Table of Content

    10 January 2017, Volume 25 Issue 1
    New discovery and research progress on peptide.
    GUO Xi-rong.
    2017, 25(1):  1-2.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-01
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    Peptide is a specifical bioactive substances between amino acids and proteins,which are divided into endogenous peptides and exogenous peptides.Endogenous peptides gain more and more attentions due to the content enrich and various production ways.Recent study revealed that nocoding genes also could code bioactive peptide,and now to find new potential coding open reading frames from lncRNA,rRNA and microRNA is becoming a hot research area.Endogenous peptides could play in many ways,such as binding to its receptor after secretion or working intracellular.As the more application of peptide in the clinic as drugs,there is no doubt that endogenous peptides will have broad application foreground.Here,we make a brief description on the birth and function of peptide,and focus on its new discovery and research progress to provide reference for endogenous peptides research.
    β-Casein-15 peptide role in neonatal common pathogenic bacteria resistance.
    ZHOU Ya-hui,WANG Xing-yun,WANG Xing,JI Chen-bo,GUO Xi-rong.
    2017, 25(1):  3-6.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-02
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    Objective To study the human milk resource peptide in the role of resistance of neonatal infection. Methods The content of β-Casein-15 in human milk was mesured by mass spectrometry technology.The biologic characteristics of β-Casein-15 peptide were predicted by Uniprot,SABLE,ProtParam tool and other online databases. Results The online databases showed that aliphatic index,grand average of hydropathicity and instability coefficient of β-Casein-15 were 122.33,-0.387 and 36.29,respectively.It indicated that β-Casein-15 was a hydrophobic stable peptide.And then,the content of β-Casein-15 was significantly decreased in premature compared to full term infants,detected by mass spectrometry technology.Moreover,the bacteriostasis experiment was found β-Casein-15 peptide in e.coli,enterocolitis bacteria and staphylococcus aureus had obvious bacteriostatic action. Conclusion These results indicate β-Casein-15 may play a critial role in promoting neonatal anti-infection.
    Prevalence of anemia and its association with nutritional status among Chinese school-aged students.
    LIU Meng-yuan,SONG Yi,MA Jun
    2017, 25(1):  7-10.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-03
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    Objectives To analyze the secular trend of the anemia in Chinese Han students and to examine the associations between nutritional status and anemia,hoping to provide parameter for the prevention of anemia. Methods Subjects were Han students aged 7,9,12,14 and 17 years old sampled from 2000,2005 and 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health.World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for screening anemia (2001) was used.Nutritional status was defined according to body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness respectively.The changes of prevalence of anemia were analyzed,and logistic regression was used to assess the associations between anemia and nutritional status. Results During the past 10 years,prevalence of anemia had declined significantly (P<0.001).In 2010,prevalence of anemia among Chinese students maintained the trends that prevalence among girls was higher than that among boys,and prevalence among students in rural area exceeded that in urban area.Specifically,prevalences of anemia among four groups of students (urban boys,urban girls,rural boys and rural girls) were 6.9%,11.2%,8.8% and 12.7%,respectively.From 7 to 9 years old,the prevalence of anemia among girls and boys in both areas dropped.From 9 to 17 years old,the prevalence of anemia among boys showed no significant trend,while that among girls showed an upward trend with the increase of age.Logistic regression analysis confirmed that students with low skinfold thickness gained a higher risk of anemia than those with normal skinfold thickness (OR=1.18,95%CI:1.09~1.26),and this trend was also significant when stratified by sex.However,when nutritional status was classified by using BMI,there was no significant difference between the thinness group and the normal group in prevalence of anemia. Conclusions The prevention and treatment of anemia among Han students is entering the "bottleneck" stage.Anemia status is improved with the enhancement of nutritional status,and the sum of skinfold thickness is more sensitive to predict the presence of anemia than BMI.
    Efficacy of "3+2" weight-loss program in simple obese children and analysis of related influence factors.
    WANG Xiao-li,XIAO Yan-feng,YIN Chun-yan,CHU Hai-ping,TAN Xin-rui,XU Er-di.
