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Table of Content

    10 June 2015, Volume 23 Issue 6
    Original articles
    The improvement of school-age children with emotional and behavioral problems under psychological crisis intervention training for children
    TAN Xin,ZHANG Jin-song,SHUAI Lan,WANG Zhou-ye,XIA Wei-ping,KONG Yan-ting
    2015, 23(6):  566-569.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-03
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    Objective To explore the effectiveness of the psychological crisis intervention training to improve school-age children's emotional,behavioral,and interpersonal problems. Methods The psychological crisis intervention training was implemented on 383 school-age children,whose parent and teacher completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ,parent and teacher version) respectively at baseline,3 months follow-up and 6 months follow-up,and then compared the differences of the scores. Results The scores of Hyperactivity Scale in SDQ(parent and teacher version) and total difficulties in SDQ (teacher version) at 3 months follow-up was lower than that at baseline (P<0.05),and the score at 6 months follow-up was further lower than that at 3 months follow-up (F=28.14~87.53,P<0.05).The score of total difficulties in SDQ (parent version) at 3 months follow-up and 6 months follow-up were both significantly lower than that at baseline (F=8.11,P<0.05).The score of Prosocial Scale in SDQ (teacher version) at 3 months follow-up was significantly higher than baseline,and the score at 6 months follow-up was further higher than 3 months follow-up (F=27.99,P<0.05). Conclusion The psychological crisis intervention training can improve children's emotional,behavioral and interpersonal problems.
    A short-term intervention study on the psychological capital of left-home children from junior high school
    XU Ming-jin,YANG Xin-guo,HUANG Xia-ni,PENG Hong-qiao ,LU Pei-yan
    2015, 23(6):  570-572.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-04
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    Objective To probe into the enhancement effects of group psychological guidance in psychological capital of left-home children from junior high school,to promote their psychological capital level and advance their sound development of mentality. Methods A total of 39 subjects from Guangxi Baise city were administrated and divided into control group(n=20)and experimental group(n=19).A intervene experiment of 8 weeks was conduct in experimental group.Then the intervention effect was evaluated via Psychological Capital Scale (junior high school students version) . Results Multi-factor repetitive measure analysis of variance showed that main effects of time(F=15.71,P<0.001),of group(F=4.79,P<0.05)and their interaction effect(F=7.493,P<0.001)were remarkable.The post-test's scores of experimental group were significantly higher than pre-test's,and there was no difference between post-test's scores and track test's scores of experimental group. Conclusion The group guidance program according to research-based psychological counseling could effectively boost psychological capital of left-home children from junior high school.
    Reliability of China Developmental Scale for Children aged 0~4 years in Beijing
    ZHANG Li-li,JIN Chun-hua,LI Rui-li,LI Na,ZHANG Yue,WANG Jian-hong,WANG Xiao-yan,WANG He-ru,GAO Hai-tao,SONG Wen-hong,CHEN Bo-wen
    2015, 23(6):  573-576.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-05
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    Objective To test the reliability of China Developmental Scale for Children aged 0~4 years in Beijing. Methods The reliability analysis included homogeneity reliability,split-half reliability,test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. Results 1)Interrater reliability.The interrater reliabilities of developmental quotient (DQ) and five subtests (gross motor,fine motor,language,adaptive and social behavior) reliability coefficients ranged from 0.981 to 1.000.2)Homogeneity reliability.①Cronbach's α coefficient in 24 age groups ranged from 0.850 to 0.954.②Reliability coefficients in five subtests ranged from 0.534 to 0.918,0.485 to 0.867,0.545 to 0.892,0.507 to 0.843,and 0.441 to 0.856,respectively.3)Split-half reliability.①The split-half reliability coefficients ranged from 0.890 to 0.968.②Reliability coefficients in five subtests ranged from 0.686 to 0.982,0.496 to 0.950,0.567 to 0.915,0.562 to 0.901 and 0.528 to 0.921 respectively.4)Test-retest reliability.The test-retest coefficients of DQ and five subtests were 0.971,0.902,0.903,0.900,0.939 and 0.955,respectively. Conclusion The China Developmental Scale for Children aged 0~4 years in Beijing has generated good reliability and stability,which according with the standards for diagnosis of children development scales.
    A Correlative study of sleep disturbances and fatigue among children with acute leukemia
    BU Xiu-qing,MO Ying-lei,YE Qi-meng,YOU Li-ming
    2015, 23(6):  577-579.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-06
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    Objective To explore the correlation of sleep disturbances and fatigue among children with acute leukemia. Methods The main caregivers of 65 children with acute leukemia were surveyed on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory TM (PedsQL TM) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS) (Parent Investigation Questionnaire). Results The total score of SDSC scale was (47.83±10.74) on average.The prevalence of sleep disorders of children with acute leukemia was 6.15%.Sleep-wake transition disorders,sleep breathing disorders,and disorders of arousal were the first three common disorders.The total score of PedsQL TMMFS was (60.41±17.26) on average.The ascending order of the three dimensions' score was general fatigue,sleep fatigue and cognitive fatigue.The total score of sleep disturbances was negatively correlated with that of fatigue (r=-0.51,P<0.001),which meaned that the more serious the sleep disturbance was,the more serious the fatigue was. Conclusions The most common sleep disturbances of children with acute leukemia in hospital are sleep-wake transition disorders,sleep breathing disorders,and disorders of arousal.General fatigue and sleep fatigue are the main manifestations of fatigue.Sleep disturbances and fatigue are negatively correlated with each other.
    Percentile curves for gestational age-specific head circumference of newborns in Beijing
    JIA Zhao-xia,SONG Pei-ge,WANG Jun-hua,ZHAO Yong-xian,PAN Ying,PANG Ru-yan,WU Ming-hui
    2015, 23(6):  580-583.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-07
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    Objective To establish population-based percentile curves for gestational-age specific head circumference of newborns. Methods Data were collected from November 1st 2009 to January 21st 2011 in Shunyi District Hospital of Beijing and Shunyi Maternal and Child Health Hospital.All newborns who were born in these two hospitals were taken standard physical measurements.Strict quality control was essential for assurance of the quality of data.LMS program was used to smooth the percentile curve.And the results with investigation results of 15 cities of China in 1986-1987 were also compared. Results A total of 5 201 subjects were engaged.Percentiles at P3,P10,P25,P50,P75,P90,P97 of head circumference were calculated,and the corresponding reference curves for gestational age-specific and gender-specific were successfully smoothed.Differences of head circumference between boys and girls were significant at 37~41 weeks,head circumference values were higher in boys.But our measurements were lower than the investigation results of 15 cities of China in 1986-1987. Conclusion Gestational age-specific and gender-specific percentiles are presented in this study.And it would be proposed a current reference for the local clinicians and researchers to evaluate fetal growth.
    Intake of supplemental vitamin and mineral of Chinese children aged 3~12 years old
    WANG Jin-zi,ZHANG Ya-rong,XUE Yong,ZHAO Ai,ZHENG Ying-dong,ZHANG Yu-mei,WANG Pei-yu
    2015, 23(6):  584-587.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-08
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    Objective To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement use in Chinese children and assess the average daily intake of nutrient from dietary supplement. Methods By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling,1 823 children aged 3~12 years old were chosen and provided with dietary supplement questionnaire finished by their proxies. Result Preschoolers exhibited a higher prevalence of supplemental vitamin and mineral use during the past half year than school-age children.The most used supplements in participants were Calcium(27.46%),Vitamin D(16.61%),Zinc(13.73%),Vitamin B2(12.35%),Vitamin C(12.18%),Vitamin A(11.35%),Vitamin B6(10.47%),Folic acid(8.68%),Niacin(7.03%),Pantothenic acid(6.7%),Vitamin E(6.17%) ,and Iron (4.87%).Daily intake of each kind of nutrients ranged widely,some of which with a maximum amount over upper level of intake (UL).Most of the nutrients' intake from supplement were lower than recommended,while the mean value and the median of Vitamin A intake of children aged 3~6 years old were both over the recommend level. Conclusions There is a risk of excess intake of vitamin A supplements.Supplements intake recommendations should be established in order to assess children's nutritional status and potential health risks appropriately.
    Analysis of the malnutrition status and changing trend of children and adolescents from 1989 to 2011 in Guangxi
    CHEN Yu-zhu,FANG Zhi-feng,TANG Zhen-zhu,YANG Hong,WANG Qi-chun,ZHAO Lin,LIU Xuan-hua,LU Wu-tao,LI Zhong-you
    2015, 23(6):  588-591.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-09
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    Objectives To understand malnutrition status and changing trend of youth and child,and to provide reference of develop related nutrition improvement strategy in Guangxi. Methods Survey data of 2 913 children and adolescents aged 2~18 years were collected of the "China Health and Nutrition Survey" from 1989 to 2011.Reference standard of Z score method of CDC (2002) was used to evaluate the children's malnutrition status. Results The rates of children and adolescence's stunted growth,low body weight and wasting were gradual decrease,from 38.1%,31.0%,16.1% in 1989,to 8.0%,21.5%,9.0% in 2011 respectively.In 23 years,the downward trend of wasting rate of boys,rural children and 2~6 years old group was not statistically significant (χ2=1.26,0.02,3.59,P all>0.05). Conclusion The malnutrition have been greatly improved among children and adolescents in Guangxi,but the low body weight rate is still relatively high level,the malnutrition should further improved among rural children and preschoolers.
