journal1 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 762-764.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-26-07-18

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Cross-sectional study on temperament types of preschoolers in Xi'an City

HE Hong-ling1, HUANG Jun-ting2, YAO Wan-xia3, WANG Chun-juan4   

  1. 1 Periodical Center of Education Department,the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiao Tong University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710061,China;
    2 Graduate school, Medical College of Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China;
    3 School of Medicine in Xi'an Peihua University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710125,China;
    4 Xi'an Center for Disease Control and Prevention,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710054,China;
  • Received:2017-12-15 Online:2018-07-10 Published:2018-07-10
  • Contact: YAO Wan-xia,;WANG Chun-juan,


何宏灵1, 黄俊婷2, 姚晚侠3, 王春娟4   

  1. 1 西安交通大学第一附属医院教学部期刊中心,陕西 西安 710061;
    2 西安交通大学医学院研究生院,陕西 西安 710061;
    3 西安培华学院医学院,陕西 西安 710125;
    4 西安市疾病预防控制中心,陕西 西安 710054;
  • 通讯作者: 姚晚侠,;王春娟,
  • 作者简介:何宏灵(1967-),女,陕西人,副编审,硕士学位,主要从事医学杂志的编辑工作。
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Objective To understand the temperament types and characteristics of preschoolers in Xi'an city, in order to provide references for parents and educators on preschooler's health education. Methods A total of 1 111 preschoolers from 30%~50% classes of every higher,intermediate and lower grade in five kindergartens in four different suburbs and the city center in Xi'an were enrolled by cluster random sampling method,and preschoolers were investigated using the questionnaire of self-designed family environment scale and the Chinese Preschool Temperament Scale(CPTS).Data were analyzed by χ2 test using SPSS 15.0 software after parents had filled out questionnaires anonymously. Results 1)The rates of E,I-E,S,I-D,D type were 38.52%,36.91%,12.51%,8.46% and 3.60%,respectively.The type of E combined with I-E was the major type of temperament with the rate of over 70%,while the type of D combined with I-D were the least with the rate of lower than 13%.2)There were no statistically significant differences on temperament types among different age groups(P >0.05);The S type of temperament type in girls were higher than that in boys(P < 0.01).3)Compared with Beijing and CPTS national norms,the temperament types were not significantly different (P>0.05).Compared with Shanghai and Guangzhou,the percentages of middle type and D type were lower,and the E type was significantly higher(P< 0.01).While the S type was all not significantly different among three cities(P >0.05).The distribution of preschooler's temperament types of 3~6 age groups stratified by sex: the S type of girls were higher than that of boys at 4-year-old children(15.60% vs.8.57%,P< 0.05).The D type of girls was higher than that of boys at 5-year-old children while the I-E type was lower (25.12% vs.38.75%,P< 0.05). Conclusions The major type of temperament in preschoolers is E combined with I-E in Xi'an city.The distribution of temperament type is affected by sex and region except age.Appropriate education measures should be taken by parents and educators according to their temperament in order to promote healthy growth and development of children.

Key words: temperament types, preschoolers, CPTS national norms, cross-sectional study

摘要: 目的 分析西安市学龄前儿童气质类型的分布特点,为家长、幼教工作者采取科学的育儿方法提供参考依据。方法 于2014年10月采用随机整群抽样的方法选择西安市东、西、南、北4个郊区和城区的幼儿园各1所,每个幼儿园大、中、小班各抽取30%~50%班级共1 111名儿童,在父母或监护人知情同意后进行问卷匿名填写。问卷包括一般情况问卷、3~7岁儿童气质量表两部分。结果 1)西安市学龄前儿童气质类型的分布:平易(E)型、中间偏易(I-E)型、发动缓慢(S)型、中间偏烦(I-D)型、麻烦(D)型分别为38.52%、36.91%、12.51%、8.46%、3.60%;个性分布以E+ I-E为主(>70%),D+ I-D最少(<13%)。2)各年龄段气质类型的分布差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05);S型女童高于男童(P < 0.01)。3)与常模及北京市儿童比较,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05);而与上海、广州比较,中间型、D型的百分率低(P均<0.05)、E型高(P均< 0.01)。各年龄段按性别分层分析后显示:4岁女童S型百分率高于男童(15.60% vs.8.57%,P=0.05);5岁女童D型高于男童(6.89% vs.1.25%,P<0.05),而I-E型低于男童(25.12% vs.38.75%,P<0.05)。结论 西安市学龄前儿童气质类型以E+I-E型为主。气质类型的分布受性别、地域的影响,而与年龄无关。家长及教育工作者应该按照其气质类型采取适当的教育方法,促进儿童健康成长。

关键词: 气质类型, 学龄前儿童, 气质常模, 现况调查

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