    2017, 25(1):  11-13.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-04
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    Objective To study the efficacy and safety of 3+2 weight loss program and the factors that affect the weight loss. Methods A total of 85 obese children who visited the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from July 2011 to January 2013 were used as intervention group; 85 cases of obese children who were extracted from primary and secondary schools in Xi'an area were used as obese control group,and 85 normal weight children used as control by 1∶1 random sampling.Height and body mass index (BMI) in three groups were compared,and the related effluence factors were analyzed. Results After sixth months,BMI of intervention group decreased having statistical significance (P<0.05);The height growth of intervention group was higher than that of others,having statistical significance (P<0.05).In univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis,mother's education levels,more than half an hour of exercise and implement of both exercise and diet program were effective factors of weight loss. Conclusion "3+2" weight loss program,which is safe and feasible,has no influence on the height of 7~18 year-old obese children.
    Association between cesarean section and the risk of childhood asthma among preschool children in 4 cities.
    CHEN Yun-xiao,Erigene Rutayisire,WU Xiao-yan,HUANG Kun,
    YU Wei-ping,CHEN Shang-hui,YE He-yi,ZHANG An-hui,TAO Fang-biao
    2017, 25(1):  14-17.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-05
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    Objective To examine the association between cesarean section (CS) and the risk of childhood asthma in preschool children. Methods A total of 8 900 children aged from 3 to 6 years old were recruited in Anqing,Wuhu,Tongling and Yangzhou.Data on the mode of delivery,asthma and potential confounders for the present study were obtained by questionnaires completed by the parents or the people who raised the children.All asthma cases were diagnosed by major hospitals.Mode of delivery was classified into vaginal delivery,elective CS and emergency CS.Multivariate logistic regression was used for statistical analyses. Results Of 8 900 preschool children,67.3% were born by cesarean section.The overall prevalence of asthma in the present cross-sectional study was 7.0%,within these children 28.5% were delivered vaginally while 71.5% were delivered by CS.After adjusting for region,sex,preterm birth,maternal age,parental education level,breastfeeding,child body mass index (BMI),children delivered by emergency CS had an increased risk of childhood asthma (OR=1.25,95%CI:1.03~1.52,P<0.05) compared to those delivered vaginally.However,no significant but elevated (OR=1.19,95%CI:0.94~1.51,P>0.05) higher odds of asthma was found in children delivered by elective CS compared to those delivered vaginally. Conclusion Emergency CS increased the risk of childhood asthma in preschool age.
    Determinants of growth for 4 months old infants in rural areas.
    FENG Wei-wei,HUANG Xiao-na,WANG Hui-shan,XU Yi-qun,PAN Xiao-ping,JIN Xi.
    2017, 25(1):  18-20.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-06
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    Objective To explore the determinants of growth and effects of breastfeeding for 4 months old infants. Methods The data collected in the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Breastfeeding Infants Growth and Development from birth to 4 months old in 6 well-being rural areas was used to construct the multilevel models of weight-for-age,length-for-age and BMI-for-age. Results The models showed that infant age,gender,birth weight,birth length,parity,mother age,parents' height,season,feeding patterns and the interaction effect of age and feeding patterns all had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with infant general status,family and social demographic characteristics,parents' biological characteristics,perinatal these immutable factors,breastfeeding is the effective measure to promote growth of 4 months old infants in rural areas.
    Comparison of neurodevelopment and mental development between human immunodeficiency virus exposed infants and non-exposed.
    DING Xiao-yan,LI Yan,YANG Ya-xin,LI Hong-lin,LI Zhi-yi,
    LUO Xi-ying,LIU Wen-mei,LI Yan,QIN Mao-hua.
    2017, 25(1):  21-23.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-07
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    Objective To understand the difference of the neurodevelopment and mental development between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposed infants and HIV non-exposed,in order to provide reference for making up intervention measures to improve their health. Methods One year old infants born from Jul.2010 to Nov.2013 by women with HIV positive were selected as exposure group,and matching the same age infants with HIV negative mothers.The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-Ⅲ) was used to assess comprehensive development of the sampled babies.A questionnaire survey was conducted on infant care givers. Results Except for language scale,the HIV exposed group got lower scores in cognitive scale,motor scale,social-emotion scale and adaptive behavior scale (94.09,96.27,79.60 and 86.09) than the non-exposed group(101.36,98.52,93.86 and 92.89,P<0.01).The percentages of infants with social-emotion scale and adaptive behavior scale below edge in exposure group (45.45% and 38.64%) were significantly higher than those of the non-exposure group (22.73% and 15.91%). Conclusion HIV exposure may affect neurodevelopment and mental development of infant,and the comprehensive health care,especially neurodevelopment and mental care,need to be improved for HIV exposed children.