    A comparative study of early feeding status of 6~24 months children in urban and rural area of Kunming,China
    LI Ji-hong,QIN Mao-hua,ZENG Guo,LI Yan,RUI Li
    2015, 23(6):  592-593.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-10
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    Objective To investigate the existing problems about the feeding of 6 to 24-month infants in the urban and rural areas of Kunming,and provide a basis for improvement of the feeding behaviors and measures to improve the infant and young child complementary feeding. Method A cross-sectional survey was used to investigate breastfeeding and complementary feeding data within 1 201 6 to 24-month infants in the urban and rural area of Kunming. Results Significant difference in early time feeding was found between urban and rural area.1) The rates of almost exclusive breast-feeding were low,42.1% in urban and 57% in rural respectively.2) The rates of early initiation of breast feeding were very low,44.2% in urban and 57% in rural of the infants get the breast feeding over 24 hours after they were born.3)The rates of the first bite of the breast milk were very low,22.5% in urban and 10.9% in rural respectively.4) For most urban and rural area infants,the first bite of food after they were born is not the breast milk,but the formula milk for urban (43.8%) and sweet water for rural (49%).5)It is very common that add the complementary food earlier than 4 months,both in urban and rural area. Conclusions The early feeding problems should not be ignored in Kunming city,especially in rural area.Timely,accurate and comprehensive implement nutrition health education must be enforced.
    Relationship between early catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity of intrauterine growth retardation rats
    ZHANG Jin,ZHANG Hui,XING Yan,WANG Xin-li
    2015, 23(6):  595-598.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-11
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between catch-up growth at early stage and insulin sensitivity of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat. Method An intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) animal model was established by protein malnutrition during the mother's late pregnancy.Appropriate growth was defined by a weight within one SD of the colony mean,named as IUGR catch up growth group(IUGR CG),weight which exceed the above standerd named as IUGR over catch up group (IUGR OCG).Weight growth rate was calculated by standerd deviation score (SDS).At 21d,2 months and 4 months after birth,offspring rats were fasted for 12 h and then angular vein blood was collected to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting serum insulin level,then insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated.IUGR hyperglycemia group (IUGR HG) was defined by 95% limit controls of FPG. Results 1)The mean offspring birth weight of IUGR group was (4.37±0.69)g,which was lower than that of control group (7.03±0.55)g(t=-20.75,P<0.05).In IUGR group,the incidence of IUGR offspring was 93.33%.2)HOMA-IR was significantIy higher in IUGR rats than that in the control group at the age of 2 months to 4 months (P<0.05).ISI was significantly lower at 2 months of age and continued to 4m (P<0.05).3) FPG of IUGR OG was significantly higher than that of IUGR CG and control group at 2 months (P<0.05).4) The growth rate of IUGR rat at 7d was the fastest,which was statistically highly correlated with insulin resistance index of 2 month and 4 month (P<0.05). Conclusion The more faster catch up growth at early age,the IUGR rats are more prone to have insulin resistance at adulthood.
    Difference in parenting stress from mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism
    LI Gai-zhi,JIANG Wen-qing,DU Ya-song,JIANG Ling-xiao,LIU Wen-wen,YANG Cao-hua
    2015, 23(6):  610-612.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-16
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    Objective To explore the difference in parenting stress from mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. Method PSI (Parenting Stress Index ) were finished by mothers of children with ADHD (n=150,7~12 years old) and autism (n=131,7~12 years old) who diagnosed by DSM-Ⅳ criteria. Results Mothers of autistic children reported higher scores of stress in all subscales and parent/child domain than those of mothers of children with ADHD (P<0.05).Mothers' adopt parenting style such as indulgent might be the source of stress. Conclusion Mothers with autistic children experience higher stress than mothers of ADHD children.
