journal1 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 547-550.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2019-0050

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analysis on the influencing factors of temperament in preschoolers

HE Hong-ling1, ZHANG Wei2, LIU Xiu-li3, HUANG Jun-ting4, YAO Wan-xia5   

  1. 1 Academic Journals Publishing Center,the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710061,China;
    2 Xikai Nursery School,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710077,China;
    3 Kindergarten of Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710061,China;
    4 Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061,China;
    5 School of Medicine in Xi'an Peihua University,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710125,China
  • Received:2019-01-10 Online:2019-05-10 Published:2019-05-10


何宏灵1, 张玮2, 刘秀丽3, 黄俊婷4, 姚晚侠5   

  1. 1 西安交通大学第一附属医院教学科期刊中心,陕西 西安 710061;
    2 西开保育院,陕西 西安 710077;
    3 西安交通大学医学校区幼儿园,陕西 西安 710061;
    4 西安交通大学医学院,陕西 西安 710061;
    5 西安培华学院医学院,陕西 西安 710125
  • 作者简介:何宏灵(1967-),女,陕西人,副编审,硕士学位,主要从事医学杂志的编辑工作。
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Objective To understand the influencing factors of preschool children's temperament,so as to take appropriate interventions to promote the health development of children's temperament. Methods Cluster sampling method was used to randomly select sample kindergartens from 4 rural and urban areas of the four corners in Xi'an City in October 2014.Three to eight classes were selected to conduct the investigation according to large medium and small classes in one kindergarten.The questionnaires filled out by parents or main caregivers included the general information,the Adjustment Scale of Infant and Junior Middle School Students revised by ZUO Qihua,the Temperament Scale of 3 to 7-year-old Children and Eysenck(adult) Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).Totally 1 100 questionnaires were sent out and 936(85.09%) valid questionnaires were collected.Multi-linearity regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of social adaptation ability with SPSS 15.0 software. Results Factors entering regression equation of the temperament in children included the good ability of social adaptation(95%CI:0.045-1.530,P=0.038),parents' marriage good(95%CI:0.450-1.650,P=0.001),the not only child(95%CI:-2.788--0.148,P=0.031),non-abnormal phenomena during pregnancy(95%CI:-2.082--0.517,P=0.002),good nutrition condition during pregnancy(95%CI:-1.452--0.224,P=0.009),good maternal psychology during pregnancy(expectation for pregnancy)(95%CI:-0.918-0.045,P=0.074),introversion and extroversion of maternal personality(E points)(95%CI:-0.003-0.058,P=0.076),emotional personality for father(N points)(95%CI:-0.037--0.010,P=0.001) and gender(95%CI:-0.669--0.122,P=0.005). Conclusions Temperament is affected by the common influence of congenital heredity and acquired environment.When raising children,in addition to paying attention to the antenatal care,parents also need to build a harmonious family atmosphere in order to promote the healthy development of children's personality.

Key words: family environment, temperament, social adaptability, preschool children, the Adjustment Scale of Infant and Junior Middle School Students, the Temperament Scale of 3 to7 year-old children, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

摘要: 目的 了解学龄前儿童气质的影响因素,以便采取适当的干预措施促进儿童气质的健康发展。方法 2014年10月采用随机整群抽样的方法抽取西安市东西南北4个郊区和城区的幼儿园各1所,每个幼儿园按照大、中、小班各抽取3~8个班级的儿童进行问卷调查。问卷由父母或主要照顾人匿名填写,内容包括自编的一般情况问卷、左启华修订的婴儿─初中生社会适应能力量表、3~7岁儿童气质量表、艾森克(成人)个性问卷(EPQ)4部分。共发放问卷1 100份,回收合格者936份,回收合格率85.09%。用SPSS 15.0软件采用多元线性逐步回归法对儿童气质的影响因素进行分析。结果 进入影响儿童气质回归方程的因素为:社会适应能力(95%CI:0.045~1.530,P=0.038),父母婚姻(95%CI:0.450~1.650,P=-0.001),是否独生子女(95%CI:-2.788~-0.148,P=0.031),孕期有无异常(95%CI:-2.082~-0.517,P=-0.002),孕期营养(95%CI:-1.452~-0.224,P=0.009),孕前心理(期待怀孕)(95%CI:-0.918~0.045,P=0.074),母亲个性的内外向性(E分)(95%CI:-0.003~0.058,P=0.076)、父亲个性的情绪性(N分)(95%CI:-0.037~-0.010,P=0.001),性别(95%CI:-0.669~-0.122,P=0.005)。结论 气质受先天遗传和后天环境的共同影响,在养育幼儿过程中,家长在重视孕期保健的基础上,需要营造良好的家庭环境,促进儿童个性的良性发展。

关键词: 家庭环境, 气质, 社会适应能力, 学龄前儿童, 婴儿-初中生社会适应能力量表, 3~7岁儿童气质量表, 艾森克个性问卷

CLC Number: