Table of Content

    10 January 2014, Volume 22 Issue 1
    Analysis of the quality of child health care and regional dissimilarity in China.
    SONG Pei-ge, ZHU Ya-jie, LIU Xue-bei, AN Lin.
    2014, 22(1):  4-6. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (583KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To evaluate the quality of Chinese child health care status and the dissimilarity among different regions, and provide reference for child health care planning and policy-making. Methods Based on six basic child health indicators (the rate of birth weight <2 500 g, perinatal mortality, the proportion of severe malnutrition in children under 5, neonatal visit rate, system management rate of children under 3, system management rate of children under 7), TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the integrated child health care quality, the regional dissimilarity was explored by using index of dissimilarity. Results According to the Results of TOPSIS, the top three were Shanghai (C=0.783 5), Guangdong (C=0.490 3) and Beijing (0.435 0), the last three were Hunan (C=0.063 1), Shaanxi (C=0.051 8) and Fujian (C=0.029 2);Nationwide, index of dissimilarity (ID) of TOPSIS method was large(0.35).ID of the proportion of severe malnutrition in children under 5 was the largest (0.59);IDs of the rate of birth weight <2 500 g, system management rate of children under 3 and system management rate of children under 7 were equal (0.30);The smallest ID was perinatal mortality (0.25). Conclusion The child health care quality unevenly distributes across the country, and the policy maker should develop appropriate solutions to different indicators.
    Trends of neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight and extremely birth weight infants.
    ZHAI Qian, CAO Yun, WANG Yi, ZHANG Lan, YANG Hong, SHAO Xiao-mei, XU Xiu, LU Chun-mei.
    2014, 22(1):  7-9. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (572KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate changes of neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) and extremely birth weight infant (ELBWI) occurred over the recent years. Methods The population included 143 VLBWI and ELBWI admitted from October 1st 2005 to December 31st 2010 who had finished the infant development test of BSID-Ⅱ at corrected gestational aged 18~42 months.The neurodevelopmental outcomes between two periods[2005-2008 (period 1);2009-2010 (period 2)]were compared. Results The subjects in two-period study were similar in gender, gestational age, and birth weight.The neurodevelopmental outcomes in period 2 improved:the MDI score was increased (97.0±14.6) versus (88.6±19.2)(P=0.004), and the rate of MDI<70 was decreased (3.4% versus 14.8%, P=0.014).In the period 1, the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment and cerebral palsy were higher than the period 2 (22.2% versus 13.5%, 9.3% versus 2.3%), and the PDI score was lower[(83.6±16.1) versus (85.0±13.6)]and the rate of PDI<70 was higher (16.7% versus 12.4%).But these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Recent years, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBWI and ELBWI seem to improve.Both doctors and parents should pay attention to the follow-up and early intervention of VLBWI and ELBWI after discharge, by which to improve their neurodevelopmental outcomes.
    Diversity analysis of predominant intestinal microflora in children with Cow's milk protein allergy.
    BAI Hong-jian, GUO Ling, HAN Ying, LI Ai-li, DU Peng, YUAN Xiu-juan, JIANG Yan.
    2014, 22(1):  10-13. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (599KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the diversity of predominant intestinal microflora in children with Cow's milk protein allergy. Methods Collecting the feces from 7 initially diagnosed cases of children with Cow's milk protein allergy and 5 healthy control participants.The universal primer of the bacterial 16S rDNA-V3 region was used as primer and the total genomic bacterial DNA were used as a template.After PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was performed.The Results analysis was applied by Quantity One software. Results There was significant difference in the diversity of the predominant intestinal microflora in children with Cow's milk protein allergy and healthy control, and the intestinal microflora diversity of Cow's milk protein allergy was higher.The participants in allergy group and control group could be divided into different two clusters.The Results indicated that the predominant intestinal microflora in the two groups were different.Similarity analysis showed that allergic group similarity was range from 27%~72%; the healthy control group similarity was range from 28%~64%. Conclusions The diversity of the predominant intestinal microflora in children with Cow's milk protein allergy changed significantly compared with healthy children.Intestinal microecological balance might be the underlying causes of cow's milk protein allergy.
    Study on disease burden of birth asphyxia in China using disability adjusted life years.
    XU Tao.
    2014, 22(1):  14-17. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (550KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective Through analysing the disability adjusted life years (DALY) of birth asphyxia to provide rational planning of health resources distribution in China. Methods Literatures in 2010 were searched and reviewed to analysis the mortality, mobility and disability rate of birth asphyxia.The Delphi method was used to obtain data on the disable weight of each complication.Based on the data of literature review and Delphi research, the DALY of birth asphyxia was calculated. Results The incidence of birth asphyxia ranged from 1.14% to 11.7% in different provinces in China.The mortality rate of birth asphyxia among children under 5 years old was 221.3/105.The intelligence disability rate among children aged 0~17 was 0.9% in 2010, with birth asphyxia being the third cause.Disability caused by birth asphyxia accounted for 6.34% of hearing disability among children aged 0~6.The disability weight of birth asphyxia was 0.390.Based on data of the sixth nationwide population census, DALYs caused by birth asphyxia of among children under 5 was 8 241 093 person year in the whole country, which was 109.1 person year per 1000 population.If birth asphyxia incidence and mortality decrease by 10% at the same time, there will be a 9.73% decrease in the DALYs. Conclusions Neonatal asphyxia is one of the major causes of child death in China.The disease burden caused by birth asphyxia is huge.Generalize neonatal resuscitation skills can decrease the incidence and mortality of birth asphyxia, which has significant social benefit.
    Comparative study of reading characteristics between Han and Uyghur children with dyslexia.
    ZUO Peng-xiang, LI Zeng-chun, GU Qiang, JIAO Pan-pan, ZHANG Ju.
    2014, 22(1):  18-20. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (464KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study on different characteristics about Han and Uyghur children of the developmental dyslexia, and to provide different racial children developmental dyslexia genetic studies basis. Methods Hierarchy detection strategy was adopted, according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.A Logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between reading factors and analyze the different races different characteristics of the reading. Results 1)The prevalence rate of Han children developmental dyslexia was 4.69%, the prevalence rate of Uyghur children developmental dyslexia was 7.93%.The prevalence rate was significant diffrence between the two races(χ2=9.448, P<0.05).2)The scores of 8 items of DCUC (Dyslexia Checklist for Uyghur Children) of developmental dyslexics were mostly significantly higher than those of normal Uyghur children.The Logistic regression analysis showed:oral disorders (OR=2.432)and visual disturbances(OR=6.056) were mostly influence factors.3)Compared the subscore of Dyslexia Checklist of two ethnic children with dyslexia suggested that the oral expression score, the written expression score, the attention score and the visual perception score had significant differences, the scores of Uyghur children were mostly significantly higher than those of Han children. Conclusions The prevalence rate of dyslexia between the two races are significantly different.There are deficits in every side of reading in Uyghur children with developmental dyslexics, and the main problems are oral expression disorder and the visual perception disorder.The reading feature of developmental dyslexia has significant diffrence between the two races, Han children have lower subscores than Uyghur children.
    Investigation on exposure to sexual content in mass media among middle school students and their perceived parents' attention on their exposure to media in Shanghai, China.
    CHENG Yan, LOU Chao-hua, ZUO Xia-yun, LIAN Qi-guo, YU Chun-yan, WANG Zi-liang.
    2014, 22(1):  21-23. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (478KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the situation of exposure to sexual content in mass media among middle school students, their communication with parents, peers and school teachers about these sexual content they exposed to, and their perceived parents' attention on different types of media that they exposed to. Methods An anonymous computer assisted interview survey about the situation of adolescents' exposure to sexual content in different types of mass media was conducted among 1 403 senior and junior high school students, 668 cases of junior middle school students and 722 cases of senior middle school students were included. Results Among different types of sexual content that respondents exposed to, dating/marriage, sexual intimacy behaviors between opposite sex, puberty development and consequence of unprotected sex accounted for higher percentage, varied from 37.4% to 88.2%, while contraception and STIs/AIDS accounted for lower percentage, varied between 13.5% and 37.3%.The percentage of exposure to different types of sexual contents in mass media was higher among senior high school students than junior high school students, and was higher among male students than female students, except on dating and consequence of unprotected sex, all these differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).When exposed to these sexual contents, respondents mainly chose to talk with classmates/peers rather than parents/teachers, and the percentage among senior students(61.6%~74.7%) was higher than that among junior students(33.2%~48.7%), the difference was significant(P<0.05).On the aspect of perceiving attentions from parents on media exposure, senior students' parents paid lower attention to children' exposure to types of media than that of junior students' parents and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).In addition to, respondents perceived that father paid lower attention than mother on the media they exposed to. Conclusions Exposure to sexual content is common among middle school students in Shanghai, China.School and family should react actively, conduct media literacy education to help adolescent learn how to deal with the sexual information in the media, especially among senior high school students.
    Case-control study on risk factors of childhood autism.
    XIAN Dan-xia, JIN Yu, XIE Xiao-ying, LIN Mei-ying, ZHANG Ling, LI Chao-juan, HONG Rong.
    2014, 22(1):  24-27. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (517KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To find out risk factors associated with children with autism and to offer the basis for autistic prevention work. Methods There were 165 patients children with autism and 320 patientscontrol group of children in the case-control study.Questionnaires were used to make up by ourselves to collect maternal risk factors, family and other general information, and then used Chi-square test to analyze the two sets of children's differences in risk factors. Results The proportion of higher maternal age (≥35 years old) and father introverted, higher maternal induced abortion, maternal depression and passive smoking during the pregnant time in autism group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05), and logistic analysis showed that higher maternal age, father introverted, higher maternal induced abortion, maternal depression and passive smoking during the pregnant time were the risk factors to autism in children. Conclusion Mother aged (≥35 years old), a history of induced abortion, passive smoking and depression in gestation period and father introverted are risk factors to autism.