    Investigation on diet behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder
    ZHOU Zi-yun,TAO Xi-cheng,ZHU Jing,XU Wen-cheng,YANG Li,TANG Jiu-lai
    2015, 23(6):  613-616.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-17
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    Objectiv To study the dietary behavior problems of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to provide a basis for the establishment of autism self-care ability training method. Method Caregiver report of eating problems and general information of 53 ASD children and 50 typically developing children were compared. Result In the experiment group,the incidences of unhealthy dietary behaviors were higher than those of control group in all the four dimensions:eating capacity,mealtime behavior,food selection and feeding behavior.There were 32 cases (60%) children with difficulty chewing,30 cases (57%) need to be fed,refuse all food occurred in 8 cases (15%),while the incidence rate was 0% in the control group.In addition,the incidences of children can not be at a table,eat more than 30 minutes of time,need a particular table / tableware placed,or require specific tableware,do not want to specific new food were also significantly higher than those of the control group. Conclusions Eating behavior problems are prevalent in children with autism than typically developing children,there are many types of problems and the extent of the deep.Eating behavior is one of the most important project of the self-care ability training of children with autism.
    Clinical analysis on refractive status,strabismus and amblyopia in 122 children with cerebral palsy
    ZHU Wen-hui,TAN Mei-zhen,ZHOU Jian-hua,LIN Xian-xuan,CHEN Yong-chong
    2015, 23(6):  617-618.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-18
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    Objective To investigate the refractive status,amblyopia and strabismus in children with cerebral palsy. Methods A total of 122 children (244 eyes) with cerebral palsy aged 4~14 years old were recruited with ocular routine inspection,ocular position inspection and retinoscopy optometry under ciliary muscles paralysis.The detailed medical history was recorded at the same time. Results 220 eyes in children with cerebral palsy had refractive errors,the incidence was 90.2%.Visual acuity increased over 2 rows in 80% (88 eyes) with the refractive correction.Mixed astigmatism,hyperopia and compound hyperopic astigmatism were the main refractive error states in children with cerebral palsy.No difference of refractive error state was found between spastic and other cerebral palsy (P>0.05).The incidence of strabismus and amblyopia was 13.1%,spastic cerebral palsy was accounted for 50% of the children with strabismus and amblyopia,and premature birth and low birth weight were the main causes. Conclusions Pay more attention to the correction of refractive error in cerebral palsy children,especially the compound hyperopic astigmatism and mixed astigmatism.Spastic cerebral palsy is the main type of cerebral palsy in children with amblyopia and strabismus.
    Status and influencing factors of infants' parenting in Beijing urban area
    LI Dong-yang,WANG Zheng-yan,ZHU Xue-na,WANG Jing,PAN Ying,LIANG Ai-min
    2015, 23(6):  619-622.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-19
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    Objective To explore the status and influencing factors of infants' parenting in Beijing urban area,and to provide evidence for appropriate community care model on promoting parent-child attachment. Methods A total of 270 infants' families were investigated by a self-designed questionnaire to explore the current situation and influencing factors of parenting behavior and attitude. Results 1)The mothers' average childbearing age was (30.46±3.56) years old.Most of the parents graduated from college or above (father:88.52%,mother:89.63%);57.99% of the infants were reared by their grandparents as the main caregivers.2)68.20% and 35.34% of the infants lacked opportunity to get in touch with nature and communicate with others;53.76% of the parents rarely read with their babies;51.36% rarely encouraged their babies to do a little more difficult activities;84.82% offered help first when their babies encountered problems.3)Mothers with different education background showed significant differences in the time spending with their babies (P=0.003),parenting sensitivity and consistency (OR=3.51,95%CI:1.55~7.94); Mothers whose child birth age older than 25 years old responded more sensitively with the crying of infants (trend χ2=7.42,P=0.010),paid more attention to their babies' health (χ2=6.94,P=0.008) and diet (χ2=4.23,P=0.039).Nuclear families offered their babies more chance to get in touch with nature (OR=1.95,95%CI:1.10~3.46),were more likely to have consistent parenting attitude (OR=3.91,95%CI:1.26~ 12.14),and limit their babies playtime (χ2=5.21,P=0.034).Infants reared mainly by their grandparents had more close contact with their caregivers (χ2=5.14,P=0.023),and were more likely to have regular health checks (χ2=5.17,P=0.026),but had less chance to get in touch with nature (OR=0.46,95%CI:0.26~0.83). Conclusions Families with infants in Beijing urban area exist improper parenting behavior and attitude,which manifested themselves as overprotection,excessive restriction,less chance of getting in touch with nature,communicating with others and reading books.Exploring appropriate community care model to promote good parent-child attachment should take the infant's family pattern,its mother's childbearing age and education background,and its main caregiver into account.
    Association between MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism and childhood obesity:a Meta-analysis
    ZHOU Ling-ling,ZHANG Gang
    2015, 23(6):  623-626.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-20
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    Objective To apply a Meta-analysis of various studies from different ethnic populations and assess the association of the melanocortin 4 receptor(MC4R) polymorphism with childhood obesity. Methods All published literature were retrieved that investigated association of MC4R variants with obesity from PubMed,CNKI and Wanfang database.Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Results A total of 12 case-control studies were eligible for this analysis.Meta-analysis showed that MC4R rs17782313 increased the risk of childhood obesity in all models (CC vs TT,OR=1.84,95%CI:1.44~2.36;CC vs CT,OR=1.48,95%CI:1.29~1.70,Phet=0.756;CC vs TT/TC,OR=1.67,95%CI:1.39~1.99;TC/CC vs TT,OR=1.35,95%CI:1.19~1.55).Moreover,the association between genotypes and childhood the body mass index (BMI) Z-score was also significant (WMD=0.14,95%CI:0.06~0.23,CC vs TT). Conclusion The present meta-analysis confirms the association of MC4R polymorphism with risk of childhood obesity.
    A prospective study of breastfeeding situation and risk factors of infant discharged from NICU
    MENG Ling-dan,MA Liang,AN Xin-rong,CHENG Qing-yan,QIU Jin-hua,SONG Guo-ying
    2015, 23(6):  627-629.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-21
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    Objective To investigate present breastfeeding situation and risk factors of infant discharged from NICU,and guide clinician and parents to improve infant's breastfeeding measures,promote maternal and child health. Methods A total of 629 cases were selected from NICU for experimental group and 638 cases were selected from normal maternity hospital as the control group.13 perinatal factors which may be associated with breastfeeding were collected.The factors were analyzed using ANOVA analysis,chi-square test and logistic regression. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the factors significanyly associated the breastfeeding of the infant discharged from NICU were gestational age birth (OR=0.848,P=0.848),birth weight (OR=0.394,P=0.394),hospitalization expenses (OR=3.1,P=0.000),hospitalization days (OR=1.245,P=1.245),whether maintain lactation guidance (OR=0.054,P=0.054). Conclusion Low birth gestational age,low birth weight,hospitalization expenses and hospitalization days,no maintain lactation guidance as high-risk factors affecting breastfeeding should cause the attention of clinician and the baby's parents.
    A trend study on relationships between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitam D,calcium,phosphorus,age in 813 children in Zhoushan archipelago area
    YAO Xian-er,WANG Ye-kai,HONG Kai-ting,YU Lin,YU Sai,PAN Hui
    2015, 23(6):  630-632.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-22
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    Objective To explore the relationship between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,calcium,phosphorus of 813 children aged 0~6 years and their age in Zhoushan archipelago area. Methods A total of 813 children aged 0~6 years in 2011 were selected.Their serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,calcium and phosphorus were detected by electrochemistry method,lon-selective electrode method and phosphomolybdic acid uv spectrophotometry method respectively. Results The difference of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D between male(87.37±38.42) nmol/L and female(89.00±50.58) nmol/L was not significant (t=-0.518,P>0.05);The difference of serum levels of calcium between male (2.39±0.12)mmol/L and female (2.37±0.09)mmol/L was significant (t=-2.68,P<0.01);The difference of serum levels of phosphorus between male (1.74±0.08)mmol/L and female (1.77±0.13) mmol/L was significant (t=-3.97,P<0.01).Both in male and female,the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,calcium and phosphorus decreased with age. Conclusions The serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,calcium and phosphorus show downward trends with age.Given monitor of vitamin D supplements and calcium,phosphorus are important for children aged 2~6 years.
