Effects of temperament and family environment on adaptation behavior in preschool children
- QI Jing, LONG Lei, LIANG Jing, LI Hong-juan, GAO Hong, WANG Zhao-hui
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Objective To study the characteristics of preschool children's adaptive behavior development, and to explore the influence of temperament and family environment on adaptive behavior, in order to provide basis for promoting the children's adaptive behavior. Methods A random cluster sampling method was used to select 304 parents of 4- to 6-year-old children from 3 kindergartens in Xi'an in October 2019.Parents were asked to fill out the questionnaire.ANOVA, correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to explore the influence of temperament and family environment on adaptation behavior in preschool children. Results 1)There were significant differences on independent factors, cognitive function factors, social/self-control factors and adaptive quotient (ADQ) in preschool children of different age groups(F=15.49, 6.31, 18.17, 20.91, P<0.05), and adaptive behavior developed with age.2) Rhythm, adaptability, response intensity, persistence, response domain, intimacy were significantly correlated with ADQ (r=-0.18, -0.17, 0.15, -0.13, 0.18, 0.28, P＜0.05).Rhythm, adaptability, intimacy and contradiction were significantly related to independent factors (r=-0.16, -0.18, 0.26, -0.13, P<0.05).Rhythm, persistence, intimacy and knowledge were significantly related to cognitive function factors (r=-0.14, -0.17, 0.18, 0.11, P<0.05).Response intensity, attention dispersal, response domain, intimacy and organization were significantly related to social factors (r=0.19, 0.13, 0.21, 0.21, 0.13, P<0.05).3) Family intimacy (β=0.28), temperamental rhythm (β=-0.15) and response threshold (β=0.14) could jointly predict adaptive behavior (F=14.75, P＜0.001). Conclusions The development of adaptive behaviors in preschool children is influenced by age, temperament, and family environment.Therefore, creating a suitable family environment according to the characteristics of children's temperament, could promote the all-round development of preschool children's adaptive behavior.