    Influence of early feeding practices on consumption of fruit and vegetables among children in kindergarden.
    HU Yan,WU Qi,ZHA Da-yong,HUANG Ya-shen,FANG Guo-qing,LIN Sui-fang.
    2017, 25(1):  24-27.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-08
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    Objective To investigate the association between pattern and duration of breastfeeding and fruit and vegetables intake in preschool children,in order to provide a scientific support to guide infant feeding. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted using baseline data from a former non-randomized trial.Information on infant feeding and current situation were collected in questionnaire filled by parents.The associations between duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of fruit and vegetables were tested by a logistic regression model. Results During 1 189 children in the research,17.1% children had exclusive breastfeeding for more than 6 months and 9.6% children had breastfeeding duration lasting for more than 12 months.There was lower prevalence of overweight and obesity in exclusive breastfeeding duration for more than 6 months group than that less than 6 months group(2.2% & 3.7%,P<0.05).Approximately 87.5% and 67.7% of children consumed fruits and vegetables,respectively,six or more times a week.Consumption of vegetables among preschool children was higher in children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer (OR=1.251; 95%CI:1.115~2.563).Meanwhile,exclusive breastfeeding duration for more than 6 months had a significant association with consumption of vegetables (OR=1.015 ;95%CI:1.002~1.105)after adjusting children gender,age,parents' BMI and etc.There were no relationship between any breastfeeding mode and fruit intake consumption in preschool time(OR=0.882;95%CI:0.412~1.514) &(OR=0.657;95%CI:0.442~1.019). Conclusions Longer duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding duration are positively associated with consumption of vegetables in preschool children;However,there is no association with consumption of fruits.It is important for feeding pattern in early life as for which influence the nutrition habit and the growth of children during later life,so the awareness and support for breastfeeding in community and family should further deepened and improved.
    Effects and clinical significances of prenatal taurine on expressions of IL-6,IL-8,TNF-α and IL-1β in fetal rat brains of intrauterine growth restriction.
    WANG Hua-wei,LIU Jing.
    2017, 25(1):  28-31.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-09
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    Objectives To explore the effects and clinical significance of prenatal taurine on IL-6,IL-8,TNF-α and IL-1β in fetal rat brains of intrauterine growth restriction(IUGR). Methods IUGR was induced by food restriction throughout pregnancy.Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:control group,IUGR group and taurine group[300 mg/(kg·d)].The expressions of serum IL-6,IL-8,TNF-α and IL-1β in brains were detected by Enzyme linked immunosorbent- assay(ELISA). Results The expressions of IL-6 in control group,test group and taurine group were:(81.070±5.286)pmol/L,(148.362±18.733)pmol/L and (107.361±11.184)pmol/L,there were significant differences among the three groups (H=43.760,P=0.00).The contents of IL-8 in three groups were:(90.573±7.344)pmol/L,(165.596±8.635)pmol/L and (126.309±11.008)pmol/L.There were significant differences among the three groups (H=45.910,P=0.00).The expressions of TNF-α in three groups were:(8.231±0.607)pmol/L,(14.881±0.703)pmol/L and (11.709±0.936)pmol/L,there were significant differences among the three groups (H=45.929,P=0.00).The expressions of IL-1β in three groups were:(46.693±4.122)pmol/L,(84.799±4.315)pmol/L and (62.407±4.631)pmol/L,there were significant differences among the three groups (H=46.064,P=0.00). Conclusion Prenatal taurine can reduce expressions IL-6,IL-8,TNF-α and IL-1β in fetal rat brains of IUGR.
    Research of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood combined with mNGF in the treatment of cerebral palsy rats.
    WANG Li-min,TAN Zhen-xiang,HUO Ming-xia,GUO Jia-li,
    YUAN Xiao-hui,YUAN Bo-yang,WANG Wen-juan,ZHANG Xue-ling.