    Comparative study on body shape state of minority middle school students aged 13~18 in Xinjiang between 1985 and 2010
    ANIWAR·Abuduxukur,HANIKEZI·Kadier,AIRETI·Maitireyimu
    2015, 23(6):  633-635.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-23
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    Objective To understand the differences and reasons of the growth and development of 13~18 years old Uyghur,Kazak,Kirgiz middle school students,and to provide a scientific basis for improving the physical health of middle school students in Xinjiang region. Methods Using research methods of literature,statistics and comparative analysis,the data obtained by the Xinjiang region in 1985 and 2010 from 13 to 18 years old ethnic minorities students' health research,were carried out for trends observation,comparison and analysis of Uyghur,Kazak,Kirgiz ethnic students in Xinjiang region within 25 years. Results Nearly 25 years average growth values height,weight,chest circumference of the Uygur,Kazak,Kirgiz ethnic minorities middle school students in Xinjiang remained basic improving(In addition to the height of Uyghur female students,and chest circumference of Uyghur & Kirgiz male students),Average growth values were:Uyghur male students 3.3 cm,3.9 kg,-0.5 cm,Uyghur female students -0.2 cm,0.9 kg,4.2 cm;Kazak male students 6.1 cm,4.8 kg,1.7 cm,Kazak female students 4 cm,4.1 kg,2.6 cm;Kirgiz male students 4.8 cm,3.6 kg、-0.5 cm,Kirgiz female students 3 cm,3.3 kg,0.4 cm.Uyghur,Kazak,Kirgiz ethnic minorities students body shape were varies,the overall level was:Kazak students body shape development was better than Uyghur and Kirgiz,Kirgiz students was better than Uyghur students,And the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05~0.001). Conclusions The body shape development of Xinjiang ethnic minorities of Uyghur,Kazak,Kirgiz are varies and unbalanced in the recent 25 years.The reason are various,In addition to genetics,history,natural environment,school,family,social and other factors,the most important and inter-regional presence is Xinjiang's imbalance economic development.
    Study on influencing factors for unintentional injury degree of hospitalized children
    SONG Rui-juan,WANG Li
    2015, 23(6):  636-638.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-24
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    Objects To study the influencing factors of the unintentional injury degree of hospitalized children,and provide the scientific evidence to the effective intervention measures. Methods A total of 70 children were selected as research subjects.Who were first hospitalized with unintentional injury in a changzhi hospital from August 1,2012 to July 31,2013 and responded face to face questionnaire.Chi-square test,Spearman rank correlation and multivariate logistic regression used to analyze the data. Results Proportion of children with severe injuries had statistically significant difference between father's cultures (χ2=4.230,P=0.040),the highest proportion of severe injuries in children whose father's education was junior or below (43.7%).The proportion of children with severe injuries had statistically significant difference between mother's age (χ2=8.406,P=0.015).Proportion of severe injuries was the highest in children whose mother aged above 40 years old,(60.0%).Non-only child's severe injuries (46.3%) was more than the only child (20.7%),the difference was statistically significant (χ2=4.868,P=0.027).There were significant positive correlations between unintentional injury degree,and injury outcomes,medical expenses,children age,father's age,mother's age (P<0.05).Mother with high age had 1.872 times risk of severe injuries than mother with lower age. Conclusions There are more risks of severe unintentional injury in father's lower culture,mother's higher age,non-only child's family.The heavier damage degree leads to the worse outcome and higher medical expenses;The older parents' and children's age have the heavier damage degree; Mother in high age group is risk factor of heavy unintentional injury.
    Comparative study of body shape among the Uyghur and Kirgiz children and adolescents in Xinjiang
    DIMULATI·Abudurusuli,AIRRTI·Maitireyimu,LI Qian
    2015, 23(6):  639-642.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-25
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    Objective To investigate the variation of the morphological development indicators of the Uyghur and Kirgiz primary and secondary school students in Xinjiang,and to provide scientific basis for the physical health in school. Methods Analysis was made on the investigation data of the Uyghur and Kirgiz primary and secondary school students' height,weight and chest circumference between 1985 and 2010 in Xinjiang. Results nearly 25 years,remained basic growth of Xinjiang Uygur and Kirgiz ethnic minorities of students' and the average growth values of height,weight,chest circumference were:Uyghur male student' 3.3 cm,3.3 kg,-0.6cm,Uyghur female student' 0.8 cm,1.6 kg,2.7 cm;Kirgiz male student' 4.9 cm,3.2 kg,0.1 cm,Kirgiz female student' 4.2 cm,3 kg,1 cm,respectively.Kirgiz students' body shape development were better than Uyghur students',and the differences had statistically significant(P<0.05~0.001). Conclusions Nearly 25 years,Xinjiang ethnic minorities of Uyghur and Kirgiz students' body shape development are varies.The reason is various,in addition to differences in genetic factors,main factors of lifestyle,sports,school environment level and other aspects of economic and social development have differences.