    Analysis of risk factors of asthma in children in Yichang city.
    WANG Fang, LI Bei, WANG Min.
    2014, 22(1):  28-30. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (420KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To find out the risk factors of childhood asthma in Yichang city and provide guidance for prevention of the occurrence and exacerbations of childhood asthma. Methods A total of 10 456 cases of children were randomly selected to grant screen questionnaires using cluster sampling method, then screening out the suspected asthmatic ones, granting to them with asthma questionnaire for further investigation, at the same time, the similar number of gender, age-matched non-asthmatic children were selected for the case-control study. Results Personal history of drug allergy, allergic rhinitis, eczema and a family history of asthma or allergies;house walls coating with paint, the use of coal for heating and cooking, the mildew phenomenon, house decoration history, smoking, and using blankets made bedding; adding complementary before 3 months, using antibiotic within 1 year were risk factors of childhood asthma in Yichang city. Conclusion For children who have personal or family history of allergic diseases, parents should try to avoid the allergen exposure in house environment, and actively avoid risk factors can prevent the occurrence of asthma or reduce the incidence of asthma exacerbations times.
    Cultivation, differentiation and identification in vitro of the neural stem cells from neonatal rat.
    WANG Yu, YIN Xiao-juan.
    2014, 22(1):  31-34. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (630KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the cultivation, identification and identification cultivation of the neural stem cells (NSCs) from neonatal rats. Methods Hippocampus was isolated from neonatal SD rats and NSCs were cultured in serum free medium.Nestin expression in NSCs was detected by immunohistochemical fluorescence.The proliferation of NSCs was assessed by both of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5-BrdU) incorporation assay and double-marked immunofluorescence.The differentiation of NSCs was induced.To identify the differentiated NSCs, antibodies of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibody of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were employed respectively with immunohistochemical fluorescence staining. Results A mass of neurospheres were obtained.Those NSCs could differentiate into neurons and astrocytes. Conclusions The fetal rat NSCs are successfully obtained, which have the capacities of proliferation, self-renew and pluripotentiality.They could differentiate into neurons and astrocytes, lay the foundation for the basic and clinical research in vitro.
    Effect of ω-3PUFAs on the TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6 expression on acute lung injury in young rats induced by endotoxin.
    SHI Ji-peng, YAN Jian-guo, HAN Jin-fen, TANG Cheng-he, QIAN Yan.
    2014, 22(1):  35-37. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (616KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) to LPS-induced rat lung(ALI) of inflammatory:TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6. Methods Sixty young SD rats were divided into control group, LPS group and omega group and then used normal saline or different fat emulsions for seven days.The rat model of ALI was established by instill LPS.Those groups were sacrificed at 8 hours after intratracheal introduction of LPS.Each lung tissue section's pathologic changes was observed, meanwhile the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6 in BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunospecific assay (ELISA). Results 1)Pulmonary histopathology:ALI modle groups showed inflammatory cells infiltrating around the bronchus and the vascular, even bleeding and more apoptosis cells.Omega group was significantly lighter than LPS group (P<0.01).2)Compared with control group, the lung indexes and pathological scores of ALI model groups were significantly higher (P<0.05).3) The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF of LPS group were significantely elevated than omega group (both P<0.05). Conclusion 10%Omegaven can relieve inflammation by downregulating the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and reduce lung injury.
    Study on protective effect and its mechanism of pretreatment of Caspase-3 gene inhibiter on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the neonatal rats.
    CHEN Hui-jun, YANG Yang.
    2014, 22(1):  38-40. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (436KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the effect of hypoxia ischemia brain damage (HIBD) of neonatal rats with cerebral cortex apoptosis by gene inhibiter so as to explore the possible mechanism. Methods Model of HIBD was built in neonatal rats, 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided in:control group;HIBD group;obstruct group(HIBD+z-VAD-fmk).Adopting HE dyeing, three animal apoptosis index (AI) in brain and Caspase-3mRNA were detected by TUNEL and RT-PCR. Results Express of Caspase-3mRNA nanomolar in control group was significant heighten in HIBD group(P<0.01).There was significantly lower express between obstruct group and HIBD group(P<0.05).AI value changed with Caspase-3mRNA.They had significance positive correlation (r=0.628, P<0.05). Conclusion Express heigten of Caspase-3mRNA leads to histiocytic apoptosis in HIBD group, and lower express of Caspase-3mRNA by z-VAD-fmk, could protect brain of neonatal rats.
    Progress of research on the measurement of motor development in preschool children
    WU Sheng-kou, JIANG Gui-ping
    2014, 22(1):  48-51. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (668KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Status and traits of injury among school children and adolescents in the city of China.
    YU Xiao-ming, WANG Lu, XU Hai-peng, GUO Shuai-jun.
