIBD+Hemin group,HIBD group and HIBD+ZnPP group were given Hemin,normal saline or ZnPP 12 hours before the operation.The rats of three last groups were made for HIBD model.All the groups were killed at 0 h,24 h,48 h after HIBD.At 0 h,24 h,48 h after hypoxic-ischemic,observed the protein expression of HO-1 and CYGB in the brain. 【Results】 The protein expression of HO-1 and CYGB in all HIBD model groups were increased as time gone on.At any time after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage the expression of HO-1 and CYGB in the HIBD model groups were more than those in sham-operated group and control group.And in three HIBD model groups the expression of HO-1 and CYGB were showed by immunohistochemistry:HIBD+Hemin group>HIBD group>HIBD+ZnPP group,comparison of the three groups was with significant difference.The expression of HO-1 and CYGB had positive correlations in contex and hipppcampi in five groups.The relative factors r at 0h after HIBD were 0.687~0.916,24 h after HIBD were 0.473~0.903,48 h after were 0.659~0.962.The contex also had similar result. 【Conclusions】 Hemin which was the abduction of HO-1 could increase the expression of HO-1 in contex and hippocampus of HIBD+Hemin group.ZnPP which was the depressor of HO could decrease the expression of HO-1 of the HIBD+ZnPP group.The expression of HO-1 and CYGB was consistency,and they may have clear positive correlation.
    Study of the amniotic fluid lamellar body count about prediction in preterm infants lung maturity
    ZHU Jin-qiu,LI Man-nong,LI Jia,GUO Fang,LUO Wei-zhen,YANG Yan-bin
    2012, 20(9):  829-831. 
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    【Objectives】 To discuss the clinical value of the lamellar bodies,and to estimate the preterm infants lung maturity. 【Methods】 The lamellar body count of preterm infants was examined for finding the best cut-off value,the positive predictive value,negative predictive value,sensitivity,specificity of lung maturity,especially in gestational age less than 34 weeks. 【Results】 The best cut-off value was ≥98 000/μL lamellar bodies to predict the lung maturity,with a positive predictive value of 27.1%,negative predictive value of 100%,sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 41.9%.With a positive predictive value of 53.6%,negative predictive value of 100%,sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 23.5% in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks.23.5% of preterm infants could avoid intubation and use of the surfactant.The best cut-off value was ≤33 000/μL lamellar bodies to predict the lung immaturity,with a positive predictive value of 46.7.8%,negative predictive value of 96.7%,sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 78.4%.With a positive predictive value of 72%,negative predictive value of 85.7%,sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 70.6% in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks.70.6% of preterm infants could avoid intubation and use of the surfactant.The incidence of RDS was 20% if the suspicious value between 33 000~98 000/μL lamellar bodies. 【Conclusion】 Lamellar body count is a good screening test for predicting the degree of neonatal lung maturity.
    Clinical research of allergen skin prick test in Conghua children with asthma
    LIU Jin-hui,FU Ying,LI Dong-mei,CAI Qi,ZHANG Tao,CHEN Wei-rong
    2012, 20(9):  832-834. 
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    【Objective】 To learn from the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in urbanized areas of major allergens and their characteristics,and to guide the selection of specific immunotherapy target. 【Method】 382 cases of bronchial asthma in children in remission were given skin prick test,with Germany's Merck Group A Luoge ingestion and inhalation group reagents,histamine solution as a positive control,normal saline as a negative control. 【Results】 Asthma,skin prick test positive children was 88.5%.Inhaled allergens positive rate of 81.2%,inhaled allergens to dust mites and house dust mite-positive rate in the high,respectively 77.2% and 71.2%;ingestion of allergens positive rate of 32.7%,ranking the first two 19.9% for shrimp,peanuts,6.3%.Inhaled allergens in the older and younger age group,difference was statistically significant (P<0.05),ingestion of allergens in the older and younger age group,difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Asthma or asthma and allergic rhinitis in children were the most common mites between the two groups differences between mites,mold,animal fur class,cockroaches and weeds allergens positive rate were not statistically significant. 【Conclusions】 Conghua region pathogenesis of bronchial asthma inhaled allergens are mainly dust mites,house dust mites,food allergens are mainly into the shrimp,peanuts.Children aged 3 to 14 increased with age in children with asthma,inhaled allergens are more sensitive of common allergens are asthma patients with asthma and rhinitis mainly mites,Followed by mold type,animal fur class,asthma guide provides for the prevention and treatment.
