Table of Content

    10 April 2015, Volume 23 Issue 4
    Correlation of child obesity in Beijing preschool children
    WU Xu-long,ZHAO Wen,LI Jing-jing,WANG Ling,YANG Miao,LI Liu-bai
    2015, 23(4):  340-343.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-02
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    Objective To identify major factors of child obesity in preschool children for providing target factors for intervention. Methods Parents of preschool children,kindergarten teachers and kindergarten principals were chosen through convenience sampling for focus group interview or deep personal interview.Questionnaires were distributed to a total of 400 parents of 2 to 7 year-old children from five kindergartens in Beijing urban and rural areas.Information of qualitative interviews was obtained and summarized with keyword extraction.Overweight or obesity was determined by reference norm for screening obesity in Chinese preschool children [body mass index(BMI)≥the 85th percentile was defined as overweight or obesity].Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential correlates. Results Overweight and obesity rates were 16.5% and 28.0%,respectively.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis found:1) risk factors:high birth weight (≥4 000 g)(OR=31.55;95%CI:1.78~4.17,P<0.001),caesarean birth (OR=4.89;95%CI:1.42~16.89,P=0.01),breastfeeding and formula feeding (OR=25.90;95%CI:3.07~218.39,P<0.001)and rare breastfeeding (OR=11.15;95%CI:1.686~73.7121,P=0.01),compared with exclusive breastfeeding;2) Protective factors:fathers'higher education(OR=0.32;95%CI:0.12~0.89,P=0.03),eating coarse grain frequently (OR=0.43;95%CI:0.21~0,87,P=0.02),and eating at home frequently (OR=0.86;95%CI:0.75~0.98,P=0.02). Conclusions Perinatal factors,family environment,birth and feeding conditions and children's diet and exercise behaviors are correlations of child obesity.With increasingly high incidence of overweight and obesity among Chinese preschool children,early intervention measures should be taken for reducing the incidence and development of overweight and obesity among preschool children.
    Preliminary study of school-age children exposure to bisphenol-A and its relationship with obesity in Shanghai
    WANG Ying-can,SHEN Li-xiao,CHEN Yao,HUANG Hong,YI Yuan-yuan
    2015, 23(4):  344-347.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-03
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    Objective To explore status quo of Shanghai school-age children exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and the relationship between BPA exposure with children obesity. Method A total of 500 primary school students aged between 6 and 11 were collected,used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to detect the concentration of total BPA,measured and evaluated their physique level. Results Urine BPA detection rate of children detected was 77.2%,the concentration range was ND ~ 79.52 ng/mL,the median was 1.32 ng/mL,the interquartile range was 0.35~4.01 ng/mL.The urine BPA concentration was significantly higher in girls than boys (Z=-3.687,P<0.01);The urine BPA concentration was significantly higher in 8~11 age group than 6~7 age group (Z=-1.986,P<0.05).The obesity and overweight rate was as high as 32.9%,including the obesity rate-12.9%,the overweight rate-20.1%;and the angular rate was 2.6%.The obesity rate was significantly higher in boys than in girls(χ2=24.935,P<0.01).There was no significant difference between urine BPA concentrations of obese,overweight,angular and normal weight groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Shanghai school-age children are exposed to BPA generally.Severe obesity problem exists among school-age children.
    Genetic analysis of lower extremity length index for middle childhood twins
    DING Yi,LI Yu-ling,LIU Yan,GONG Jian
    2015, 23(4):  348-350.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-04
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    Objective To assess the genetic and environmental influences on lower extremity length index of middle childhood twins,and the effect of the age and sex. Method The quantitative genetic model-fitting and estimates of each index and genetic and environmental variance components were done with Mx software. Results The best fitting model of each index was ACES.After adjusting age,the heritabilities was as follows:height (male 43%,female 60%),sitting height (male 62%,female 62%),lower extremity length (male 50%,female 62%) and lower extremity length ratio (male 18%,female 36%).There were gender differences in heritabilities of height,lower extremity length and lower extremity length ratio. Conclusion Environmental factors play a leading role in the development of body length,which suggests that nutrition,physical exercises and controlling related diseases should be paid much attention to improve lower extremity length development to promote children's growth potential.
    Polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene Fok I in the Korean children in Yanbian district
    QUAN Jing-hua,LU Yan-qiang,LI Ying,JIN Jing-ji,SONG Jin-xia
    2015, 23(4):  351-353.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-05
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    Objective To explore the polymorphism distribution of vitamin D receptor(VDR)gene Fok Ⅰin the Korean children in Yanbian Province for further study on relation between VDR gene polymorphisms and metabolic bone disease. Methods A total of 98 Korean children were recruited and collected oral epithelial cells.Genome DNA for fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect SNP of Fok Ⅰ were extracted.The results were compared with the distribution frequency of Fok Ⅰin other nations or races. Result The frequency of Fok Ⅰ( ff,Ff,FF ) in Korean children were 23%,40%,37% respectively,which were significant difference to Achangs,Dongxiang nationality,Americans and Nigerian (P<0.05). Conclusion Fok Ⅰ polymorphism distribution in Korean children exhibits its own characteristics.
    Effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on pulmonary ventilation function and cytokine production of children with asthma
    HOU Wei,YANG Yu-feng,LEI Xiao-mei,LI Shao-wen,YANG Yuan-yuan,LIU Hai-yan,YANG Xu-dong
    2015, 23(4):  354-356.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-06
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    Objective To explore the effect of the expression of n-3 PUFA supplementation on pulmonary ventilation function,exhaled nitric oxide(FeNO) and cytokine production of children with asthma. Methods Children with asthma were randomly divided into two groups:treatment group (46 cases) and conventional group (26 cases).The conventional group was treated with conventional methods.The treatment group was given additional n-3PUFA supplementation besides conventional treatment.FEV1%,PEF%,FeNO and IL-4,IL-5,IFN-γ,TGF-β1 in the serum were measured before and after the treatmen. Results Compared with conventional group,the FEV1%,PEF% increased significantly (P<0.01) and FeNO decreased (P<0.01) among treatment group after the treatment.The concentration of IL-4,IL-5,TGF-β1 decreased,and that of IFN-γ increased in the serum of asthma children with before and after the treatment. Conclusion The n-3PUFA can remarkably improves ventilation,reduce airway inflammation in children with asthma.
    Analysis of the use and relative factors about flash visual evoked potentials in neonatal intensive care unit
    SONG Jian-min,ZHOU Xiao-yu,CHENG Rui,JIANG Yun-fei,LIU Fang
    2015, 23(4):  357-359.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-07
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    Objective To explore the use and relative factors analysis of flash visual evoked potentials(FVEP) in neonatal intensive care unit and provide the scientific basis for the diagnosis of visual function. Methods Thirty premature infants with two or more kinds of serious complications from neonatal intensive care unit were selected as experimental group,and thirty full-term newborns from common neonatal wards were selected as control group.Any case with brain injury was excluded.All infants were evaluated by FVEP 1 to 2 weeks after entering the hospital.All cases with abnormal findings were followed up by 3 months and 6 months after birth. Results Gestational age was closely related to clinical latency.The shorter the gestational age was,the longer was the P100 latency,with significant difference(P<0.01).The major risk factor of the dominant wave deficiency was related to hyperbilirubinemia,asphyxia,hypothyroidism.In 16 cases(26 eyes) of premature infants with abnormal findings of FVEP,there were 8 premature infants were recovered totally,with no change in 1 case and loss to follow up in 7 cases.In the group of term infants,the latency of P100 was recovered after 6 months in 4 cases (6 eyes) with abnormal FVEP. Conclusions FVEP is an objective methods for visual function state in premature infants with wonderful accuracy,sensitivity and better repeatability.FVEP is helpful to understand the damage of nervous system in preterm infants.Hperbilirubinemia,asphyxia and hypothyroidism are regarded as the highly risk factors of brain injury in preterm infants.
    Clinical study on early intervention to reduce cerebral palsy incidence in very low birth weight children
    LIU Wei-min,BAO Xiu-lan,MA Lei,WANG Dan-hua,LI Xiao-jie,REN Shi-guang,SUN Shu-ying,WU Wei-hong,WANG Hui-shan
    2015, 23(4):  360-363.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-08
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    Objective To investigate whether early intervention on premature very low birth weight infants can reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy. Methods The sample data in this study included 857 premature infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks and/or birth weight lower than 1 500 g from 28 hospitals.The children with congenital malformations and hereditary diseases were excluded.All children were divided into two groups: intervention group (452) in which their parents actively received early intervention guidance and control group (405) in which all children were born 9 to 15 months prior the study and were only given conventional parenting.A comprehensive early intervention program was performed to children in intervention group after discharge from hospitals,including the training of motor,cognitive,language,emotional and communication abilities.Among them,Motor training included massage,passive exercise and active exercise training.Children were then taken neuromotor examination once a month.Children with abnormal posture received intensive training by professional rehabilitation personnel; children in control group only received the same feeding,care and infant health guidance with children in the intervention group.Subjects were then taken neuromotor examination on the corrected age of 9 and 12 months respectively.All children were followed up to 2 years old. Results Children in two groups were without difference in gender,gestational age,birth weight and other general aspects (P>0.05).Perinatal period comparison:There were 118 (26.33%) and 75 (18.43%) children were found with intracranial hemorrhage in the intervention and control group respectively.The occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage in the intervention group was significantly higher (P<0.05).The comparisons of the incidence ratios of intrauterine distress,postnatal asphyxia,hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,hyperbilirubinemia,respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal infection were statistically insignificant (all P>0.05).The diagnoses of cerebral palsy were given only when children were older than 1 in both groups.The incidence of cerebral palsy was 22.1 ‰(10/452) in the intervention group,and 61.7 ‰(25/405) in control group,the incidence ratio in the control group was 2.79 times higher,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Early intervention can effectively reduce incidence of cerebral palsy in premature children and very low birth weight children after discharge.