    2014, 22(1):  52-55. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (567KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyze the status and relevant traits of injury among school children and adolescents in the urban areas of China over the past decade and provide the evidence-based strategy. Methods A Meta-analysis was undertaken to comprehensively review the injury of Chinese school children and adolescents based on set criteria.Relevant data published from Jan.2002 to Dec.2012 in Chinese electronic databases were identified and retrieved using Stata Version 11.0. Results Thirty-three studies were identified.The overall estimated injury number of people and person-time were 29% (95%CI:24.5%~34.3%) and 53.2% (95%CI:41.7%~67.9%) respectively.The injuries caused by falling were at the top-one, moreover the road injuries showed a phenomenon of occurring repeatedly.There was difference by the gender and the grade but did not find statistic significance (P>0.05). Conclusions The incidence of injuries among school children and adolescents is increasing over the past decade in China.Efficacious monitoring and intervention strategies need to be strengthened.
    Signature analysis of the sex ratio at birth from 2008 to 2012 in Wuxi city.
    WEI Wei, SUI Qian, CAI Jing-fen, GU Yu-jing.
    2014, 22(1):  56-58. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (401KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand the sex ratio at birth and influencing factors of neonates born in hospital in Wuxi and explore the intervention measures, for laying the foundation of long-term research. Methods Using descriptive research method, the registration information of newborns were collected from all maternity hospital of Wuxi city from 2008 to 2012.The characteristic of sex ratio at birth was analyzed. Results The average sex ratio at birth was 112.42 from 2008 to 2012 in Wuxi city.The sex ratio at birth of the floating population was higher than that of native population.The average sex ratio at birth gradually increased with the age of mother (108.03~123.99) (trend test P<0.05), especially significantly increased among those more than 30 years (>117.87).Logistic regression model demonstrated that the floating population, maternal age ≥30 years old, parity ≥2 and uterine-incision delivery could be the factors of increased sex ratio(P<0.001). Conclusions The sex ratio was higher in Wuxi city.To improve the quality of the newborn population, measures should be taken to improve the monitoring quality.
    Clinical characteristics and diagnosis and treatment of neonatal stroke.
    LIU Jing, LI Jing-ya, HAN Tao, LIANG Jing, XING Meng, YANG Chang-shuan.
    2014, 22(1):  59-61. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (600KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of neonatal stroke (NS) and provide some theoretical references for its diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 37 cases of NS retrospectively were analyzed, including various perinatal factors, clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings. Results 1)In 37 cases, 31 cases (83.8%) presented with significant nervous system symptoms and signs, including 24 patients (77.4%) started with convulsion or being as the main clinical manifestation, 15 patients (62.5%) had the significance of fixed position.10 cases (32.3%) were with weakening primary reflexes.But 6 patients (16.2%) did not present with any obvious neurological abnormal manifestations, cerebral infarction changes could be found only by head imaging examinations.2)The earliest onset time was 10 minutes after birth, while the latest was 12 days after birth.23 cases of the 31 patinets(74.2%) were attacked by NS within 24 hours after birth, 27 cases(87.1%)within 48 hours and 28 cases(90.3%)within 72 hours.3)26 patients(70.3%) were given by cesarean delivery, 11 patients(29.7%) were given by natural childbirth.4)16 patients(43.2%)were with the history of perinatal hypoxia and 10 patients(27.0%) were with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) or intrauterine infection.5) 18 patients (48.6%) were injured in bilateral hemisphere, 12 cases (32.4%) in left hemisphere, 7 cases (18.9%) in right hemisphere and 7 cases (18.49) in the basal ganglia. Conclusions 1)Convulsion is the most common clinical manifestation of NS.2)Early onset.3)Cesarean section is closely correlated with NS, accounting for more than 70%.4)Perinatal hypoxia , PROM and intrauterine infection are the most common reasons of NS.5)Bilateral hemisphere simultaneously involved infarction is the commonest, accounting for nearly 50%.In unilateral hemispheric infarction, the left side suffered more than the right side, basal ganglia infarction simultaneously existed in nearly 20% of NS patients.6)More than 60% of the patients were with poor prognosis.7)The diagnosis of NS depends on the imaging examinations, head B ultrasound is a prior choice, but further diagnosis depends on MRI-DWI.
    Study on the features of left ventricular structure and function in children and adolescent with essential hypertension.
    XIA Shun-gang, ZHAO Ren-bing, LI Hua-lin.
    2014, 22(1):  62-64. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (528KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the features of left ventricular structure and function in children and adolescent with essential hypertension (EH). Method Cardiac structural parameters and function were measured in 37 EH children with echocardiography (EH group) and 42 healthy children were studied as controls. Results Compared with control group, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), interventricular septum end-diastolic thickness (IVST), left ventricular mass (LVM) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were all significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05).While ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (FS) were significantly lower in EH group compared with control group (P<0.05).Descending E peak in end diastole was lower in the EH group, but with no statistical significance (P>0.05).In EH group, peak in end diastole was enhanced (P<0.05), and E/A ratio was significantly lower(P<0.05).Some of the patients were found to develop left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion In children with EH, the heart as a target organ had developed some degree of structural and functional changes.
