Table of Content

    10 June 2016, Volume 24 Issue 6
    Intervention on the loneliness and inferiority among deaf-mute children in rural southern China.
    ZHANG Yan-zhen,ZHANG Wei,WANG Ying.
    2016, 24(6):  567-569.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-03
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    Objectives To evaluate the deaf mute children's loneliness,inferiority complex situation,and verify effect of structured group psychological counseling combined with non structured group psychological counseling intervention method. Methods The sample included 163 deaf-mute children in grades four to nine from rural areas of southern China who completed Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS) and Feeling of Inferiority Scale (FIS revision).Deaf-mute children in the intervention group(n=68) were compared to children in the control group (n=68).The psychological intervention combined structure group counseling and non-structured group counseling lasted 8 months. Results The loneliness score among deaf-mute children was significantly higher than the normal children's loneliness norm.Sense of inferiority and loneliness was significantly correlated (r=0.819,P<0.01).For the post-test results,after the intervention,the grand means of both loneliness and inferiority were significantly reduced (P<0.001).Differences were not significant for the post-test results among the control group. Conslusion The intervention is effective in reducing loneliness and inferiority in the deaf-mute children.
    Reliability and validity of Baby Pediatric Symptom Checklist.
    REN Fang,ZHANG Jin-song.
    2016, 24(6):  570-572.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-04
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    Objective To introduce the baby pediatric symptom checklist(BPSC)into Chinese version and analyse its reliability and validity.Methods Totally 302 samples younger than 18 months of BPSC were enrolled in Shanghai and 30 samples were re-tested the reliability at interval of two to four weeks.Exploratory factor analysis was adopted.Results In Chinese version all the original 12 items were kept and three factors were extracted:difficulty with routines,inflexibility and irritability,which three factors accumulated 55.80% of the total variance.Factor loadings of items were 0.49~0.78.The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.75.The testretest reliability was 0.77(P<0.01).The BPSC total score was positive correlate with the behavior problem subscale score of Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA),and the correlation coefficient was 0.41(P=0.001).Conclusion s The Chinese version of BPSC has good reliability and validity.It can be used to assess anxiety sensitivity of children and adolescents.
    Study of the relationship between resilience and subjective well-being of junior high school left-behind children.
    FENG Xi-zhen,ZHANG Lu,SHAO Hong-hong.
    2016, 24(6):  573-575.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-05
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    Objective To explore the relationship between resilience and subjective well-being of junior high school left-behind student. Method In this study,Adolescent Resilience Scale and Adolescent subjective well-being Scale were used to investigate 981 rural junior high school students from Henan province. Results There were no significant difference on resilience and its factors between left-behind children and non left-behind children,except the factor of family support.And for life satisfaction,non left-behind children were more satisfied than left-behind children,and the left-behind children experienced more intense negative emotions.There was a significant positive correlation between resilience and subjective well-being,so was resilience and positive emotions;and there was a significant negative correlation between resilience and negative emotions.For the left-behind children,resilience could significantly predict the level of one's subjective well-being. Conclusion Junior high school left-behind children have low level of subjective well-being,and resilience has a certain impact on subjective well-being.
    A control study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and aripiprazole treatment for tic disorders in children.
    WU Chuan-jun,CHEN Yan-hui.
    2016, 24(6):  576-578.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-06
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    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and aripiprazole treatment in children with tic disorders. Methods A randomized,case-controlled clinical trial was designed.Samples were all meet the revised fourth edition of Psychiatric Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 2000(DSM-Ⅳ-TR) diagnostic criteria of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS).Sixty-nine Han Chinese children aged 5 to 16 years old with CTD (n=38) or TS (n=31) were randomly assigned to CES group (n=35) and aripiprazole group (n=34).After 4 weeks treatment,the clinical efficacy and safety were assessed by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale(YGTSS) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale(TESS) respectively. Results There was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05).The YGTSS score in both groups decreased from the second week of treatment.Compared with the aripirazole treatment group,the CES treatment group showed a less decreased YGTSS score[(17.91±10.44)% vs (28.60±12.99)%;P<0.01] by the second week of treatment.Similarly,the decline rate of YGTSS score in CES treatment group[(33.03±19.65) %] was significantly lower than that in aripirazole treatment group[(52.79±22.87)%] by the forth week of treatment(P<0.01).The overall effective rate in the CES and aripiprazole treatment groups was 45.71% and 76.47%,respectively,which was significantly different by 4 weeks after treatment (P<0.05).The incidences of adverse reactions in the CES and aripiprazole groups were separately 14.29% and 11.76%,which had no significant difference (P>0.05).There were also no serious adverse reactions in the two groups. Conclusion s The efficacy of CES may be less and slower than that of aripiprazole.But CES may be a treatment for children with tic disorders because of its certain efficacy and less tolerability.