    2017, 25(1):  32-36.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-10
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    Objective To study the treatment effect of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells(hUCBMSCs) combined with mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF) to the cerebral palsy rats through lateral intraventricular transplantation. Methods 100 ml cord blood from full-term newborn was collected and to separate,culture and purify hUCBMSCs then detect and identify them.100 seven-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into 10 normal group and 90 experiment group(cerebral palsy produced by ischemia and hypoxia ) while the experiment group were split into cerebral palsy (CP) model group,phosphate buffer solution (PBS) transplantation group,mNGF transplantation group,human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation group,and human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with mouse nerve growth factor transplantation group.After 1 w modeling success MSCs was injected,mNGF and PBS into Lateral ventricles.After transplantation in 1 w,2 w and 3 w,the survival and migration of MSCs with 5 bromine -2 (BrdU) labeled were observed.In the fourth week,the neural behavior ability of rats were studied and the rat brain tissues were taken to detect the expression of its GFAP and NSE. Results 1)The survival,migration of hUCBMSCs mainly distributed at the site of the left lateral ventricle,frontal lobe,parietal cortex and white matter.Along with the time going,its migration was to the surrounding brain tissue.BrdU,NSE,GFAP positive cells decreased gradually,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Compared with model group and sham transplantation,the footprints latency and maze escape latency of single transplantation groups and combined transplantation group were shorten,footprints repeat spacing and foot slippage number decreasing as well,and transplantation group was better than that of single transplantation groups,the difference was significant (P<0.05);2)HE staining:the cell morphology and brain tissue damage in the single transplantation group were better than that of the cerebral palsy group,and the recovery of the combined transplantation group was better than that of the single tran-splantation group. Conclusion Through intraventricular transplantation,exogenous MSCs transplantation combined with mNGF can improve the long-term behavior and brain damage in cerebral palsy rats.
    New trend of peptide study in obesity.
    YOU Liang-hui,CHEN Ling,CUI Xian-wei,JI Chen-bo,GUO Xi-rong.
    2017, 25(1):  37-40.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-11
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    Peptide is a kind of chemically active agent composed of amino acid connected by peptide bonds.Tens of thousands of peptides have been found in body and possess certain physiological activity.Peptides function as intercellular messengers in the endocrine system and in brain.The functional peptides in obesity and the associated diseases have been widely demonstrated,such as neuropeptide Y,brain-gut peptide and GLP-1.In recent years,the rapid development of peptidomics helps to identify more peptides.Endogenous peptides derived from the noncoding region with a short open reading frame,homology of well-established peptides,fragment of protein molecular and intracellular peptides in adipocytes are also beginning to raise the attention of the researchers.This study aimed at progress and new trend of peptides research,providing new targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.
    Function prediction and potential action mode of endogenous polypeptides.
    LI Yun,WANG Fei,WANG Xing,Chen Ling,Cui Xian-wei,JI Chen-bo.
    2017, 25(1):  41-43.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-12
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    As a general bioactive compound,endogenous polypeptides play a crucial role in fundamental processes of life.Recently,a growing number of researchers focus on endogenous polypeptides which greatly contribute to disease research and durg discovery.Thus,the prediction and analysis of potential function of polypeptides are of great significance in polypeptide investigation and application
    Development of poly peptides in neonatal anti-infection.
    WANG Xing,CHEN Ting,ZHANG Jun,LI Yun,JI Chen-bo.
    2017, 25(1):  44-46.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-13
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    Neonatal infection,especially among very-low-birth-weight preterm infants,is a significant cause of neonatalmorbidity and mortality.Their immune system is immaturity rendering them vulnerable to the invasion of pathogens,causing different infectious diseases.In China,infectious pneumonia is the most common in neonatal infectious disease,followed by sepsis and intestinal infection.Due to potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and evolutionarily conservedin a variety of organisms of peptides,they have attracted extensive attentions of researchers.Several studies have confirmed the anti-infection effect and functional against microbes with antibiotic resistance of peptides in neonate.Based on these properties,they are expected to become future therapeutics for neonatal infection.This review addresses the developments of the main peptides in neonatal infectious disease including infectious pneumonia,sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.
    Proteolytic systems in human milk.
    FU Yan-rong,WANG Xing,CHEN Ling,YOU Liang-hui,JI Chen-bo,CUI Xian-wei.
    2017, 25(1):  47-50.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-14
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    Human milk contains numerous endogenous polypeptides cleaved from specific proteins.They are produced by the complex proteolytic systems (zymogens,active protease,protease inhibitors and activators) which are originated in blood,mammary epithelial cells and immune cells.Due to the congenital deficiency as well as the differences of protein expression and enzyme activation in premature infants,it contains a significantly greater proportion of the endogenous polypeptides in the preterm milk by contrast with the term milk.This article reviews the current researches of the proteolytic systems in human milk.