    Changes and significances of IL-17 and IL-23 levels in peripheral blood of children with bronchiolitis.
    ZHANG Xiu-xiu, QU Shu-qiang.
    2014, 22(1):  65-67. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (392KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objectives To investigate the role of IL-17 and IL-23 in pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, the influences of atopy on bronchiolitis, and provide the basis for the treatment and prognosis of the different physical in infants with bronchiolitis. Methods The blood samples of 60 cases of infants with bronchiolitis were collected as bronchiolitis group, and 20 cases of health children were enrolled as control group.Bronchiolitis group included 18 cases of children with atopy as atopy group and 42 cases of children without atopy as non-atopy group.Levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in peripheral blood were determined by solid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, and statistical analysis. Results 1)There were great differences in IL-17 and IL-23 among bronchiolitis group(15.79±4.82, 34.21±14.82) and control group(11.67±2.61, 23.89±7.15).The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 were clearly higher in bronchiolitis group than those of control group(P<0.000 1).2)The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 were clearly higher in atopy group(21.07±4.81, 47.76±17.95) than those of non-atopy group(13.52±2.48, 27.89±5.59) (P<0.000 1).3)There were clearly a positive correlation between the levels of IL-17 and IL-23 for bronchiolitis(P<0.05). Conclusions IL-17 and IL-23 may be participate pathogenesis of bronchiolitis.The atopic children with bronchiolitis could be more easier development of asthma in the future, and early intervention should be emphasized to prevente asthma.
    Investigation and analysis of prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome among preschool children in Liwan district, Guangzhou city.
    PENG Rong-chun, HE Min, RAO Si-qing.
    2014, 22(1):  68-70. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (397KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) of preschool children in Liwan district and provide basis for further interventions. Methods Four kindergartens were selected randomly from two streets in Liwan District, Guangzhou city.The body height and weight of all the children in the four kindergartens were measured, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among their parents.Children who snored habitually were identified.All habitual snoring children were invited to undergo polysomnography (PSG) evaluation. Results There were 1 326 children in this survey.Among them, 259 were habitual snorers.The prevalence rate of habitual snoring was 19.53%.According to the PSG results, 96 children with OSAHS were identified.The prevalence rate of OSAHS was 7.24%.The OSAHS prevalence rates were not significant different between boys and girls.Multiple conditional logistic regression analysis showed that habitual snoring in father, incidence number of tonsillitis and rhinitis and Height standard body weight were the risk factors associated with OSAHS in children. Conclusions The prevalence rate of preschool children OSAHS is high in Guangzhou Liwan District, there are many independent risk factors associated with OSAHS in preschool children.Comprehensive intervention measures should be carried out.
    Research on incidence regularity of childhood asthma aged 0~14 years old in Chengdu urban district.
    LI Min, LI Lan, PANG Ying, YAO Bin, JIANG Hong, XUE De-hou, LIU Xiao-fan, WANG Ci-lin, CHEN Li-na, LI De-yuan, LIU Han-min, LI Jian-bao, ZHANG Lei.
    2014, 22(1):  71-73. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (460KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To find out the incidence regularity and relevant risk factors of childhood (0~14 years old) asthma by investigating the prevalence in Chengdu city in 2010. Methods A total of 551 children diagnosed by asthma and 270 healthy children were recruited in this study, retrospective investigation was used by respiratory disease specialists for the survey and analysis of factors such as date of birth, the age of the first asthmatic attack, incidence and inducing factors of asthmatic attack, passive smoking, family history of asthma and other allergies, birth and feeding conditions. Results 1)Morbidity rate and seizure frequency of childhood asthma in boys were significantly higher than those in girls.2)The age of the first asthmatic attack was effected by the season of birth, that the children born in autumn had the minimum onset age, and the younger of the first asthmatic attack the higher of the asthmatic frequency of childhood asthma.3)Family history of asthma and other allergies were more common in asthmatic children compared with that in the healthy ones.Respiratory tract infection was the major cause of childhood asthma and other risk factors including passive smoking, home decoration, cesarean section and the early use of antibiotics were also revealed.4)Breast feeding after birth benefited the prevention of asthma. Conclusion The onset of childhood asthma is closely related to genetic diathesis, numerous environmental factors affect the happening, development and severity of the disease.
    Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of varicella public health emergencies at schools and childcare facilities of Henan province, 2008-2012.
    WANG Chang-shuang, LU Ming-xia, MA Ya-ting, ZHANG Xiao-xiao, XIAO Zhan-pei, ZHANG Yan-yang, YE Ying, CHEN Xing-hua.