    Study on family environment influential factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    WANG Feng,DU Ya-song,ZHOU Guo-quan,XIE Hong-tao,LI Ping,LI Ze-bing,
    ZHOU Dan,ZHANG Yan-qiu,XIAO Wei-qin,YAN Ya-yun,SUI Ding-zhong,CHEN Yi.
    2016, 24(6):  579-582.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-07
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    Objective To explore the family environment influential factors of school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The survey was made in 103 ADHD children (ADHD group) and 103 matched normal children (control group),children surveyed by Family Environment Scale (FES),general questionnaire and self-designed questionnaire of parental harsh discipline.The relations among family environment and ADHD were analyzed. Results The FES scores of cohesion,expressiveness,intellectual-cultural orientation,active-recreational orientation,organization in ADHD group were statistically lower than those in control group (all P<0.05),while the score of conflict in ADHD group was statistically significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01).Logistic regression analysis indicated that the FES score of cohesion (OR=0.55,P=0.004),expressiveness (OR=0.69,P=0.038) and children having more hobbies (OR=0.51,P=0.000) were protective factors influencing ADHD.Mother spanking children (OR=1.73,P=0.002),children doing homework with their parents (OR=1.66,P=0.004),parental discipline being not consistent (OR=1.55,P=0.047),children being not raised by their parents (OR=1.59,P=0.028) were risk factors influencing ADHD. Conclusion Through the survey,it revealed the existence of non-favourable family circumstances including lower scores of cohesion children having less hobbies,mother spanking children etal in ADHD family maybe closely related with the progress or the cause of ADHD,but it requires further research.
    Analysis of development and assessment of sexual health behavior scale for adolescents inventory.
    ZHANG Yue-zhen,LOU Jiunn-hong.
    2016, 24(6):  583-586.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-08
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    Objective To build the suitable and appropriate measure tool for adolescent sexual health behaviors. Methods A random cluster sampling method was conducted to a total of 386 adolescents (average age 17.2±0.62) and the explorative and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was formed by official scales 20 questions,four factors (condom use factor 1,prevent contact with body fluids of factor 2,sexual self-efficacy of factor 3,to avoid risky behavior of factor 4),could be interpreted as the variance 58.75%,which showed the basic adaptation of the scale of the overall pattern was better; and test-retest reliability factor was between 0.802~0.901,overall coefficient was 0.882,which indicated that the scale had a good internal consistency reliability. Conclusion The adolescent sexual health behaviors constructed scale has good construct validity and reliability for the use of adolescent sexual health behaviors.
    Study on medicine combine with education in primary students with
    attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Jing'an and Putuo district of Shanghai.
    WANG Yu,MA Shi-wei,CHEN Jia-ying,JIANG Lian,HE Lin,ZHENG Xiao-fei,CUI Wen-bin,YU Guang-jun
    2016, 24(6):  587-589.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-09
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    Objective To popularize the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and teach the basic ways of behavior therapy for teachers and parents by medicine combine with education,and thus to improve the medication adherence and remission rate of ADHD. Methods In Jing'an and Putuo district of Shanghai,a random stratified sampling of 2 primary school in large,medium and small school according to the scale,one as control group,another as intervention group,and a total of 5 326 students from one to three grade were screened with Teacher Rating Scale (TRS) and Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ).The positive were informed by "the investigator through telephone to be taken to the designated hospital by parents.Diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition" (DSM-Ⅴ) diagnostic criteria.The Suanson Nolan and Pelham,Version Ⅳ Scale (SNAP-Ⅳ) scale was used for baseline assessment and function assessment after 6 months. Results There were 45.4% teachers and 30.2% parents who thought that ADHD was a disease before training; and there were 73.1% teachers and 59.3% parents after training (P<0.01);There were 32.6% teachers and 20.2% parents who thought that ADHD need medication before training,and there were 57.3% teachers and 41.5% parents after training (P<0.01).There were 68.7% students in intervention group and 34.4% in control with medication for 6 months.After 6 months of intervention,the remission rate was 59.6% in intervention group and 31.1% in control group (P<0.01).The factors influencing the medication adherence were training of parent,training of teacher,the family income,medical treatment charge of payment.The factors influencing remission rate were training of teacher,training of parents,age,distance of medical treatment. Conclusion The modle of medicine combine with education improves the popularity of ADHD for teachers and parents,and meanwhile improves medication adherence and remission rate significantly.