    Clinical characteristics and rehabilitation training in children with backlingual consonant articulation disorders
    LV Zi-yuan,LI Feng,ZHANG Yan-yun,XU Li-na
    2015, 23(4):  364-366.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-09
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    Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics and rehabilitation training methods of abnormal backlingual consonant of children with functional articulation disorders (FAD). Methods A total of 95 children diagnosed with FAD were adopted as the research objects.Then the clinical characteristics of backlingual consonant articulation disorders was analysed.26 children with BCAD were selected for research of training methods. Results The articulation disorders of /g/ mainly showed a replacement by /d/,/k/ mainly showed a replacement by /t/,/g/ or /d/,and /h/ mainly showed a dropping or replacement by /g/.After the speech training,the children made less mistakes about backlingual consonant,the differences were statistically significant (Z=-4.482,P<0.001). Conclusions BCAD occurs mainly on /g/ and /k/,and mainly shows a replacement or dropping.The training methods this research established are significantly effective.
    Long-term effects of multi-generation drinking milk on lactase mice precursor protein expression quantity
    LIU Na,YANG Shu-fen
    2015, 23(4):  367-370.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-10
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    Objective To observe the effect of milk on the mouse intestinal lactase expression quantity by continued to fed multi-generational Balb/c mice with milk. Methods Balb/c mice were cultured to the experimental group(S) given amount of milk passaged stimulation and control group (D) given the same amount of distilled water,respectively,in mice 3,5,7,9 weeks and small intestinal tissue was taken,as experimental material.Paraffin embedded sections,the source expression rabbit anti I and anti II anti lactase fluorescence immunohistochemical detection were selected to detect lactase amount.Each generation mice were randomly selected 40 samples,the positive rate of the primary mice and experimental group of fourth generation,horizontal comparison of each week number,and the algebra a longitudinal comparison. Results 1)The experimental group between the number of weeks,fifth weeks,seventh weeks had the highest expression of lactase.2)The fourth generation in the experimental group had the highest lactase expression level than the primary mice,there were statistical significance.3) The positive rate of the experimental group with algebra increased. Conclusion Through the long-term multi generation drinking milk,the experimental group lactase precursor protein expression is higher than that of control group,and further validate that lactose tolerance can be induced.
    Cross-sectional study on obesity and the influencing factors for students in primary schools in Huai'an
    XU Wei,LIU Hong,WU Xiao-juan,MA Shao-gang,YU Wei-nan
    2015, 23(4):  383-384.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-15
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    Objective To study the current status of obesity and the influencing factors of the students in school and to provide the baseline information for obesity prevention. Method A cluster stratified sampling of 901 primary school students were questionnaired. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed that the father of a higher BMI,mother of higher cultural level,the risk of obesity in children and adolescents was greater;The incidence of obesity was correlated with living area,outdoor activity time and favorite of fried foods. Conclusion To change their unhealthy lifestyle and eating habits is the key to the prevention and control of the development of obesity,adolescent obesity problem should attract the attention of the whole society.
    Situation and risk factors analysis of preschoolers obesity in Hohhot
    LIU Yan-qi,ZHAO Wei-ping,SUN Yan-hong
    2015, 23(4):  385-387.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-16
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    Objective To investigate the incidence of obesity and the relationship between Hohhot preschoolers lifestyle,eating habits and childhood obesity,and provide evidences of obesity intervention strategy in pre-school children. Methods The method of stratified cluster sampling randomly was used to 2 800 selecte children in Hohhot physical measurements,height and weight.These children lifestyle,movement and eating habits of questionnaires were used to analyze the possible causes of childhood obesity risk factors. Results Hohhot overweight preschool children was 15.3%,obesity was 19.29%.Boy obesity was 23.8% which was higher than the rate of obese girls (14.6%);Urban childhood obesity rate was 22.7%,higher than the rural areas 13.6%;The incidence of childhood obesity in 3~6 years old age groups had no significant difference.Analysis showed:the too high mother weight gain was during pregnancy,high birth weight,artificial feeding,parental overweight,eat snacks,like eat meat,often eat fast foods,eating fast,exercise less time watching television and playing computer too long were children obesity risk factors. Conclusion Rates of obesity in preschool children is higher in this region,the incidence of childhood obesity is closely associated with the family environment,diet and genetic factors,early intervention should be strengthened to control children obesity.
