Chinese Journal of Child Health Care ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (3): 322-326.DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2022-0421

• Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Characteristics of fine motor development in primary school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ZHU Xiaotong1, REN Yuanchun1, LIU Jing2, LI Xue2, WANG Fang3, YIN Tingni2, XIE Yongtao1, SONG Yiqi1, FAN Biyao1, JI Ning4   

  1. 1. College of P.E and Sports, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Peking University Sixth Hospital;
    3. Wanquan Primary School, Haidian District of Beijing;
    4. Child Development Center, Peking University Medical Group
  • Received:2022-04-18 Revised:2022-07-14 Online:2023-03-01 Published:2023-02-28
  • Contact: REN Yuanchun,


朱笑彤1, 任园春1, 刘靖2, 李雪2, 王芳3, 尹婷妮2, 谢永涛1, 宋懿芪1, 范碧瑶1, 吉宁4   

  1. 1.北京师范大学体育与运动学院,北京 100875;
  • 通讯作者: 任园春,
  • 作者简介:朱笑彤(1995-),女,河北人,博士研究生在读,主要研究方向为儿童动作发展与促进。
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Objective To explore the fine motor development characteristics of primary students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in order to provide an objective basis for developing non-drug treatment for ADHD. Method From September 2019 to April 2021, children who met the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) were screened from the first and second grade students of a general public elementary school in Beijing and the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Finally 32 predominantly inattentive type ADHD were enrolled, of whom 26 were boys and 6 were girls, with the average age of (8.47±1.23) years old. Sex- and age-matched typically developed (TD) children from nearby elementary schools were recruited as controls. All subjects were divided into the lower grade group of 6 to 8 years old and the senior grade group of 9 to 10 years old, using Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2), Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) and Developmental Test of Visual Perception-3 (DTVP-3) to evaluate the level of fine motor development and visual perception ability of all children. Results 1) The score of the MABC-2(t=2.22), manual dexterity(t=3.44) and DTVP-3 (except figure-ground) of ADHD students(t=4.45,6.55,2.13,2.13) were lower than those of TD children (P<0.05). ADHD children took more time using their dominant and non-dominant hand to complete GPT than TD students, and the differences were statistically significant (t=2.72, 3.31, P<0.05). 2) The score of MABC-2(t=3.11), pins(t=3.61,2.50), traces and DTVP-3 (except figure-ground ) of ADHD children(t=4.70,6.24,2.28,2.07) in lower grades were significantly lower than those of normal group (P<0.05). The time of ADHD using dominant and non-dominant hands to finish GPT were more than that of TD group (t=3.48, 3.47, P<0.05). 3) The score of MABC-2 dominant nail insertion of ADHD children in senior grade was lower than that of TD group, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.91, P<0.05). Conclusions ADHD primary students have poor development of fine motor skills, including poor hand fine operation skills, low visual perception processing and visual-motor integration abilities. The fine motor development of ADHD primary students in the lower grades lags behind more significantly, which is improved in ADHD children in senior grades, but still can not reach the level of TD students with the same age.

Key words: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, children, fine motor, visual perception ability

摘要: 目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)小学生精细动作发展特点,为开拓ADHD儿童非药物治疗手段提供客观依据。方法 2019年9月—2021年4月,从北京市某普通公立小学一、二年级学生中筛查和从某三甲医院精神科门诊募集符合《美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册》第5版(DSM-5)诊断标准的ADHD儿童32名,均为注意缺陷型,平均年龄(8.47±1.23)岁,男童26名,女童6名。并从公立小学随机筛选性别、年龄匹配的正常小学生作为对照。将被试分为6~8岁低年级组和9~10岁高年级组,使用儿童动作协调能力标准评估工具(MABC-2)、沟槽钉板(GPT)、视知觉发展测试(DTVP-3)对被试的精细动作及视知觉水平进行评估。结果 1)ADHD小学生MABC-2总分(t=2.22)、手部精细各项得分(t=3.44)、DTVP-3分项(除视觉辨别外)得分(t=4.45、6.55、2.13、2.13)低于正常儿童,使用惯用手与非惯用手完成沟槽钉板的平均用时长于对照组(t=2.72、3.31),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。2)低年级ADHD小学生MABC-2总分(t=3.11)、插钉(t=3.61、2.50)、描画轨迹(t=2.10)以及DTVP-3分项(除视觉辨别外)得分(t=4.70、6.24、2.28、2.07)低于对照组,使用惯用手与非惯用手完成沟槽钉板的平均用时比对照组长(t=3.48、3.47),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。3)高年级ADHD小学生仅MABC-2惯用手插钉得分低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(t=2.91, P<0.05)。结论 ADHD小学生精细动作发展落后,手部精细操作技能差,潜在的视知觉加工和视觉-运动整合能力低下。低年级ADHD小学生精细动作发展落后更显著,高年级ADHD小学生精细动作能力有所提升,但仍未达到同龄正常儿童发育水平。

关键词: 注意缺陷多动障碍, 儿童, 精细动作, 视知觉

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