journal1 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 527-530.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2018-1322

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Analysis on mental health problems and related risk factors of preschool children in Nanshan district of Shenzhen

WANG Lu1, HUANG Yan-ke1, JIANG Wen-qing2, FANG Le1, JIANG Xue-ming1, CHEN Yu-huang1, GAO Wu-hong1, DU Ya-song2   

  1. 1 Nanshan Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital of Shenzhen,Shenzhen,Guangdong 518067,China;
    2 Shanghai Mental Health Center,Affiliated to Medical College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University,Shanghai 200030,China
  • Received:2018-10-17 Online:2019-05-10 Published:2019-05-10
  • Contact: Corresponding authors:GAO Wu-hong,; DU Ya-song,


王鹭1, 黄彦科1, 江文庆2, 方乐1, 蒋雪明1, 陈妤煌1, 高武红1, 杜亚松2   

  1. 1 深圳市南山区妇幼保健院,广东 深圳 518067;
    2 上海交通大学医学院附属精神卫生中心,上海 200030
  • 通讯作者: 高武红,;杜亚松,
  • 作者简介:王鹭(1986-),女,广西人,主治医师,硕士学位,主要研究方向为儿童心理卫生。
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Objective To explore the prevalence and the risk factors for mental health problems in preschool children,in order to provide reference for taking intervention. Methods A total of 15 008 children from 86 kindergartens were selected in the Nanshan by cluster sampling from March to June 2018.All parents were asked to fill out the basic information questionnaire and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire(SDQ).And Logistic analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of mental health problems. Results 1) A total of 6.5% preschool children were detected with abnormal results.Peer interaction problem was the most prevalent mental health problem,followed by conduct problem,prosocial behavior,emotional symptoms and hyperactivity-inattention according to the prevalence rate.The emotional problems of girls was higher than that of boys(χ2=18.000),while the hyperactivity(χ2=63.499)and prosocial behaviors(χ2=131.533)of boys were significantly higher than those of girls(P<0.05).2) Mental health problems were significantly higher in children who were at lower age(χ2=45.990),with high risk factors at birth(χ2=19.165),unregistered residents in Shenzhen(χ2=182.178),born outside Shenzhen(χ2=28.470),with younger mother and father(χ2=56.082,74.737),with less-educated mother and father(χ2=243.298,247.481),complex family structure(χ2=43.567),and second-hand smoking(χ2=103.434).3) Multivariate analysis indicated that the risk factors for mental health problems included high risk factors at birth(OR=1.535),short dwelling time in Shenzhen(OR=1.729),less-educated mother and father(OR=2.318,1.492)and second-hand smoking(OR=1.293),while the core family type was a protective factor(OR=0.564). Conclusions The peer interaction problem is the most common mental health problem for preschool children.And the mental health problems are affected by biological factors and environmental factors.

Key words: preschool children, mental health, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

摘要: 目的 了解深圳市南山区学龄前儿童的心理卫生问题及其影响因素,为研究学龄前儿童心理卫生的干预措施提供依据。方法 采用整群抽样的方法,于2018年3—6月在深圳市南山区抽取86所幼儿园共15 008名幼儿,采用基本信息问卷及长处与困难问卷(SDQ)对幼儿家长进行调查,并对学龄前儿童心理卫生问题影响因素进行多因素Logistic回归分析。结果 1)学龄前儿童心理卫生问题异常检出率为6.5%,由高到低分别为同伴交往问题、品行问题、亲社会行为、情绪症状、多动,女童情绪问题检出率高于男童(χ2=18.000),而男童多动(χ2=63.499)、亲社会行为问题(χ2=131.533)检出率高于女童,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);2)年龄小(χ2=45.990)、出生时有高危因素(χ2=19.165)、非深户(χ2=182.178)、出生地在深圳市外(χ2=28.470,)、父母亲年龄小(χ2=74.737,56.082)、父母亲学历低(χ2=247.481,243.298)、家庭结构复杂(χ2=43.567)、接触二手烟(χ2=103.434)的儿童心理卫生问题的检出率较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);3)多因素分析发现,出生时有高危因素(OR=1.535)、在深圳时间短(OR=1.729)、父母亲学历低(OR=1.492,2.318)、接触二手烟(OR=1.293)是学龄前儿童心理卫生问题的高危因素,核心家庭类型是保护因素(OR=0.564)。结论 同伴交往问题是学龄前儿童最常见的心理卫生问题,学龄前儿童心理卫生问题受到生物因素和环境因素的共同影响。

关键词: 学龄前儿童, 心理卫生, 长处与困难问卷

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