    The eye movements towards emotional face of the children with autism spectrum disorders.
    FAN Yue-bo,CAO Wei,HUANG Dan
    2016, 24(6):  590-593.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-10
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    Object To explore the eye movements track of the emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) by the movement technique. Methods Totally 14 children with ASD and 14 typical developed(TD) children participated our study.5 areas of interest (AOIs:upper screen,low screen,mouth,eyes and non-core areas of the face) were defined.60 pictures contained 5 types of emotional face(angry,fear,sad,surprise and neural,12 pictures for each type) and picture of soft candy were the probe stimulus.The ability of children with ASD were assessed by Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (GARS-2) and Autism Quotient (AQ).Eye movements were measured by ASL eyetrack6000.Participants were informed to response (press "1") to the soft candy immediately and watch the faces with no response. Results Compared with TD children,children with ASD showed significantly less numbers and durations of fixation on the face.However,both groups tended to spend significantly more time looking at the non-core area,and spent the less time looking at the upper area of the screen.Correlation analysis showed that fixation to eye presented positive correlation with behavior scores of GARS,and the fixation to mouth presented negative correlation with social scores of GARS. Conclusion In the present study,children with ASD showed significantly less fixations on the emotional face with TD,but we cannot find any different of the fixation between eye and mouth.This finding supports that ASD and TD have the similar eye movement patterns but less fixation numbers and fixation time.Also if ASD spends more time looking at mouth,they show greater social ability,and if more time at eye,greater behavior problems.
    Study on sensory nerve conduction in children with sensory integration dysfunction.
    YANG Zhi-ying,XUE Bo,JING Li,LI Lin-wei,HE Heng-xia,
    CHEN Xiang-li,LU Yu-qun,WANG Qin,FANG Xu-zhong
    2016, 24(6):  594-596.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-11
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    Objective To quantitatively evaluate the difference of sensory nerve fiber conduction between normal and sensory integrative dysfunction (SID) children. Methods The current perception threshold current perception threshold (CPT) was used with 3 types of current frequency (2 000,250 Hz and 5 Hz) to test the bilateral trigeminal nerve,median nerve and superficial peroneal nerve thick myelinated fiber (Aβ),fine myelinated fiber (Aδ) and unmyelinated fibers (C) of 128 cases of SID and 96 cases of normal children. Results 1)The abnormalities of SID:The paraesthesia of the trigeminal nerve was with the highest abnormal rate (left 63.28%,right 72.66%).The percentage of paraesthesia of the trigeminal nerve (both sides) and the median nerve was statistically significant (P<0.05) in 3 types of current frequency (2 000,250Hz and 5Hz).There was no statistical significance between those 3 types of current frequency in the superficial peroneal nerve.2)The difference of CPT in different parts of the body between the two groups:The CPT of SID children was higher than the contrast group under 2 000 Hz,250 Hz.The difference was statistically significant under 2 000 Hz (P<0.05).3)The correlation of the sensory integrative score with CPT:The sensory integrative score was negatively correlated with CPT under 2 000 Hz,250Hz (P<0.05). Conclusion Comparing with normal children,the children with SID have abnormality in sensory nerve conduction,and the thick myelinated fiber (Aβ) show more frequency of abnormality than the thin myelinated fiber (Aδ).
    Study on mechanism of enriched environment impaired learning and memory deficits
    induced by maternal chronic stress rat during pregnancy.
    GUAN Su-zhen,ZHANG Li,LIU Ji-wen.
    2016, 24(6):  597-600.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-12
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism on enriched environment repair learning and memory deficits in offspring rats induced by maternal chronic stress during pregnancy from changes of hippocampal nuclear transcripyion factor-κB (NF-κB). Methods A rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy was mating from 3rd day during subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.Learning and memory responses were tested using Morris water maze and Y-maze.The expression of NF-κB mRNA and protein were respectively measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting in hippocampus. Results An elevation was observed in the plasma corticosterone level of rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy and indicated model group rats in the stress state.Enriched environment treatment decreased offspring's plasma corticosterone level (P<0.05).The time of escape latency and the number of crossing platform of Morris water maze,the number of required training and the rate of correct response in Y-maze were improved ( all P<0.05).Enriched environment boosted the average expression of hippocampal NF-κB mRNA and protein in the offspring of maternal stress during pregnancy (P<0.05). Conclusion The decrease in learning and memory of offspring can be repaired by enriched environment,the mechanism is related to reduced maternal plasma corticosterone and hippocampal NF-κB of offspring rats.
    Effect of rhGH on thyroid function and its clinical significance in children with growth hormone deficiency.
    ZHENG Cheng-ran,BAN Bo,ZHANG Mei,SUN Hai-ling,LI Ping,WANG Na,SHAO Qian.
    2016, 24(6):  616-618.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-18
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    Objective To explore the short-term effect of China-made recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on thyroid function in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and its clinical significance. Methods Totally 72 euthyroid children of GHD underwent rhGH replacement therapy.Serum FT3,FT4,TSH were separately assessed before and after 3,6 months of treatment.The height and body mass were measured by the same measuring tool,and then the growth velocity (GV) and the height standard deviation score (HtSDS) were calculated.The changes of thyroid hormone levels and its correlation with clinical index were observed before and after treatment. Results 1) The levels of FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratios both showed statistically significant increases at 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05),however,compared with before treatment,the differences of FT4 and TSH levels were both not statistically significant (P>0.05).2) At 3 and 6 months after treatment,Ht,HtSDS,GV were significantly higher than those of before treatment (P<0.001).3) The entire level of FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratios were both positively correlated with GV and HtSDS before and after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion The rhGH administration affects the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism,and the increase of serum FT3 level may contribute to the growth of GHD children.
    Relationship between intervention effect in the autistic children and the changes of parenting locus of control of the parents.
    ZHANG Li-li,LIU Yi-mei,WU Yan-ling,WEI Yan.
    2016, 24(6):  619-621.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-19
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    Objective To analyse the changes of parenting locus of control(PLOC) in the autistic childrens' parents,and to determine the correlation between the intervention effect in autistic children and PLOC of parents. Methods Data were obtained from 40 autistic children and 80 parents,Childhood Autism Rating Scale(CARS),Autism Behavior Checklist(ABC),PLOC were evaluated two times.The first time was in January 2009 to December 2011,the second was in December 2014 to March 2015.The correlation coefficients between PLOC and CARS,ABC scores in autistic children were calculated. Results The score of CARS and ABC in re-intervention had a remarkable decrease (P<0.01) than those in pre-intervention.There were no differences at total PLOC and five factors between the two assessment.PLOC score,factor 1,factor 5 in mother and PLOC score,factor 5 in father were related to the CARS,ABC scores' changes. Conclusion s Intervention effect of autistic child is significant.Many problems in child education are still found in the parents.The education attitude of parents would impact on the effect of intervention in autistic child.
    Study on mechanism of youths' identification with parental attitudes and behaviors on sports.
    ZOU Min,SUN Hong-wei.
    2016, 24(6):  622-624.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-20
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    Objective To explore the mechanism of youths' identification with parental attitudes and behaviors on sports. Method Teenagers in high schools were investigated for attitudes and behaviors on sports among their parents and themselves using self-design questionnaires,and valid data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results The most significant variables as predictors of youths' sports attitudes were the paternal cognition on sports (Beta=0.757,t=12.065,P<0.01) and the maternal affective dispositions (Beta=0.154,t=2.461,P<0.05); the most significant variable as predictor of male youths' sports attitudes was the paternal sports attitudes(Beta=0.473,t=2.019,P<0.05),while the most significant variable as predictor of female youths' sports attitudes was the maternal sports attitudes(Beta=0.538,t=2.723,P<0.01); the most significant variable as predictor of male youths' sports behaviors was the paternal sports behaviors (Beta=0.382,t=2.337,P<0.05),while the most significant variable as predictor of female youths' sports behaviors was the maternal sports behaviors(Beta=0.332,t=2.790,P<0.01). Conclusion Teenagers are more willing to identify with a parent of the same gender on sports attitudes and behaviors.
    Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Biases Toward Children With Psychological and Behavioral Disorders Scale.
    JIANG Lian,ZHOU Ying,WANG Guo-cheng,YANG Zhi,YUAN Le-xin,TANG Qiu-bi.
    2016, 24(6):  625-627.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-21
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    Objective To translate and establish the reliability and validity of Chinese version of Biases Toward Children with Psychological and Behavioral Disorders Scale(BTCW PABOS). Methods By forward and back forward translation of this scale from English into Chinese,a cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore its reliability and validity among Chinese medical staff,teachers and social workers. Results A total of 415 participants joined in this study.The Chinese version of this scale consists of 20 items.The Cronbach's α coefficient for BTCWPABDS was 0.83 and the test-retest reliabilities of the whole scale was 0.76 after two weeks.Construct validity of this scale was established by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).By EFA,there were two-factor resolution and its factor loadings ranged from 0.26~0.66.The composite reliabilities of two factors were 0.81,0.66.By CFA,these two factor model fitted well:NFI=0.84,IFI=0.93,TLI=0.90,CFI=0.93,χ2/df=1.67,RMSEA=0.048,all met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. Conclusion The Chinese version of BTCWPABDS had good reliability and validity to evaluate the bias toward children with psychological and behavior disorders.
    Childhood emotional neglect and associations with health-harming behaviors in female adolescents:survey in Beijing.
    YU Bu-yi,CHEN Jing-qi,JIN Yi-chen,ZHAO Xiao-xia,FENG Ya-nan.
    2016, 24(6):  628-631.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-22
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    Objective To explore the prevalence of childhood emotional neglect and its association with health-harming behaviors in female adolescents,to provide evidence for prevention of child emotional neglect. Methods A cross sectional study and cluster sampling method was used in female adolescents from a college in Beijing.Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires. Results About quarter of the 826 respondents reported childhood emotional neglect experiences.After controlling for demographic effects,compared with the respondents who reported no childhood emotional neglect experiences,those who reported childhood emotional neglect experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviors,e.g.depression,attempted suicide,suicide plan,fighting,drunkenness,smoking and dietary behavior disorders. Conclusion s A girl who survives childhood emotional neglect is at increased risk of developing health-harming behaviors during adolescence.Prevention of child emotional neglect to reduce heath-harming behaviors in adolescents needs large-scale deployment in China.
    Analysis of emotional and behavioral problems and its influencing factors of preschool children in Tongling city.
    FANG Hong-ying,TANG Yin-xia.
    2016, 24(6):  632-634.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-23
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    Objective To understand the situation of emotional and behavioral problems and its influencing factors of preschool children in Tongling city,and to provide the method for the intervention. Method A total of 2 408 children in nurseries who were sampled from Tongling city in stratified and cluster sampled were investigated by general situation questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Result The detection rate of the score of SDQ and 5 factors were 11.5% and 48.2%.Scores of difficulties,conduct problems,hyperactivity,peer interaction problems,the prosocial behavior of boys were higher than girls (P<0.05).The scores of all age groups of the total difficulties,conduct problems,hyperactivity,attention deficit,peer interaction problems and prosocial behavior had statistically significant differences(P<0.05).By logistic regression analysis,the risk factors of children's emotional and behavioral problems were:the smoking of the father,male,fetal distress,not core family.The mother of highly educated was the protection factor.When children were younger,the risk of emotional and behavioral problems of them was higher. Conclusion The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children are outstanding,and the corresponding measures should be taken to intervene.
    Relationship between high school students' negative life events,cognitive emotion regulation and depression.
    ZHAO Lian-jun,WU Guo-lan,GE Wei,LI Zhao-jun,LI Jing.