    Epidemiological survey on birth weight in Hainan province
    FAN Li-chun,LI Chao,TANG Cheng-yi
    2012, 20(9):  835-837. 
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    【Objective】 To understand the status and epidemiological characteristics of live birth weight in Hainan province and provide proper intervention methods to decision-making department. 【Methods】 A retrospective survey was used,and data were collected from the medical certificate of birth system of Hainan province. 【Results】 103 627 live births were analyzed and their mean live birth weight was (3 101±442 )g.Live birth weight was higher in the urban areas (3 217 g) than that in the rural area (3 084 g)(t=31.2,P<0.001),the highest in the east areas (3 139 g),middle in the west areas (3 061g) and the lowest in the middle areas (3 057 g)(F=427.1,P<0.001),with a decreasing trend.Live birth weight in the first class (3 137 g),the second-class (3 086 g) and third-class rural areas (3 061 g) decreased significantly(F=131.8,P<0.001).Live birth weight with Han's parents (male 3 172,female 3 055) was the highest and with the parents in minor ethnics (male 3 041,female 2 953) was the lowest.The ratio of low birth weight was lower in the urban areas (4.8%) than that in the rural area (6.1%)(χ2=38.2,P<0.001) and the incidence of fetal macrosomia was higher in the urban areas (5.2%) than that in the rural area (2.5%)(χ2=327.5,P<0.001). 【Conclusions】 Generally,the average live birth weight in Hainan province was lower than WHO standard.A big difference in the average live birth weight between regions with varied economic development and health care condition was observed.An intervention measure should be implemented in the poverty-stricken rural areas to increase their average live birth weight.
    Study of relationship between trace and major elements in blood of children with asthma
    HU Yu-sheng,XU Qiao-lan,YANG Dai-xiu,CHENG Yan,YE Wei-ling,ZHOU Li
    2012, 20(9):  838-840. 
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    【Objective】 To observe the contents change of zinc,ferrum,calcium,magnesium,copper,lead,manganese and selenium in blood of children with asthma,and explore significance in pathogenesis. 【Method】 1 986 children with asthma were selected as observing group and 856 normal children were randomly chosen as control.Serum zinc,ferrum,calcium,magnesium,copper,lead,manganese and selenium were detected and compared between the two groups. 【Results】 Serum zinc,ferrum and calcium in the asthma group were obviously lower than those in the control group,and serum lead in the asthma group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).There were no significance differences between the two groups of serum copper,magnesium,selenium,manganese (P all>0.05).Asthma in an acute attack,blood content of zinc,calcium were lower than those in remission(P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Microelement zinc,ferrum and calcium deficiency and increased lead plays an important role in the occurrence and development process of children asthma,which may be an important reason for immune function reduction and immune regulation disturbance.More attention should be paid to the relationship between microelement in blood and the prevention and the cure of excessive lead when we treat the children with asthma.
    Analysis of clinical characteristics and plasma level of mannose-binding lectin in 68 children with febrile convulsion
    WANG Chao-qian,HUA Chun-zhen,LUO Qiao-er,WANG Qi-jing,DAI Kai-li,HUANG Xing-xing,YANG Qin-shu
    2012, 20(9):  841-844. 
