中国儿童保健杂志 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 79-83.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2020-0402

• 临床研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

西安市4~6岁儿童行为问题现况调查11年前后变化研究

何宏灵1, 刘雨晨2, 张大维3, 李娜4, 马明芳3, 刘辉5, 杨璐4, 高成阁3, 黄燕萍1   

  1. 西安交通大学第一附属医院1.教学部期刊中心, 2.幼儿园, 3.精神心理科,陕西 西安 710061;
    4.西安市高新技术产业开发区第三幼儿园;
    5.西安市碑林区妇幼保健院
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-17 修回日期:2020-10-28 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-01-10
  • 作者简介:何宏灵(1967-),女,陕西人,副编审,硕士学位,主要研究方向为儿童保健。
  • 基金资助:
    陕西省软科学研究计划一般项目(2018KRM080)

Study on changes for behavior problems of 4- to 6-year-old children in Xi'an in 2007 and 2018

HE Hong-ling*, LIU Yu-chen, ZHANG Da-wei, LI Na, MA Ming-fang, LIU Hui, YANG Lu, GAO Cheng-ge, HUANG Yan-ping   

  1. *Department of Academic Journals Publishing Center of Education,the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710061,China;
    4 The 3rd kindergarten of Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710075,China;
    5 Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Xi'an Beilin District,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710001,China
  • Received:2020-06-17 Revised:2020-10-28 Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-01-10

摘要: 目的 观察4~6岁儿童11年前后行为问题的变化情况,为促进儿童行为的健康发展提供指导依据。方法 分别于2007年10月和2018年10月采取随机整群抽样的方法从西安市东、西、南、北郊区及城中区各选择1所幼儿园,对在园的所有4~6岁儿童采用《Achenlach 4~16岁儿童行为量表》(家长用)(CBCL)进行问卷调查。对选取的幼儿园分别于2007年10月、2018年10月各进行了1次调查,两次调查的幼儿园相同。问卷由儿童家长知情同意后匿名填写。所有数据使用SPSS 21.0统计软件进行分析。结果 2007年和2018年调查结果显示:1)4~5岁男童幼稚不成熟(2.36% vs. 0.23%)、性问题因子异常率(7.26% vs. 18.85%)2018年均高于2007年(χ2=8.041,28.429,P<0.05);其他因子异常率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。行为问题总异常率2018年(24.1%)高于2007年(18.8%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.092,P<0.05)。2)4~5岁女童抑郁因子异常率2018年高于2007年,分裂样、社交退缩、性问题3个因子异常率2018年均低于2007年;行为问题总异常率2018年(30.3%)显著低于2007年(37.5%)(χ2=4.739,P=0.029)。3)6岁男童交往不良异常率2018年(1.96%)显著低于2007年(14.29%)(χ2=5.158,P<0.05);6岁女童的所有行为因子异常率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),6岁儿童行为问题总异常率11年前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 4~6岁儿童各年龄段行为问题异常率变化11年前后有所不同。行为异常率4~5岁男童11年后增高,女童降低;6岁儿童的行为异常率变化不大。提示家长及幼教工作者,应根据儿童年龄、性别的行为特点,在教养过程中给予积极干预,促进儿童行为的健康发展。

关键词: 4~5岁儿童, 心理行为问题, 现况调查, CBCL量表

Abstract: Objective To observe the changes of behavior problems in 4- to 6-year-old children in 2007 and 2018,so as to provide the evidence for promoting healthy development of their behavior.Methods A cluster random sampling method was used to select 4- to 6-year-old children in five kindergartens from East,West,South and North of Xi'an in October 2007 and October 2018.Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist Questionnaire for Children Aged 4-16 (for parents) (CBCL) was used to investigate the behavioral problems with anonymous way.Data were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 software.Results 1) The abnormal rates of immature behavior (2.36% vs. 0.23%) and sexual problem (7.26% vs. 18.85%) of children were significantly higher in 2018 than those in 2007 (P<0.05).The total abnormal rate of behavioral problems of children in 2018 (24.1%) was significantly higher than that in 2007 (18.8%)(P<0.05).2) The abnormal rate of depression factor of girls aged 4—5 years in 2018 was higher than that in 2007,and the abnormal rate of three factors including schizoidia,social withdrawal and sexual problems in 2018 were lower than those in 2007.And the total abnormal rate in 2018 was 30.3%,significantly lower than that in 2007(37.5%) (P=0.029).3) The abnormal rate of bad communication in 6-year-old boys in 2018 (1.96%) was significantly lower than that in 2007 (14.29%) (P>0.05).But it was not found significant difference on the abnormal rate of all factors of behavioral problems in girls,and the total abnormal rate of behavioral problems in 6-year-old children between the year 2018 and 2007(P>0.05).Conclusions The abnormal rate of behavioral problems in 4- to 6-year-old children at different age groups changes differently during 11 years.In terms of behavioral problems,the abnormal rate in boys significantly increased,while it decreased in girls.It is suggested that parents and preschool workers should give active intervention individually according to the characteristics of children's age and gender,so as to promote the healthy development of children's behavior.

Key words: children aged 4-5 years, psychological behavior problems, cross-sectional study, Child Behavior Checklist

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