    2016, 24(6):  635-637.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-24
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    Objective To explore the relationships between the negative life events,cognitive emotion regulation and depression in high school students,and to provide basis for students' mental health improvement. Method A sample of 184 high school students were surveyed by using questionnaires on the self-rated Negative Life Events (NLE),Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ),and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results The highest scores were refocus on planning (14.36±3.48) and positive reappraisal (13.92±3.65),while the lowest scores were catastrophizing and self-blame in the high school students.Pearson correlation analysis showed that the numbers of NLE had significant positive correlations with depressive symptoms,catastrophizing and self-blame (r=0.26,0.19,0.26,respectively,P<0.01),and the cognitive emotion regulation strategies of rumination,catastrophizing,other-blame and self-blame had significantly positive correlations with depressive symptoms (r=0.45,0.44,0.25 and 0.25,respectively,P<0.01).Hierarchical regression analysis showed that NLE entered on the first step were a significant predictor of depressive symptoms (P<0.01),Rumination and catastrophizing entered on the second step were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms,and these two variables explained 22.3% of the variance. Conclusion Negative life events and depression are closely related,however,the use of maladaptive strategies of rumination and catastrophizing might play a more importance role in depressive symptoms.
    Survey on the nutrition status of Tibetan children aged under seven years in Sa'gya county.
    YANG Qi,ZHANG Ying,ZHU Guo-wei,XU Xiu.
    2016, 24(6):  638-641.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-25
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    Objective To understand the nutrition status of Tibetan children aged under 7 years in Sa'gya county. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 1 884 children aged under 7 years was conducted in Sa'gya county.Height and weight of all subjects,hemoglobin of randomized selected 6 months to 6 years children were measured.Malnutrition and anemia were diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. Results Prevalence of stunting and underweight for Tibetan children aged under 7 years were 30.31% and 28.87%,respectively.The difference was significant between males and females.The 1~2 years group had highest level of malnutrition.Prevalence of anemia was 48.22% for Tibetan children between the ages of 6 months and 6 years.6 months to 1-year-old group had highest level of anemia.The prevalence of anemia decreased with increasing age. Conclusion s With the evidence of our study,the nutrition status of Tibetan children under the age of 7 years in Sa'gya County is poor.Malnutrition and anemia are in common.More attention should be paid to promote the health status of them.
    A community intervention study of parents-grandparents coparenting in Beijing urban area.
    LI Dong-yang,WANG Zheng-yan,ZHU Xue-na,LIANG Ai-min.
    2016, 24(6):  642-645.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-26
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    Objective To observe the effect of community intervention of parent-child relationship on parents-grandparents coparenting in Beijing urban area,and provide a basis for appropriate community care model on children mental health care. Methods From December 2013 to March 2014,a total of 203 children aged from 4 to 11 months old and their families in 4 communities of two districts in Beijing were studied.4 communities were randomly divided into study group and control group.In the study group,children's caregivers were given personalized skills guidance and counseling,and were given lectures on children health care and parent-child relationship once a month.Children's caregivers of the control group were given routine child health examination and guidance.A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate all participants after 1 year. Results The existing prominent problems of parents-grandparents coparenting in families of both groups were lack of communication and coparenting conflict.The proportions of families in which grandparents supported (P< 0.01) and cooperated (P=0.046) with children's parents in the study group were higher than that of the control group.The proportions of families in which grandparents had disagreements (P=0.046) with children's parents and disparaged (P=0.04) them in the study group were lower than that of the control group. Conclusion s Community intervention of parent-child relationship improves the cooperation of grandparents and parents,reduces the differences of child rearing,and the behavior undermining parent-child relationships.However,its effect on other dimensions of coparenting is not significantly.It is recommended to further improve the community intervention strategies of parent-child relationship.
    Correlation analysis about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children's social function and microelement of blood.
    XIAO Ge-fei,ZHAO Yan-ling,CHEN Qiang,HU Ling-ling,ZHOU Yu-qiu,ZHOU Xiang,LI Hua.