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    【Objective】 To analyze the clinical characteristics of febrile convulsion (FC) occurred in children and study the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels in plasma at both acute and convalescent stages in the case group. 【Methods】 Plasma samples were separated from whole blood which was collected from children with FC at the acute and convalescent stages during August 2010 to July 2011.The MBL concentrations were measured by ELISA method and the SPSS 11.0 software was used in the study. 【Results】 Among all 68 cases,The mean MBL levels were (595±559)ng/mL at acute stage and (585±466)ng/mL in recovery stage,and no significant difference was found between the two groups (Z=0.207,P=0.836).However,there was a significant correlation of the MBL levels between the two stages (r=0.809,P<0.01).29.4% of all individuals had low MBL levels less than 200 ng/mL at convalescent stage.Acute reaction of MBL was observed in 38.2% children with FC.No correlation was found between MBL levels and CRP levels(r =0.15,P=0.22).It was found that 89.7% of the FC children was caused by acute upper respiratory tract infection.The creatine kinase-MB exceeding normal value was found in 54.1% of all individuals. 【Conclusion】 As a whole,convulsion acting as a kind of stress,had no significant effects on the MBL level in vivo.
    Anorectal motility spectrum characteristics and risk factors of functional constipation in children
    LIU Yan-qi,SU Bing-zhong
    2012, 20(9):  844-846. 
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    【Objective】 To investigate the characteristics of anorectal motility spectrum and the risk factors of functional constipation (FC) children,and in order to provide a scientific basis of etiology and precaution for children. 【Method】 Compare the characteristics of anorectal motility spectrum of FC children and healthy children,and the clinical data of these children diagnosed FC were analysed. 【Results】 No statistical differences were found in the anorectal stationary pressure of between two groups.But maximal systolic pressure and maximal tolerated volume between the two groups were significantly different.Factors including the poor balanced diet,excessive intake of fried food,excessive intake of meat,obesity,genetic genes,did not eat or occasionally some vegetables were significantly associated with the presence of chronic constipation. 【Conclusions】 Abnormal features exit in the anorectal motility spectrum of the children with functional eonstipation.Take some target actions and make early treatment could protect children from FC.
    Clinical application value of gualitative assessment of general movements in high-risk follow-up quality evaluation
    YANG Zhong-xiu,ZHU Ping,WANG Yu-qing,WANG Ji-ping,QIU Ai-zhen,QI Bo-xiang,YUAN Huan-xia
    2012, 20(9):  847-849. 
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    【Objective】 To investigate the clinical application value of qualitative assessment of general movements for high risk infants follow-up. 【Methods】 253 high risk infants follow-up in rehabilitation department were accepted the qualitative assessment of general movements respectively in the twist movements period and fidgety movements period.Motor developmental outcome was defined by clinical diagnosis and Peabody Motor Develoment Scale assessment after 12-month-age(corrected age of premature infants).Its application value was analysed. 【Results】 The monotonicity of twist movements period assessment value was not high,only the spasm -synchronous movements had prediction value of synchronicity.The predictive validity of cerebral palsy was as follows:sensitivity 72%,specificity 99%,positive predictive value 95%,and negative predictive value 92%.Fidgety movements lack in the irregular movement phase had the high predictive value of fidgety movements.The predictive validity of cerebral palsy was as follows:sensitivity 100%,specificity 96%,positive predictive value 86%,and negative predictive value 100%. 【Conclusions】 The spasm-synchronous movements of twist movements period have prediction value of synchronicity.Fidgety movements assessment for high risk infants have predictive value of motor developmental outcome,especially with cerebral palsy,clinical use should be extended in high risk infants follow-up as evaluation tool.
    Effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old
    MENG Zhao-xue,LI Rong-ping,CHEN Lin-ying
    2012, 20(9):  849-852. 
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    【Objective】 To explore the effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old and to provide theoretical basis of early education on promoting the psychological and intellectual development of infants. 【Methods】 200 normal 6-month-old infants were assigned to early education group (100 subjects) and the control group (100 subjects).All children of the two groups were assessed by Carey's Children Temperamental Questionnaires. 【Results】 There was significant difference of the temperamental types between the two groups (all P<0.05).The factor of mothers with low degree and low family income had negative effect on the temperament of infants.The early education could decrease the number of infants of difficult-to-raise type. 【Conclusion】 Early education has positive effect on the children's temperament,and promotes the development of infants.