    2014, 22(1):  74-76. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (426KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of varicella public health emergencies happened in schools and childcare facilities of Henan province from 2008 to 2012. Method Descriptive epidemiology method was used to analyze the data of varicella public health emergencies happened in schools and childcare facilities from Chinese Information System for Disease Control and Prevention during 2008 and 2012. Results A total of 45 varicella public health emergencies and 874 cases were reported in schools and childcare facilities in Henan province from 2008 to 2012, the average attack rate was 4.33%.A large number of varicella patients were sick between April to June (441 cases, 50.46%) and October to January (271 cases, 31.01%).The incidence of varicella public health emergencies (491 case, 55.56%) in rural primary school was the highest in different types of schools (χ2=349.724, P=0.000). Conclusions Schools and childcare facilities, especially rural primary schools, are the places where varicella public health emergency usually happen.The end of spring and autumn to early winter are the critical moments to prevent and control the epidemic of varicella among primary school students and childcare facilities.
    Study on the the main influence factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
    CHEN Xiu, LI Ye-yu, XU Li-lun.
    2014, 22(1):  77-79. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (456KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the main influence factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB), and to provide the clinical basis for the control and prevention of NHB. Methods A total of 147 NHB patients hospitalized in Danyang People's Hospital from October 2010 to October 2011 was selected as case group, 122 normal infants delivered in same hospital at the same period were recruited as control group.The serum bilirubin levels of infants were measured and the questionnaires to their parents were used for data collection.Multifactor logistic regression analysis was conducted to screening the mainly factors of the NHB. Results There were no significant differences in sex ratio, general data of patients and the control group in age (P>0.05).9 factors, including low birth weight, cesarean section, the lack of breast milk, meconium aspiration syndrome, elderly primipara, pregnancy-induced hypertension, infection, asphyxia, intrauterine distress were the main influencing factors of NHB. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of elderly primipara, splits the palace production, meconium aspiration syndrome and infection in children with these perinatal risk factors, actively feeding and timely monitoring and intervention of serum bilirubin level, achieve the purpose of prevention and control of NHB.
    Clinical analysis of neonatal methylmalonic acidemia in 7 cases.
    HAN Tao, LIANG Jing, LI Jing-ya, YANG Chang-shuan, CHEN Jia, YIN Xiao-juan, LIU Jing, FENG Zhi-chun.
    2014, 22(1):  80-82. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (445KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of neonatal methylmalonic academia(MMA). Method The clinical data of 7 patients with neonatal MMA were analyzed and the diagnoses were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). Results The patients consisted of 3 males and 4 females, whose age of onset ranged from 0 to 6 days with all 7 cases early in the first week after birth.The main clinical manifestations were weak reaction(6 cases), poor feeding(7 cases), hyperpnea(3 cases), convulsion(2 cases), hypotonia(7 cases), et al.6 cases presented with thrombocytopenia.The laboratory findings showed metabolic acidosis in 6 cases, hyperammonemia in 4 cases and remarkable elevation of urinary methylmalonicacid concentration in all cases.Some abnormalities were noted by the brain CT or MR in 2 cases of 5.2 cases died at a short time after giving up therapy, 1 case died at the age of 3-month after giving up therapy, 1 case follow-up failed to.2 cases received therapy of vitamin B12 and supplementation of L-carnitine with restricted-protein diet and showed a favorable outcome with no symptoms for a period ranging from 1 year to 1 years and 9 months.1 case received therapy of vitamin B12 and supplementation of L-carnitine with restricted-protein diet, but no effect and died at the age of 4-month. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of neonatal MMA are nonspecific.GC/MS can be used to confirm the diagnosis.Early diagnosis and early treatment is the key to improve the prognosis.
    Investigation and analysis of mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children in Guangzhou seroepidemiological.
    HUANG Hai-ying, CHEN Bo, ZHOU Qiang.
    2014, 22(1):  83-85. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (415KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To survey of pediatric mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection incidence, sex, onset season and age distribution. Method SERODIA@-MYCO Ⅱ particle agglutination method on the inpatient and outpatient children with respiratory tract infection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in the serum (MP-IgM) test. Results In 3 years, 5 924 cases of pneumonia in children were detected, positive for 2 321 cases, the positive rate was 39.13%;Male children were 34.40% (1 208/3 512), lower than female children with 46.14% (1 113/2 412), the difference had statistical significance (χ2= 82.82, P<0.01).MP antibody positive rate was highest in the fourth quarter (10~12 months), 42.00% (625/1 488), the second in the first quarter (1~3 months), 41.25% (528/1 280).There were significant difference in 14 groups (P<0.01);Aged 0~1 MP positive rate was 13.55%, the lowest followed by 1~2 years of age and MP positive rate between 2~3 years old, aged 9~10 MP positive rate up to 65.03%, 5~14 years old age range MP about 51%~65% positive rate remains high level, visible MP positive rate in children with age growth.In 2010-2012 MP antibody positive rate was no statistical significance. Conclusions MP positive women were more than men, the peak period of MP infection are the first quarter and 4th quarter;The MP infection range for the age of 5~14 years old, MP positive rate in 3 years were no difference during the period of 2010 to 2012, the detection of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and the prevention and control should strengthen in clinical works.