    2016, 24(6):  646-648.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-27
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    Objective To analyse the correlation between blood microelement and the social function of ADHD children,and provide a scientific evidence for ameliorating the social functional of attention dificit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children by nutrition. Methods The social function of 144 ADHD children were evaluated by Weiss Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form(WFIRS-P).The levels of microelement including copper,zinc,calcium,magnesium,iron,phosphorus and lead in blood were checked,and calculated the copper/zinc ratio too.Then the correlation of WFIRS-P scores and microelement level was analysed by statistical methods. Results Through the statistical results by t-test,we found the levels of serum zinc (P<0.05) and magnesium (P<0.01) in ADHD children were significantly lower than those in the normal control group,but the others between the two groups and copper/zinc ratio had no significant differences.By the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis,we found that the concentration changes of serum iron associated with ADHD children's risky activities (P<0.05).And the other elements had no significant correlation between social function including family,learning and school,life skills,self-concept and social activities in ADHD children. Conclusion s Zinc,magnesium may be the protection factors of ADHD children.Iron has influence on the risky activities of ADHD children.Imbalance of microelement will cause damage to the social function of ADHD children.
    Research on household second-hand smoke exposure among school-aged children
    and their self-protection behavior in Guangzhou and Foshan.
    SUN Bing-xi,HUANG Pei-di,ZHAO Meng-zhu,YAO Yan,ZHOU Xuan.
    2016, 24(6):  649-651.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-28
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    Objective To investigate the status of household second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure among school-aged children in Guangzhou and Foshan and their self-protection behavior. Method Totally 385 school-age children in Grades 4 and above from primary schools in Guangzhou and Foshan were investigated with self-designed questionnaires. Results The surveyed results showed that the smoking attempt rate of the school-aged children was 9.2%,and the boys' smoking-attempting rate was significantly higher than that of the girls' (χ2=9.269,P=0.002).46.8% of school-aged children were living with at least 1 smoker,and 42.6% of smokers smoked almost every day.Second-hand smoke in the house could come from family members as well as guests,nearly 30% of the school-aged children were exposed to second-hand smoke from guests in one month,42.6% of the families even offered guests cigarettes.Except in houses,the exposure also took place in private cars.But most of children didn't approve of smoking and held that second-hand smoke is harmful to them.Faced with second-hand smoke exposure from family members,98.8% of school-age children took active or passive self-protective action,some had advised household smokers to quit smoking.Girls were more likely to persuade family members to give up smoking(χ2=7.161,P= 0.012).Almost 70% of smokers had positive changes after their children's persuasion and 8.8% of them had quit smoking. Conclusion The present situation of the school-age children's exposure to second-hand smoke is still serious.However,children have certain self-protection ability to passive smoking and need more gender-specific guidance.Attention should be paid to combining children's and parents' strengths to create "Smoke-Free Homes" on tobacco control in China.
    Analysis on the characteristics of using smart mobile device in junior primary school students of Changning district,Shanghai.
    LI Yu-hua,HU Jia,XIA Qing-hua,NIU Chun-jin.
    2016, 24(6):  652-654.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-29
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    Objective To study the condition of using smart mobile device in junior primary school students of Changning district,Shanghai. Methods Cluster sampling was used to conduct a questionnaire survey on students of the first and second grade from two schools in Changning district.The students were surveyed about the condition of using smart mobile device. Results The rate of smart mobile device usage in junior primary school students was 83.50%.The major type was tablet computer or smart phone,most students used it at home,and the average use age was 2.83 years.The main use time everyday was less than 1 hour in the workday,while within 2 hours on the weekend.Mostly rest was once irregularly or within 1 hour.The primary purpose of using smart mobile device was playing games or searching informations.The intention was different between different genders (χ2=22.323,P<0.001).Most students used smart mobile device by the way of negotiation with the parents or within the fixed time.The arrange was different between different grades (χ2=13.489,P=0.004).The rate of addiction to smart mobile device in junior primary school students was 1.89%,with boys higher than the girls (χ2=7.672,P=0.006). Conclusion The application of smart mobile device in junior primary school students of Changning district is rather widespread,parents and the society should pay more attention.
    Etiological and effect analysis of 64 children with global developmental delay.
    KE Hai-juan,TANG Jiu-lai.