    Study on quantitative electroencephalography characteristics of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    WU Wen-xiao,WANG Rong,CHU Lin-na,WEI Hong-yan,ZHANG Li
    2015, 23(6):  643-646.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-26
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    Objective To investigate the change of quantitative electroencephalography(QEEG) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Methods A total of 37 children with ADHD and 30 age-matched controls were included.EEG was recorded during eyes-closed resting condition and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in alpha-1,alpha-2,alpha-3,beta,theta frequency bands and alpha-L/alpha-R,theta/alpha,theta/beta. Results Compared with controls,ADHD group was found to have more theta and delta activity,alpha and beta activity were different in different brain region,ADHD groups had higher beta/alpha and higher theta/alpha,control group was found to have higher alpha-L/alpha-R in frontal area. Conclusion There are differences on electroencephalography between ADHD children and controls.
    Study on factors of childhood autism spectrum disorder
    MA Ju-fei,KUANG Gui-fang,HENG Zhong-yu,ZHAO Yong-sheng,MA Ai-guo,HAN Xiu-xia
    2015, 23(6):  647-649.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-27
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    Objective To investigate the risk factors affecting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to offer basis for etiology,pathogenesis and prevention for ASD. Methods A total of 80 children with ASD and 80 normal children were investigated in this case-control study.Risk factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires which were completed by parents. Results Logistic analysis according to their contributive values showed the risk factors were postterm delivery (OR=20.396,P<0.01),atificial feeding (OR=7.567,P<0.01),neonatal jaundice (OR=7.234,P<0.01),hypoxia (OR=6.411,P<0.05),risk factors during pregnancy (OR=3.354,P<0.01),plastic toys (OR=3.115,P<0.01) and mother's introversion character (OR=2.086,P<0.05).However,regular family education was the protect factor. Conclusions The environment factors,the unfavorable events in pregnant and delivery,the neonatal and developmental phase could increase the incidence of autism spectrum disorder.Some effective should be taken to control these risk factors.
    Investigation on blood lead level of preschool children in Daliang Shunde
    LIN Hui,OUYANG Guang-jie,LIANG Cai-xia
    2015, 23(6):  652-653.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-29
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    Objective To provide a reference for public health policy of preventing children from lead poisoning by detecting the lead concentrations in peripheral blood of 2 285 preschoolers in Daliang,Shunde. Methods The lead in peripheral blood of 2 285 preschoolers was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).The results were analyzed. Results The average blood lead level in these 2 285 cases was (44.77±17.73)μg/L,the rate of lead intoxication was 1.8%.The most cases had low-grade lead intoxication.The rates of lead intoxication in different sex and different district showed significant differences (P<0.05).The rate of boys' lead poisoning was significantly higher than girls' (P<0.05).The rate of village children's lead poisoning was significantly higher than town children's (P<0.01). Conclusion Within the industrial production process,we need to pay attention to the proper setup and the prevention of lead intoxication under children in village areas; strengthening ecological awareness among inhabitants,cutting back the use of leaded fuel and materials containing lead;incorporate gradually free for blood lead testing in basic children healthcare and periodic checkup programs in kindergarten,to ensure that children can grow up safely.
    Study on clinical features of food allergy in infant and young children of Wenzhou city
    LU Hua-jun,ZHAO Zhong-yan,CHEN Wang-qiang,ZHU Huan,ZHU Xiao-zhou,PAN Tong-tong
    2015, 23(6):  654-656.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-30
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    objective To study the clinical features of food allergy in infant and young children,and to provide the basis for the diagnosis and prevention of this disease. Methods Consecutive infants and young children aged 0~3 years attending at the outpatient department of gastroenterology,children's hospital of Wenzhou,were invited to participate in the study.Parents completed questionnaires,and children detected total serum IgE and serum food specific IgE (cow's milk,egg yolk,egg white,soybean,sea fish,shrimp,crab).Subjects with either a positive food specific IgE or a positive medical history were invited to undergo an food elimination test and followed up of 6 months. Results The total positive rate of food allergy was 18.99% in this study.The most common food allergens were milk (55.56%) and egg (15.56%).The common clinical manifestations of food allergy were mainly eczema and hematochezia. Conclusions The main allergy foods of infant and young children in Wenzhou city are milk,egg white,and the common clinical manifestations of food allergy are mainly of eczema and hematochezia.Food avoidance is an effective measure for treatment of food allergy.