    Risk factors and neonatal morbidity of small for gestational age infants in late-preterm birth.
    WANG Hong-yu, HOU Ying, DIAO Jing-jun.
    2014, 22(1):  86-87. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (429KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To compare prenatal risk factors and neonatal morbidity between small for gestational age (SGA) infants and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants in late-preterm birth. Methods Neonatal morbidity and prenatal of 121 SGA infants delivered between 34~36+6 weeks of gestational age were retrospective analyzed.The control group consisted of 754 infants with spontaneous preterm delivery at the same gestation, in which the infant was AGA. Results In SGA group length of stay of NICU was longer than AGA.The frequency of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, oligohydramnios, abnormality of umbilial cord, multiple pregnancy, fetal distress were higher than those in AGA group(P<0.05).SGA infants were found to be at higher risk of hypoglycemia, feeding intolerance, polycythemia, septicemia (P<0.05). Conclusions Late-preterm SGA infants present a significantly higher risk of neonatal complications when compare to late-preterm AGA infants.
    Efficacy improving of salbutamol and ipratropium in preterm children.
    LIU Cui, WANG Yong, LOU Fang.
    2014, 22(1):  88-90. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (582KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To observate the effects of salbutamol and ipratropium for preterm children of oxygenation. Methods A total of 112 cases of premature children were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group were given salbutamol and ipratropium bromide inhalation after admission on the basis of conventional therapy;Control group received conventional therapy only. Results Treatment group had dyspnea, hypoxemia, peripheral oxygen, apnea, only oxygen fell, the difference was not statistically significant compared with control group(P>0.05);dyspnea relief time, time to correct hypoxemia, peripheral oxygen time, apnea relief time, pure oxygen saturation fell remission time, which occurred in the treatment group compared with the control group, the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).The signs and symptoms remission of treatment group were shorter than those of the control group. Conclusions Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide treatment of respiratory disease in preterm children, could not reduce their dyspnea, hypoxemia, apnea and other signs and symptoms.Peripheral oxygen can not be avoided, but it can improve symptoms and shorten the oxygen time, and also shorten the course.
    Investigation and analysis of accidental injury of 3~6 years old rural children in Zibo County.
    YANG Yu-ling, XUE Ling, CUI Li-hua, PANG Shu-lan.
    2014, 22(1):  93-95. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (432KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand the status of accident injury of rural children aged 3~6 in Zibo County and provide the basis data for injury prevention interventions. Methods According to the principle of cluster sampling, a total of 1 231 children of Zibo county, aged 3~6 years old were selected as subjects.Self-made questionnaire was used to collect information related to accident injury. Results The accident injury rate of preschool children was 6.58%.The home listed the top site of occurring accident injury and slip was the most common reason of injury.The injured parts were mainly in extremity.The more occurred injury season were summer and winter.The majority injury degree was mild and the average of total treatment costs was 675.3 yuan. Conclusions The data showed a higher incidence of accidental injuries among preschool children.Therefore safety education and management should be strengthened in terms of preventing injury of children.
    Clinical significance of eosinophil, IL-4 and IFN-γ in bronchial asthma.
    LIU Jin-feng.
    2014, 22(1):  96-97. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (429KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the relation between EOS and asthma;To evaluate the alteration and significance of serum IL-4 and IFN-γ in bronchial asthma. Methods Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all patients as a percent of predicted value; The use of ultrasonic inhalation of 3% to 5% hypertonic saline induced EOS percentage ;The serum levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA in 69 cases of asthma at stage of episode, and 42 cases healthy people. Results The levels of EOS and IL-4 in bronchial asthma patients were significantly higher than of normal control group (P=0.009;P=0.012);while the level of IFN-γ in bronchial asthma patients were significantly lower than of normal control group(P=0.020). Conclusion Augmentation of EOS, IL-4 and IFN-γ had close correlation with bronchial asthma, to improve the clinical diagnosis of asthma.
    Related factors analysis of 488 cases of unintentional injury of children under 7 years old.
    FANG Lin.
    2014, 22(1):  98-100. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (424KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyze characteristics and related factors of accidental injuries among children under the age of 7. Method Retrospective study was used in analyzing 488 accidental injury cases of children under the age of 7 in Conghua City from January to December in 2012. Results The main causes of children's unintentional injuries were as follows:falls, animal injuries, burn and scald, blunt force injuries, road traffic injuries and the foreign body injuries, there were significant differences between sexes and different age groups(P<0.01).Boys animal damage ratio was higher than girls (P<0.01), girls burn proportion was higher than boys (P<0.05);Among children aged 3~7, the proportion of road traffic injuries was higher than those aged 0~2 years old (P<0.01), but the proportion of foreign body injuries was lower than those aged 0~2 (P<0.01).For the children cared by the teachers in the kindergarten, the higher percentage of moderately severe accident occurred. Conclusions In the children's accident harm, the incidence of animal damage is higher, elder children are prone to road traffic injury and younger children prone to foreign body injuries, and collective children is the key of accident prevention, so it should be taken a targeted interventions according to the characteristics of children accidental injuries.