    Changes in gut microbiota in preschool obese children from two kindergartens in Beijing
    LI Jing,LU Yuan-yuan,FAN Chao-nan,DING Xu,QI Ke-min
    2015, 23(4):  388-390.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-17
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    Objective To investigate the changes in gut microbiota in preschool obese children and their association with body mass index (BMI),and help further study on prevention and therapy of obesity. Methods Twenty-nine obese preschool children aged 3~6 years old and 34 normal-weight children with similar age and sex ratio from 2 kindergartens in Beijing in 2014,were included in the study.Microbial DNA was extracted from the morning fecal samples and the V4-V5 region of the bacteria 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified by PCR.Then the Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to examine the gut microbiota. Results Compared to the normal-weight children (6.42%±1.10%),the level of Proteobacteria (10.75%±2.00%) was significantly increased in obese children (P<0.05); whereas no changes were found in levels of Firmicutes (2.90%±10.79% vs.62.41%±11.59%),Bacteroidetes (19.19%±3.29% vs.16.36%±3.04%),Actinobacteria (9.69%±1.66% vs.9.28%±1.72%),Lactobacillus (0.08%±0.01% vs.0.07%±0.01%),Bacteroides (2.73%±0.47% vs.3.81%±0.71%),Bifidobacterium (8.09%±1.39% vs.8.25%±1.53%) and Escherichia-Shigella (3.94%±0.67% vs.5.78%±1.07%) between the normal-weight and obese groups (P>0.05).Correlative analysis showed that the level of Proteobacteria was positively associated with BMI,and other phyla and genera had no association with BMI (P>0.05). Conclusion The increased Proteobacteria level may play an important role in obesity of preschool children.
    Research on evaluation of 3~6 years old children's nutritional status through the application of human body composition analyzer in Guigang
    LI Lin,DUAN Jie-hua,TAN Xiao-liang,TAN Yan-ping
    2015, 23(4):  391-394.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-18
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    Objective To evaluate 3~6 years old children's physical development and nutrition status in Guigang,in order to provide a guide for children health and nutrition diet therapy and further to improve the nutritional status of children. Methods A total of 1 200 cases of 3~6 years old children were selected in Guigang.Using stratified random sampling method,6 kindergartens were selected randomly in different functional areas (including the school condition was good,medium,poor kindergarten each 2).By detecting child body composition:water,the total amount of body fat,protein,skeletal muscle,inorganic salt,analysising the period of children body composition growth and development and shape,to evaluate the growth and nutrition condition. Results The difference was statistically significant in 3~6 years old male,female children physical development,compared with the 2005 national survey of the same sex and age group of children's height,weight,Guigang was low;Evaluation of growth "moderate" up,"in the upper,lower" second,"the finest inferior,inferior" at least;children with low birth weight ratio upper,lower" second,"the finest inferior,inferior" at least;Children with low birth weight ratio was 2.50%,weight loss ratio was 2.33%,slow growth ratio was 3.17%,overweight ratio was 9.25%,obesity ratio was 2.58%.Protein deficiency ratio was 11.92% and inorganic salt deficiency ratio was 12.25%. Conclusions Preschool children in Guigang city,the malnutrition rate is low,the growth condition overall is good,but the rate of overweight and obesity rate is higher.In the future,more attention should be paid to the children's nutritional excess,unbalanced nutrition status,promote the children's healthy growth and development,at the same time reduce children's nutrition surplus rate.
    Epidemiological and treated status investigation on congenital heart disease in school children in Dongguan city
    XIAO Jian-min,CHEN Jiu-hao,WANG Jie-ying,JIN Hui,LI Wei,RUAN Jian-bo,WANG Sheng-yong
    2015, 23(4):  395-397.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-19
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    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and treated status of congenital heart disease in school children aged 6~13 in Dongguan city. Method Congenital heart disease screening was carried out by cardiac auscultation and ultrasound company with questionnaire survey in all school children in Dongguan city between November 2011 and November 2012,and treated status were analyzed in children with congenital heart disease. Results A total of 540 574 children were screened,214 634 (39.7%) were residence and 325 940 (60.3%) were non-residence among them.The total prevalence of congenital heart disease was 2.14‰,there was no significant difference (P>0.05) of the prevalence between residence (1.97‰) and non-residence (2.26‰).The rates of treated in residence and non-residence was 63.51% and 47.21% respectively (P<0.05).Among the 542 children who need immediate further therapy,154 were residence and 388 were non-residence,the rates of untreated was 36.49% and 52.79% in residence and non-residence separately. Conclusions The prevalence of congenital heart disease in school children in Dongguan have no significant difference compare to other districts.The rate of treated in non-residence children is much lower than that in residence children,this indicated that screening and treatment for congenital heart disease on non-residence children in Dongguan should be pay more attention to avoid therapeutic delay.