    Research advances in childhood obesity intervention sites.
    LIN Wen-jing,REN Ran,WEN De-liang.
    2017, 25(1):  51-54.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-15
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    Childhood obesity has become a common public health problem in both developed and developing countries.Suitable interventions and appropriate intervention sites are essential for effective intervention.In this paper,from the perspective of childhood obesity intervention sites,the research advances were reviewed in childhood obesity intervention sites(school,family,community and multiple sites),and explored the effects and limitations of intervention sites,and found more effective and strong intervention implements.
    Meta-analysis on the association of the relativity of neoplasms and the effect of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in growth hormone deficiency.
    LI Xin,BAN Bo,QIAO Jian-min,CHEN Han-wen,ZHENG Cheng-ran.
    2017, 25(1):  55-58.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-16
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    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) for growth hormone deficiency(GHD)with the relative risk of neoplasms,cancer mortality and the second neoplasms. Methods The research study about the application of recombinant human growth hormone in treating GHD and cancer-related literature searched in Pubmed,EMbase,The CNKI,CBM,the Cochrane Library and so on.According to the Cochrane Handbook,literature was screened,methodological quality assessed,date extrated and meta-analysis conducted using Revman 5.3 software. Results A total of 16 research references were including,the results of meta-analysis showed that the risk of neoplasms in GHD patients treated with rhGH was not higher (RR=0.76,95%CI was 0.59~0.90,P<0.05).Application of rhGH treatment,the overall mean neoplasms standardized mortality ratios(SMR) for treated patients was not significantly increased,and that rhGH did not increase mortality in patients with cancer(SMR=0.90,95%CI was 0.77~1.05,P>0.05).But for patients who previously suffered from cancer,after the application of rhGH,which could further increase neoplasms risk 1.3 times (RR=2.30,95%CI was 1.61~3.27,P<0.05). Conclution The relative risk and the SMR of neoplasms in GHD patients treated with rhGH is not higher,but the second neoplasms risk increases by about 1.3 times.
    Prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents in China:a Meta-analysis.
    LIU Yang,KUANG Man-hua,LIU Ye,YANG Qing-ting,XIE Xin-xin,RANG Wei-qing.
    2017, 25(1):  59-62.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-17
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    Objective A Meta-analysis is conducted to systematically review the findings of all the past 15 years' studies and estimate the overall prevalence of hypertension of Chinese children and adolescents,and to grasp the epidemiological characteristics and provide evidence for targeted prevention measures. Methods Comprehensive electronic searches of Chinese Web of Knowledge (CNKI),Wei Pu (VIP),Wan Fang,PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1,2000 to December 31,2015,reporting the prevalence of hypertension of Chinese children and adolescents.Then,combining prevalence rate in R software. Results Totally 48 studies were included in this study.The hypertension prevalence of Chinese children and adolescents was 6.47%(95%CI=5.41%~7.73%).Males were higher than females regardless of age (puberty 6.75% vs 5.87%,before puberty 9.25% vs 7.61%).The female growth of prevalence rate was slower than men.The north(7.91%)was more serious than the south(5.31%)and the prevalence of the east was the highest.Meanwhile,the urban(8.70%)was more serious than the rural(7.60%);In general,the rate decreased (8.06% vs 5.10%),but rebounded in the past five years (6.89%). Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents can not be ignored.Health education,reasonable diet and exercise are all the necessary measure.
    Dietary survey of 270 Kazakh junior high school students of Fukang city,Xinjiang.
    Reziya·Abulaity,Tuerxunjiang ·Maimaitiming,WANG Xian-hua.
    2017, 25(1):  63-65.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-18
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    Objective To study a preliminary understanding of the junior middle school students dietary status in Fukang City,Xinjiang,and to provide a reasonable dietary guidance for school students. Methods Totally 270 junior middle school students were selected using cluster random sampling method in Fukang city as research objects,surveys conducted that dietary Status Review Act in 24-hour,to establish a database with nutrition calculator V2.4 (standard version),and to compare with "Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)". Results Kazak ethnic junior high school students in Fukang City of Xinjiang had differentiation in dietary of fiber,phosphorus,folic acid,vitamin E intake had significantly different with RNI (P<0.05),in the proportion of protein energy supply was 16.41%,higher than that of national recommended;High level of BMI were associated with excessive intake of heat,protein,graisse(P<0.05),of which girls were related to little intake of dietary fiber intake (P<0.05). Conclusion Kazak ethnic junior high school students's in Fukang city dietary structures lack of rationality.Therefore,it suggests that students should be balance of food intake,rational nutrition and sport,and to be established a health body system of education in family,school and community management in order to ultimately achieve the purpose of healthy growth.
    Effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory Cytokine and immune function in patients with acute panereatitis.
    WANG Yue-sheng,LI Xiao-qin,ZHANG Jing.
    2017, 25(1):  66-69.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-19
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    Objective To explore the effect ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory Cytokine and immune function in children with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods A total of 50 children with AP were randomly divided into early enteral nutrition(EEN) group (25 cases) and EEN combined with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids group (25 cases).Two group within 48 h of hospitalization in patients with inhibitors of trypsin secretio,antacids,and anti-infective treatment,assisted by endoscopy,the nasojejunal feeding tube was placed in the Treitz ligament distal,continuous pump into the rice soup and pepetmen junior nutrition for 24 h.The treatment group was treated with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for 2 weeks.Before enteral nutrition treatment and then 7 and 14 days after treatment,blood samples were collected for analysis of interleukin-1 (IL-1),interleukin-6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),NK-cells activity and peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Results Two groups of children were all tolerated EEN.The levels of IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in 2 groups,while the activity of NK cells and CD8+/CD4+ ratio decreased significantly in the first groups.After nutrition treatment in the seventh days,compared with the first day of admission,the serum levels of IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α in the two group were significantly decreased,ω-3 group was a significant decrease.The ω-3 group in patients with NK-cells activity and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly increased (P<0.05).In the treatment group,the serum amylase,lipase and APACHE II score decreased obviously (P<0.05). Conclusion EEN is safe and feasible for children with acute pancreatitis,EEN combined with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can controll early inflammatory response and balance the role of T cells,and reduce the inflammatory cytokine and regulate cellular immune function in children with acute pancreatitis.
    Contrastive study on physical fitness between Lishui urban and rural preschool children aged 3 to 6 years old.
    XU Wen,ZHAN Ye-jun.
    2017, 25(1):  70-72.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-20
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    Objective To compare the urban and rural preschool children aged 3~6 physical fitness of Lishui city,and to explore the influence factors of children's physical fitness. Method A total of 804 preschool children of Lishui city urban and rural six kindergartens were studied by questionnaire investigation and physical test. Results In addition to the 6-year-old boy,other town total scores were higher than in the same age children constitution village children(P<0.05),the urban and rural differences in height,weight,body mass index (BMI),standing long jump,a reverse layup 10 meters,feet jump; Physical fitness total score and indoor static body constitution activity time,father height,parents' education level had weak positive correlation (P<0.05). Conclusion Society,schools and families should joint efforts from all levels of nutrition,to establish a good lifestyle,exercise more aspects of the comprehensive promote the healthy development of children.
    Analysis of clinical features of 892 children with congenital ventricular septal defect.
    JIANG Ying,ZHOU Liang.
    2017, 25(1):  73-76.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-21
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    Objective To analyze the clinical features of children with congenital ventricular septal defect in different area for providing a reference to make a medical insurance policy and clinical treatment strategies. Method A cluster sample of 892 children in Hunan province with ventricular septal defect diagnosed from January 1,2009 to December 31,2012 in Xiangya Hospital were collected and analyzed by descriptive research method. Results Of the 892 cases,495 cases were boys,while 397 cases were girls; 466 cases' diagnostic age were above 3 years old,while 426 cases were 3 years old or less,the range was 0 to 14 years old; 145 cases were came from urban,while rural children were 747 cases;232 cases were diagnosed before the implementation of serious illness medical insurance,while 660 cases were diagnosed after that;416 cases were ventricular septal defect without any complications,337 cases with one complications,and 139 cases with two or above two complications;119 cases with postoperative complications,while 773 cases without complications; 888 cases were cured,while 4 cases were dead.There was no statistical significance in gender,age,and postoperative complications (χ2=0.686,0.002,1.544,all P>0.05); And urban children condition was relatively complex (χ2=9.719,P=0.010)and the cure rate was lower than rural children (χ2=6.312,P=0.012);Rural children had increased quantity significantly after the implementation of serious illness insurance (χ2=12.788,P<0.001) and there was a significantly difference between urban and rural children with congenital ventricular septal defect (χ2=10.874,P=0.012). Conclusion Rural areas children with congenital ventricular septal defect get more benefits from the serious health policy and the number of clinical increased year by year,but due to the complex of condition of urban children,they have a lower cure rate.