    Related factors analysis of attack factors and treatment for 192 children asthma in asthma outpatient.
    XUE Man, HOU Wei, LIU Hai-yan.
    2014, 22(1):  101-102. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (317KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyse the attack factors and treatment of children asthma, to explore the relationship of the causes and treatment with children asthma. Method A total of 192 cases of asthma from the child asthma outpatient were investigated by retrospective analysis. Results Of the 192 cases, the attack seasons of asthma was mainly in autumn and winter, 42.18%and 36.45%.Induced factors of asthma were mostly respiratory infection, 63.54%.Eczema and allergic rhinitis history of diseases were in 54.6% and 50.5%.History of asthma family with one and two relatives were showed 28.6%.Children asthma were received regular prevention and management, the related knowledge with asthma children were significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusions There was close relationship of asthmatic attack factors with season, history of personal and family allergic disease.Prevention management plays an important role in children asthma.
    Children's health service utilization in rural areas based on perspective of family.
    SHU Xing-yu, ZONG Zhan-hong, WEN Yong, RU Xiao-mei.
    2014, 22(1):  103-105. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (578KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyse and compare children's health service utilization among different types of families in rural areas and provide related reference evidences improving children's health service system. Method Sampling survey for 2 220 households from 14 counties of 5 provinces received structural questionnaires to children's parents. Results The proportions of children's health examination and consultation among all kinds of families were less than 30%.It was relatively well in three generations family compared with two generation family and skipped generation family.27.8% and 25.9% of three generations families conducted health examination and consultation for their children over the past year. Conclusion Health education is improved to children's parents in rural areas and health services is provided to children from different types of families.
    Analysis of results of internal quality control for neonatal screening-phenylalanine and thyrotropin-stimulating hormone.
    WANG Wei, ZHONG Kun, HE Fa-lin, ZHANG Yan, ZHAO Yan, WANG Zhi-guo.
    2014, 22(1):  106-109. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (551KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To carry out the current status of internal quality control by statistical analysis of the Internal Quality Control(IQC) data of neonatal screening in 2011, which including phenylalanine (Phe) and thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH). Methods After collecting the internal quality control information and data (raw data, manufacturers information, control rules, lots, numbers of results, coefficient variations of data under control, coefficient of variations of cumulative data under control, methods, instrument manufacturers and models, reagents) of Phe and TSH testing from the external quality control software, coefficient variations of every month and long time duration of Phe and TSH internal quality control had been calculated and analyzed, then comparing with the one third and one forth of acceptable total error (10% and 7.5%) in order to evaluate whether could satisfy the provided quality requirements. Results The return rates of IQC Results ranged from 61.78% to 91.62% of 12 months in 2011, 84.86% for average.There were 80 (49%) laboratories select 12S or 13S for quality control rules while the remaining (51%) use Westgard multi-rules.The totally rates of CVs of Phe and TSH (2 lots) less than 1/3 TEa were 54.63% and 64.54% (Phe), 58.25% and 62.35% (TSH) respectively; less than 1/4 TEa were 29.14% and 34.48% (Phe), 27.70% and 28.08% (TSH) respectively; for cumulative data the CVs less than 1/3 TEa were 53.20% and 59.12% (Phe), 57.47% and 56.21% (TSH) respectively; less than 1/4 TEa were 26.46% and 28.12% (Phe), 25.64% and 25.87% (TSH) respectively.The most laboratories did not reach the acceptable imprecision level and most of them should improve their precision performances. Conclusion The testing capabilities and performances of neonatal screening laboratories of Phe and TSH can be objectively evaluated by the quality specifications of acceptable imprecision (less than 1/3 TEa or 1/4 TEa) and more work should be done to improve the testing quality of neonatal laboratories in China.
    Genetic diagnosis and pathogenesis of a case of Prader-willi syndrome.
    YANG Xiao, WANG Yan, PENG Wei, LIU Xin, MA Ning, LI Hao.
    2014, 22(1):  110-112. 
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (449KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To expore genetic diagnosis and pathogenesis for one case of Prader-willi syndrome(PWS) patient with chromosomal balance-translocation. Method Chromosome karyotype analysis and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSPCR) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplifi -cation(MS-MLPA) were applied for detecting the genetic disorder and analyzing pathogenesis of patient. Results The result of chromosome karyotype was 45, XY, -5, -15, t (5, 15) (q34q13).The patient was diagnosed with PWS by MS-PCR.Further MS-MLPA comfirmed PWS was due to paternal deletion in 15q11-13 region. Conclusion The cellular and molecular genetics experiments are crucial in the clinical diagnosis and molecular genetic basis of PWS.