    Dental age assessment using Demirjian's method on children during deciduous dentition
    CHENG Min,CHEN Xiang,CHEN Ting-ting,ZHANG Qiang
    2015, 23(4):  402-404.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-21
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    Objective To explore the rule of the dental development during deciduous dentition and to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian's method for dental age estimation on children during deciduous dentition,aged 4 to 6. Methods Through cluster sampling from kindergartens in Shenzhen,75 children aged 4-year-old (40 boys,35 girls) were chosen.The serial dental pantomograms,taken at ages 4,5 and 6 years old,were used for dental age assessment according to the Demirjian's method.The differences between dental age and chronological age were compared using paired t-test. Results Through 3-year growth,the second molar,the second premolar premolar,the first premolar premolar were at the stage of dental crown development,while the first molar,the canine,the lateral incisor and the central incisor at the stage of dental root formation.In terms of relative growth,female subjects exhibited an more mature teeth development than male subjects between 4 and 6 years old.A significant difference was found between chronological age and dental age. Conclusion Demirjian's method need to be modified to be used in dental age assessment on children during deciduous dentition.
    Subjective quality of life and related factors in children with asthma in a region of Xinjiang
    LI Xin-lu,YU Xiao-fang,LI Xin-hui
    2015, 23(4):  405-408.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-22
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    Objective To investigate the subjective life quality of children with asthma and explore its influential factors. Method A total of 182 cases of children with asthma as sample,were researched by Inventory of Subjective Life Quality (ISLQ) to investigate the general conditions and life quality during December 2013 to June 2014. Results The average score of quality of life with asthma was 152.1±15.54 and was in general level of satisfaction.Its statistically significant differences between emotional component,cognitive component and overall score were found in different academic records,educational level,times of hospitalization,durations,severities,family type,family smoking status,caregivers' education levels(P<0.05). Conclusions Subjective life quality of children with asthma is affected by the factors of severity,times of hospitalizations and educational level of caregivers.Measures should be taken to improve their quality of life.
    Contrastive study on corpus callosum size and shape in preterm and full-term infants
    LIU Rui-ke,SUN Jie,REN Chang-jun,LI Jian-ying,WU Xiu-fang
    2015, 23(4):  409-411.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-23
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    Objective To compare the difference between full-term infant and very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infant at term equivalent for the area,eccentricity ratio and skew of neonatal corpus callosum and to provide references for early evaluation the development of premature infant brain. Methods Brain MR images of 55 full-term infants with gestational age 40 weeks were obtained,which were collected in 24 h after birth.And brain MR images of 80 VLBW neonates at 40 weeks' gestational age equivalent were successfully obtained.Routine T1WI,T2WI and DWI were applied.T1-weighted images on the mid-sagittal slice were selected,analyzed and measured.127 eligible MR images of them were chosen,49 cases in the full-term infant group,78 cases in the premature infant group.And then,corpus callosum and brain in the MR images were sketched two times by two radiographic doctors at different times,all data were analyzed by Image Processing Function of MATLAB R2010a,and then the area,eccentricity ratio,anterior skew and posterior skew of neonatal corpus callosum were obtained. Results The area and posterior skew of corpus callosum in premature infant group were smaller than those in full-term infant group,and the anterior skew of corpus callosum in full-term infant group was smaller than that in premature infant group,the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05).The eccentricity ratio of corpus callosum in premature infant group was smaller than that in full-term infant group,but the difference between the two groups as not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions The development of premature infant corpus callosum is affected by prematurity,the size and shape of the corpus callosum differed between full-term infants and VLBW premature infants at term equivalent age.The corpus callosum was smaller and more circular in VLBW premature infants.
    Correlation analysis between caries of preschool children and maternal related factors in pregnancy
    CHEN Shang-hui,GAO Hong-qiong,ZHANG Na,FANG Hong-ying,CHEN Gao-dong,TANG Yin-xia
    2015, 23(4):  412-415.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-24
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    Objective To investigate which maternal related factors in pregnancy influence caries of preschool child. Methods In this case-control study,there were 3 243 healthy children in 22 kindergartens in town.1 408 children suffered caries served as study group,the other 1 835 children with no caries served as control group.Maternal related factors in pregnancy were investigated at the same time. Results There were significant differences between two groups(P<0.05) with following related factors to affect caries of preschool child:maternal pulpitis,gingivitis,to add protein and calcium,smoking or passive-smoking in pregnancy,and preterm.It was showed that to add protein and calcium in pregnancy may be prevent factors.Mother suffered caries,smoking or passive-smoking in pregnancy were the risk factors for children caries through multi-factor Logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Maternal related factors in pregnancy influenced caries of preschool children.It is suggested to strengthen oral health and add nutrition in pregnancy.