    Investigation of anemia prevalence among children aged 0~6 years in Tongzhou district of Beijng in a period from 2010 to 2013
    ZHANG Na,WANG Feng-hua,NIU Li-wen,BAO Zheng,HOU Yue-yun
    2015, 23(6):  657-659.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-31
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    Objective To investigate prevalence and its trend of anemia among children aged 0~6 years in Tongzhou district of Beijng,and analyze its preventive measures. Methods The annual data about anemia in Tongzhou district in a period from 2010 to 2013 were analyzed respectively. Results The prevalence of anemia among children aged 0~6 years in Tongzhou district assumed the declining trend from 2010 (3.87%) to 2013(2.81%).Children with anemia mainly were mild,and the prevalence among children aged 0~2 years was higher than those aged 3~6 years. Conclusions The target population of anemia is children aged 0~2 years old.And comprehensive measures should be taken to prevent anemia in children.
    Risk factor analysis of children lead poisoning food
    CHEN Zhong,ZHANG Bin,QIN Ling-zhi,XIONG Chao,ZHANG Ya-qi,QIU Lin,DU Yu-kai
    2015, 23(6):  660-663.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-32
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    Objective To master Wuhan children's blood lead level trends and the relationship between diet and the development of nutrition interventions and reduce children's blood lead levels. Method Stratified random sample of all children aged 0~3 years old from two city streets; and all children over 3 years old from six different grades kindergarten were selected as the research object.Mothers of children were requested to fill out the survey questionnaire,children's finger blood were collected,tungsten boat atomic absorption spectrometry was used to test blood lead values. Results Incidence of childhood lead poisoning was 0.27%.High blood lead was 6.97%,incidence of boys was significantly higher than that of girls (P<0.001),there was a significant difference (P<0.001) in blood lead levels of children of different ages,with the highest blood lead levels of children in 2 years of age group.Children prefer to eat popcorn,and egg categories of food had higher detection rate of blood lead poisoning;while children had taking calcium,iron,zinc preparations lower detection rate of high blood lead and lead poisoning.Eating popcorn and egg were risk factors for high blood lead and lead poisoning. Conclusions Children and parents need to make the necessary education,and advocate a balanced diet.The nutrition interventions should be preferred to reduce children's blood lead levels,while improving traditional food processing and storage technology.
    Relationship analysis between parents' cognition as,rearing behavior and childhood obesity treatment rate
    WANG Xiao-ying,YAN Yin-mei,ZHANG Yan,CHEN Jia
    2015, 23(6):  664-666.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-33
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    Objective To find out the relationships between parents' awareness the parenting behavior and the treatment rate of obese children. Method A total of 236 obese children's parents from 865 children aged 3~6 who were diagnosed with obesity in August 2012 to August 2013 were selected as an obesity group,and 100 parents' of healthy children at the same age as the normal group.Both groups were given obesity-related surveys,and extra knowledge publicity and education of obesity were given to the obesity group.The number of people came to hospital to treat obesity was calculated. Results Obese children usually had familial risk:the parents had low education,their assessment of health status on children was high,and the awareness of child obesity was low.They gave less sports time for children to sweating and too much time for them to watching TV or let them along.236 obese children's parents received publicity and education,the treatment rate was 20.34%.Compared with the 1.43% treatment rate of parents without publicity and education,the rate had significantly improved. Conclusion Parents' awareness of childhood obesity has primary relationship to the treatment rate of obese children,and their awareness can be improved by publicity and education.
    Applicaton of identification and management of feeding difficulties tools in 1~4 years old children with dietary behavior problems in Pudong district in Shanghai
    ZHANG Li-shan,JIN Xing-ming,YAN Ping,GUAN Wei
    2015, 23(6):  667-670.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-06-34
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    Objective To evaluate the intervention effect of identification and management of feeding difficulties (IMFeD) tools for children's dietary behavior problems. Methods A total of 205 children of 1~4 years old with dietary behavior problems were randomly divided into intervention group and control group.Children in intervention group received intervention of IMFeD tools,while children in control group received conventional practice method.6 follows up were conducted in the 12 months intervention period.Dietary behavior problems were evaluated at each follow up,and comparison of the scores was made before and after intervention between two groups. Results After intervention,dietary behavior problem scores in both two groups decreased significantly,and the downward trend of intervention group was more obvious.The effects in 1-year-old group and 2-year-old group were better than in 3-year-old group and 4-year-old group.The improvements of "strong preference to some food","poor eating habits" and "scare of eating" was more obvious in intervention group,and "full of energy with poor appetite","strong preference to some food" and "poor eating habits" improved faster. Conclusions Compared to the conventional practice method,children with dietary behavior problems can benefit more by IMFeD tools.Hence,IMFeD tools can be considered of certain value to generalize in clinic.