    Epidemiological analysis on the chickenpox epidemic from 2009 to 2010 in Pudong new area,Shanghai
    LIU Han-zhao,ZHAO Xi-chang,XIAO Shao-tan
    2012, 20(9):  853-855. 
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    【Objective】 To analyze the chickenpox epidemic of Pudong New Area and provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control work. 【Methods】 6 032 chickenpox cases were analyzed of 2009 to 2010 in Pudong New Area by Retrospective analysis methods and SPSS 13.0 statistical tools used to deal with the data(meaningful:P<0.05),and compared the rate of groups by chi-square test. 【Results】 A total of 6 032 cases of chickenpox in the Pudong New Area were reported (incidence:64.73/105).The incidence of local citizens were 79.19/105 and foreign residents were 44.40/105.Children below 15 years old accounted for 69.65% of the total cases.School students accounted for 53.88%. 【Conclusions】 The incidence of local citizens is higher than that of foreign residents,the incidence of chickenpox tended to be seasonal.Winter and spring are high-occurrence seasons for this disease.Children below 15 years old are the main infected age and school students are easily to be infected.
    Analysis of anemia status among 141 331 cases of infants and young children in out-patient department
    SUN Bao-ling,WANG Luo-ping,MA Li-juan,LI Jing,DAI Yao-hua
    2012, 20(9):  857-859. 
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    【Objective】 To analyze the anemia status among infants and young children in out-patient department of hospital from Beijing area resident population. 【Methods】 A retrospective analysis of January to December 2011 in our hospital,141 331 cases of 6 months~3 years old in children with peripheral blood or blood routine test results of five classification.In accordance with the hemoglobin of less than 110 g/L for anemia screening criteria,MCV and MCHC level differences were screening criteria of anemia type.The population were divided into 6 months age group,1 age group and 2 age group and statistically analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that total anemia prevalence rate was 10.29% from the survey population in infants and young children,in which iron-deficiency anemia was accounted for 12.43%,macrocytic anemia accounted for 0.24%,normocytic anemia accounting for 17.03% and Simple microcytic anemia accounting for 69.78%.Anemia prevalence rate of 6 months of age (from 6~12 months) group was 22.1%,1 age group was 8.52% as well as 2 age group was 1.97%,respectively.The prevalence of anemia was 9.39% in mild anemia of 13 276 patients,the prevalence of anemia was 0.88% in moderate anemia of 1 247 patients;severe anemia was found in 19 cases. 【Conclusion】 The prevalence of anemia among children with 6 month old group was the highest prevalence of anemia.Mild anemia prevalence ranks first.The result of the statistical analysis data would be provided as much help as infants and young children nutrition and health intervention experiment basis in out-patient department.
    Study on monitoring and managemest system of high risk infants in community
    SONG Feng-ling,ZHAO Dong-mei,LI Ling,FENG Bing,QU Jing-shi
    2012, 20(9):  862-864. 
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    【Objective】 To explore the management pattern applys to high risk infants in community screening,monitoring and intervention. 【Methods】 High risk infants monitoring network was established.Management program included screening,registering,monitoring,referral and rehabilitation.When children were born,community physicians were responsible for there screening,monitoring and referral.340 high risk infants were divided into system intervention group and non system intervention group,their neuromotor development and intellectual development were regular assessed.T-test and χ2-test were used for statistical analysis. 【Results】 High risk infants community management coverage was up to 94.44%.System intervention group developmental quotient was obvious higher and neuromotor abnormalities was significantly lower than non system intervention group. 【Conclusion】 The key to improve children's psychological development and reduce cerebral palsy and intellectual disability was to establish high risk infants community monitoring network and formulate intervention system apply to community.