    Serum vitamin A levels among primary and middle school students in Qiongzhong county,Hainan
    ZHOU Jing,LIU Yu-mei,FENG Qi-qin,ZHANG Fan,YI Cong
    2015, 23(4):  416-418.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-25
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    Objective To assess the vitamin A status in the primary and secondary school students in Qiongzhong county,Hainan,China,and to provide bases for the prevention of adolescents' vitamin A deficiency. Methods Students were sampled using stratified cluster sampling methods.Two primary schools and two secondary schools were randomly selected and then one class was chosen from each grade.Serum retinol concentrations were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Results A total of 561 students were investigated,the mean serum retinol concentration was (360.36±91.39)ng/mL,and no significant difference between the boys and the girls was found(P>0.05),yet the serum retinol concentration got higher as the age growing(P<0.05).Only 2.0% of investigated students had vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol ≤200 ng/mL),but 22.3% of them had vitamin A marginal deficiency (200~300 ng/mL),and both of them were not different in genders(P>0.05),yet the vitamin A marginal deficiency rate decreased with the age increasing (P<0.05). Conclusions Primary and secondary school students in Qiongzhong county have a relatively low vitamin A deficiency rate,yet a remarkably high rate of vitamin A marginal deficiency,surveillance should be done continuously as well as prevention and control measures,especially among students aged 6 to 7 years old.
    Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of the unintentional injuries among migrant children aged 3~6 years old in Guangzhou
    LIU Hui-yan,YANG Li,FENG Qiong,LIN Sui-fang,LU Jin-hua,HU Yan,WANG Ping,GUO Yong,JIANG Lin,MA Ying,QIU Xiu
    2015, 23(4):  419-421.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-26
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    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of unintentional injuries among migrant children,and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of injury. Methods A random cluster sample of 3~6-year-old migrant children was chosen.The epidemiologic characteristics and related factors of unintentional injuries were investigated. Results The overall prevalence of injury was 34.97%.Among those injured,9.30% had 2 or more times for injury in one year.The ratio of male to female was 1.14∶1.The most common type of injury was falls,and most of injuries occurred at home.Children were often having recreation activities or walking in company with their parents when injuries took place.In addition,injury among preschool migrant children was associated with class,age of mother,and education level of mother. Conclusion The injury among preschool migrant children is common,which indicated that intervention,such as enhancing the safety awareness of parents and promoting safe living environment,should be taken to decrease the injury incidence.
    Preventive effect of pulmonary surfactant on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants
    ZHONG Xin-qi,CUI Qi-liang,HUANG Wei-min,LIN Li-li
    2015, 23(4):  422-424.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-27
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    Objective To investigate the preventive effect of pulmonary surfactant (PS) on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) in preterm infants. Methods Intervention study was used.A total of 91 premature infants were selected as prevented group to receive PS,and 90 premature infants were selected as control group.All infants came from two hospitals in Guangzhou.General situation,oxygen partial pressure (PO2),carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) and oxygen saturation (SPO2) index during different periods before and after treatment,NRDS outcome between the two groups were investigated. Results The demographic variables between the two groups were comparable.Before receiving PS,the PO2,PCO2 and SPO2 between the two groups were not significantly different.The values of PO2 and PCO2 after 1,6,12,24 hours of treatment in prevented group were significantly higher than those in control group.The NRDS incidence rate of prevented group (20%) was significantly lower than control group (60%).The using time of respirator and medical costs of prevented group were lower than those of control group.For the prevented group,SPO2 values after 1,6,12,24 hours of PS using were significantly higher than that before treatment,and PCO2 values were significantly lower than that before treatment.The preventive effect was better for infants with 30~34 gestational weeks than those less than 30 gestational weeks. Conclusions The preventive use of PS can effectively improve the pulmonary ventilation and oxygenation capacity,reduce the incidence of NRDS.And it can also reduce mechanical ventilation using time.The effect is better for premature infants with 30~34 gestational weeks.
    Research of children infection pathogenic epidemiology of diarrhea disease in Yinchuan area
    ZHANG Yong-hong,CHEN Ying,LIU Zeng-le,ZHANG Yong-ping
    2015, 23(4):  425-426.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-28
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    Objective To investigate the etiology of infectious diarrhea in Yinchuan children and provide the basis for clinical rational drug use. Methods During April 2012 to April 2013 the Ningxia People's Hospital outpatient and hospitalized children with diarrhea patients initial diagnosis had the fresh fecal bacterial culture,and the resulting samples were tested by RT-PCR technology for rotavirus (HRV),norovirus (NORV),bar-like viruses (SPAV),astrovirus (ASTV) and enteric adenovirus (EADV). Results A total of 286 stool samples were detected,208 cases found pathogen with detection rate of 72.73%.Virus detection,the positive rate of 172 cases was 60.14%,which HRV 84 cases (29.34%),NORV 62 cases (21.77%),SPAV 14 cases (4.90%),ASTV 27 cases (9.44%),EADV 21 cases (7.34%).The detection rate of bacterial culture pathogens was 12.58%(36 cases).Salmonella infection was more common.Mixed infection was 36 cases (12.58%). Conclusion Yinchuan infectious diarrhea in children is connected with viral infections,HRV,NORV as the main pathogens.