    2016, 24(6):  658-661.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-31
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    Objective To analyze the main causes and early comprehensive intervention effects of the patients with Global developmental delay (GDD),and determine the in neurobehavioral development prognosis of them. Methods Totally 33 cases GDD hospitalized children with comprehensive intervention in the GDD were early intervention group,31 non-hospitalized cases that were for only the family intervention without comprehensive intervention,were the control group.The etiology was analyzed,and individual treatment was plan designed according to different etiology.Before and after the intervention,the GESELL Developmental Scale was used to determine the developmental quotient(DQ) for the statistical analysis,and the efficacy evaluation. Results Before intervention,there was no significant difference between the two groups.6 months later,the DQ of the intervention group was (72.20±15.56),which was significantly higher than that (59.98±14.61) before intervention and that (62.51±13.95) of the control group,the effect of the intervention group was significantly better than the control group(P<0.05),there were statistically significant differences.Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE),premature birth,intrauterine growth retardation and neonatal asphyxia were the common causes of GDD.The DQ in GDD children with single pathogenic factor was better than that in children with multiple factors. Conclusion s Comprehensive early intervention and individual treatment plan can significantly improve the DQ and the prognosis of the children with GDD.Strengthening perinatal health care has great significance to prevent and treat the GDD.
    Supervision on the neuropsychological behavior development of children with preterm and low birth weight.
    YOU Jia,WANG Su-qing,WANG Jin,YANG Xiao-yan,WU Jun-ya.
    2016, 24(6):  662-664.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-32
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    Objective To explore the neuropsychological behavior development states of children with preterm and low birth weight,make early intervene and improve the long-term outcome. Methods All the 14 community health centres of Lianhu district and Beilin district in Xi'an were chosen as the research sites.The resident population of children with preterm and low birth weight was 303,born between October 1st,2011 and September 30th,2013.According to the parents' informed consent,one hundred and forty-four cases (144/303)were included as the the study group and based on random principle,52 term-born children of the same age from the same community were chosen as the control group.The prevalences of cerebral palsy,motor delay and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared between the two groups as well as the level of mental development. Results Among the study group,54 children scored abnormally in GESELL Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) scale.There were 10 cases diagnosed ASD,2 cases with cerebral palsy (type spastic),and 11 cases with motor delay.In the control group,3 children showed abnormal results in GESELL scale.Only 1 child was diagnosed motor delay,nobody was with cerebral palsy or ASD.Compared scores of GESELL scale,the scores of the study group were obviously lower than those of the control group,the differences between the two groups were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion s Children with preterm and low birth weight are at high risk of the neural psychological behavior disorders.In the early development,more measures should be taken to supervise the neural and behavior development of these children,since it plays an important role in prevention of the neuropsychological behavior disorders.
    Analysis on the behavior problem screening of children from 3 to 17 years old in Baoan district,Shenzhen.
    HAN Xuan,WANG Chun-li,ZHAN Yi,HONG Qi.
    2016, 24(6):  665-667.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-33
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    Objective To understand the attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) situation of children from 3 to 17 years old in Baoan district,Shenzhen,and provide the basis for the establishment of prevention and control model. Method A total of 1 455 children from 3 to 17 years old in Baoan district were randomly selected to complete "Conners Children Behavioral Questionnaire (parents)" and "the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (Ⅳ)" in January to June 2015,then the screening results were analyzed. Results The learning problem rates of girls (4.74%) and 6~8 years old children (4.74%) were higher than others (P<0.05).The hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms rates of boys (3.16%,4.26%) and 6~8 years old children (3.23%,3.71%) were higher than others (P<0.05).Learning problems,psychosomatic problem and impulsive hyperactivity problems appeared in 3~5 years old children,then behavior problems appeared in 6~8 years old children,anxiety problems appeared in 9~11 years old children lastly. Conclusion s Children's behavior problems are characterized by their gender and age,6~8 years old is the key age.Girls have more learning problems,boys have more hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms,it can be prevented by to characteristics of gender and age.
    Effected of Musical training on 5~6 years old children's phonological awareness.
    LI Wen-hui,SUO Chang-qing,DAN Fei,ZHOU Ting-ting.
    2016, 24(6):  668-669.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-06-34
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    Objective To reveal the influence of music training on the phonological awareness. Method Present study selected "phonological awareness and character awareness assessment test" to test the 5~6 year old children. Results The results showed that the music training children were higher than non music training children on phonological awareness scores.There was no significant difference between music training children and non music training children on chararter awareness score. Conclusion Music training can promote the development of children's phonological awareness,but the music training can not affect the development of children's character awareness.