    Analysis of neonatal congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria screening and therapy in Xi'an from 2008 to 2013
    YANG Xiao-yan,LI Rui-ling,ZHANG Mei,CAO Chun-hong,YOU Jia
    2015, 23(4):  427-429.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-29
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    Objective To know therapy situation and disease incidence of neonatal congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU) illness screening,and to provide decision-making basis for the administrative department of public health. Methods Data of neonatal illness screening in Xi'an was analyzed from 2008 to 2013.The heel blood was sampled 72 h after birth for detection of thyrotropin and phenylalanine by time resolution method and fluorescence detection method respectively.Two detections were higher laboratory cut value for screening positive,the positive cases were retrospectively statistical analysis. Results The neonatal screening rate was increased significantly year by year from 59.76% in 2008 to 90.17% in 2013.In total there were 390 754 newborns screened from 2008 to 2013,279 cases of CH were identified with a detectable rate of 1∶1 401;157 cases of PKU were identified with a detectable rate of 1∶2 489.In the past 6 years continuous treatment of CH and PKU children were respectively 15.41% and 59.87%. Conclusions The work of neonatal illness screening has achieved significant results.The current rate of neonatal screening have room to improve further.To develop neonatal illness screening work can effectively prevent birth defects and improve the population quality.
    Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of child injury in Yinchuan Ningxia
    WANG Xiao-li,ZHANG Long,MA Fang,ZHANG Yin-e,XIE Fan,TIAN Yuan
    2015, 23(4):  430-432.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-30
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    Objective To learn epidemic characteristics of Ningxia nonfatal child injury and fatal cases and to provide a scientific basis for the development of injury prevention and control strategies. Methods Cases of injury card information were gathered from Yinchuan 3 hurt sentinel surveillance hospitals from 2006 to 2012.Statistical analysis was used by the national injury management software and Excel 2010. Results A total of 16 730 cases of child injury cases were collected from 0 to 17 years old,including 16 632 non-fatal cases and 98 fatal cases.Male to female ratio was 1.97∶1 in all cases,which accounted for 48.20% of preschool children,school-age children accounted for 51.80%;First three injuries were fall/fall,road traffic injuries and burns,no difference was found between the historical cases injury causes sequence,consistented with the total cases in general;sites of injury was mainly home,road / street and schools.Fatal cases was a male dominated;reason for the occurrence of major traffic injuries,followed by the fall/fall and drowning,and the burns and poisoning;former occurred location were road/street,home and public living spaces. Conclusions Child injury in Yinchuan mainly dominated nonfatal injuries,which accounted for about half of all preschool and school-age children,the main reason for the occurrence of falls/fall,place occurs mainly at home;Cause of fatal injury occurred mainly traffic injuries,the major place of the occurrence was road/street.It provided a scientific basis to develop targeted child injury prevention and control strategies and interventions.
    Observational study of control and treatment of 2~16 years old children with asthma
    LIU Qing,MA Jin-hai,CHEN Xiao-yuan
    2015, 23(4):  433-435.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-31
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    Objective To understand the control and treatment of children with bronchial asthma in the Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Methods The study was achieved by means of collecting the face-to-face questionnaires among researchers,outpatient children of 2~16 years old and their guardians from January,2013 to March,2014. Results There were 149 asthmatic children,including 109 male cases and 40 female cases.The sex ratio was 2.7∶1,among them the preschool and school-age children accounted for 31% and 45% respectively.From the statistics of past 12 months,27 cases had been fully controlled,94 cases were in partial control and 28 cases with no control,among them 129 cases were routine follow-up visitors.Cough and wheeze were the main symptoms of asthma which respectively account for 94.63% and 71.14%;73 cases (49%) had been attacked in the past three months and 52 cases (34.9%) happened in nearly one month,17 cases were complicated by nocturnal symptoms (11.4%) and 64 cases with allergic rhinitis.There were 132 cases (88.6%) suffering the inhaled corticosteroid treatment and 55 cases (36.91%) had been treated with antibiotics;in the past one year,the emergency treatment rate and hospitalized treatment rate due to the acute asthmatic attack respectively accounted for 16.1% and 30.2%.About 2/3 of children took greater amount of exercise than before in the recent one year,which was even same to the same age children. Conclusions There still exists a certain disparity between the realistic effect and the ideal goal of the asthmatic treatment in our hospital.Proactively promoting the propaganda and education of asthma as well as necessity of the drug use in remission,strengthening the nursing,taking proper exercise and avoiding infecting and contacting allergens are helpful to improve the asthma control.
    Clinical application of home video method of qualitative general movements assessment in follow-up of neurodevelopment of preterm infants
    JIAO Xiao-yan,LI Jia-yue,SHI Yong-sheng,HE Li,NAN Nan,ZHU Ying,CAO Lei,MA Xiu-lan,LIU Xin-yuan
    2015, 23(4):  436-438.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-32
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    Objective To find the more convenient GMs application method through the using of home general movements (GMS) videos into the premature infants' neural development evaluation. Methods Referring to the standard of GMs,the families took videos of premature infants and uploaded videos to the provincial maternal and child health care hospitals.Then the hospitals evaluated the videos.For the premature infants with normal consequence,these infants took follow-up visits in the local hospitals and took GMs at provincial maternal and child health care hospitals every three months.For the premature infants with abnormal consequence,they took follow-up visits and rehabilitative intervention in the provincial maternal and child health care hospital.Beside,the families and the local hospitals also took early period intervention,and three level follow-up visit was established. Results Totally 67 home GMs video cases were evaluated.61 cases were in twist stage,67 cases were in uneasy stage,34 cases which had suspicious or abnormal results accepted early period rehabilitative intervention.3 cases conveyed to the specialized rehabilitation agencies. Conclusion The clinical application of the GMs in the regular follow up visits of premature infants by in home videos are suitable in the economically undeveloped provinces,because it is economical,convenient and effective.
    Correlation study of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and peripheral blood eosinophil in childhood asthma
    WU Shao-xia,SHEN Guang-li
    2015, 23(4):  439-441.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-33
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    Objective To discuss the correlation of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and peripheral blood eosinophil (EOS) in children with asthma,and to investigate the clinical significance of FeNO and EOS in asthmatic children,and to provide the basis for early diagnosis and effective treatment. Methods A total of 45 cases of children with asthma were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in the pediatric ward and clinic of the Linqu County People's Hospital,26 cases of normal control group.FeNO and EOS were measured respectively. Results 1) The levels of FeNO and EOS in acute asthma group[(57.34±41.53) ppb],[(1.66±4.52)×109/L]were significantly higher than those in remission group[(41.48±26.96) ppb),[(0.63±0.56)×109/L]and control group[(16.14±6.37) ppb],[(0.08±0.07)×109/L],the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).2)The levels of FeNO and EOS in remission asthma group were still higher than those of the control group,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).3)The level of FeNO in asthma group was positively correlated with the level of peripheral blood EOS (r=0.71,P<0.05). Conclusions Increased FeNO levels in children with asthma had a good correlation with EOS,which can indirectly reflect the level of airway eosinophilic inflammation,and the sensitivity is higher than EOS.The remission of asthma airway inflammation is still need to be anti-inflammatory treatment.The combined use of FeNO and EOS can assess the severity and adjust the treatment plan in clinic.
    Expert consensus on clinical diagnosis and treatment of severe hand foot mouth disease caused by entervirus 71 in Shaanxi province(revised version, 2014)
    Shaanxi Hand Foot Mouth Disease Clinical Treatment Expert Committee
    2015, 23(4):  442-445.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-34
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    Five reported cases of Angelman syndrome diagnosed in infancy and literature review
    MA Xiu-wei,WEN Xiu-fang,LIU Jing-jing,ZHU Li-na,FENG Zhi-chun
    2015, 23(4):  446-448.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-04-35
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    Objective To analyze the clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of Angelman syndrome (AS) diagnosed in infancy and provide clues for early diagnosis. Methods The clinical and video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) data of 5 patients with AS confirmed by genetic diagnosis were analyzed and the literature review was carried on. Results Among the 5 patients aged 6~12 months,four were male and one was female.The main symptom was motor and mental retardation in all the patients.Four cases were misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy in other hospitals.Two patients had frequent laughter,and one showed abnormal sleep-wake cycles.No patient presented seizures.Four cases showed microcephaly,and 2 had flat occiput.Two had hypopigmented skin light hair and one had wide mouth.Gesell tests presented moderate to severe development delay (70%) and speech ability showed affected seriously.The VEEG of all the patients showed general high-amplitude slow waves during awake and sleep times paroxysmal or continuously.The slow waves might migrate between the different sites,spike or sharp waves might be mixed within this pattern. Conclusions The clinical symptoms of AS in infancy are usually atypical,and the main characteristic is development delay.VEEG is a very sensitive and specific method to make early diagnosis for AS.