    Evaluation of physical and neurodevelopment in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome of gestational age <34 weeks.
    WANG Bo,SUN Ying,DUAN Yi,SHI Shu-xian,SHAN Ruo-bing.
    2017, 25(1):  77-80.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-22
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    Objective To observe the psysical and neurodevelopment in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of gestational age <34 weeks through regular follow-up. Methods A total of 49 premature infants with RDS of gestational age <34 weeks and 36 premature infants without RDS of gestational age <34 weeks who were followed to twelve months were collected from Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital.They were treated as RDS group and non-RDS group.The RDS patients were divided into the mild RDS group and severe RDS group accoding to severity of illness.A total of 30 full term infants who were randomly selected in the department of child health care were recruited and treated as the full term group.They were followed up once a month at corrected age of 0~6 months and once every 2 months at corrected age of 6~12 months.The Bayley Scale of Infant Development was used to determine the intellectual and neurological development deficits. Results The incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and growth restriction of RDS group was 71.4%,27.5%,20.5%,20.0%,12.1%,8.3% at the time of hospital discharge and corrected age of 1,2,3,6,12 months.The MDI,PDI in RDS group and non-RDS group were significantly lower than those in full term group at corrected age of 6 months (P<0.05).The abnormal incidence of the 20 items neuromotor assessment in RDS group and non-RDS group was significantly higher than that in full term group (P<0.05).The PDI in RDS group and non-RDS group was significantly lower than that in full term group at corrected age of 12 months (P<0.05).The difference of the psysical and neurodevelopment were not significant between RDS group and non-RDS group,the mild RDS group and severe RDS group (P>0.05). Conclusions The catch-up growth of premature infants with RDS of gestational age <34 weeks is significantly within corrected age of 3 months.The psysical and neurodevelopment have no significantly difference between RDS and non-RDS pemature infants.The neurodevelopment of premature infants with RDS of gestational age <34 weeks at corrected age of 6 months is poorer than full term infants.
    Analysis of bone mineral density measured by ultrasonic in 7 207 children aged 0~3 years old in Xi'an city.
    ZHANG Hua-li,YANG Li-fang,HE Hong-ru,ZHANG Yue-fang,ZHANG Huan,ZHANG Ying,WANG Wei.
    2017, 25(1):  81-84.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-23
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    Objective To investigate the present situation of 0~3 years old infants' bone mineral density (BMD) in Xi'an,and to explore the effect of age,gender and season on infants' BMD,in order to provide evidence for early prevention of bone strength deficiency. Method Quantitative ultrasound was used to check BMD in the left tibia middle point for 7 207 children aged 0~3 years old,and then ultrasonic bone mineral density values of different genders,ages and seasons were analyzed and compared. Results Bone mineral density speed of sound (SOS) value in girls was significantly lower than boys(P<0.001).There was significant difference in bone mineral density SOS and Z values for different month-old infants (P<0.001).The SOS values of 0~3 months were the lowest.And the Z values of 0~3 months and 3~6 months were no significantly difference (P>0.05).The overall incidence rate of bone strength deficiency was 74.29%,which in girls (81.10%) was significantly higher than that in boys (68.02%).The incidence rate of bone strength deficiency in 0~3 months and 3~6 months were higher than other ages.And it decreased with the age increased.The SOS value of boy in the winter was the lowest. Conclusions The infants and young children need to be supplemented calcium and vitamin D.The key period to prevent and treat of bone strength insufficiency is 0 to 6 months after birth,and girls are prone to bone strength insufficiency.
    Iron deficiency anemia status and influencing factors among children aged 6~23 months in rural minority areas in Yunnan.
    CHEN Li-qin,LI Yan,LI Yan-hong,YANG Fan,BI Xiao-li.
    2017, 25(1):  85-87.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-24
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    Objective To understand iron deficiency anemia (IDA) status,analyze its influencing factors among children aged 6~23 months in rural minority areas in Yunnan,provide scientific references for making formulating interventions. Methods A total of 1 226 children aged 6~23 months from different poverty levels areas were recruited by using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method,and their anthropometric measurements,hemoglobin,MCV,MCH,MCHC and ferritin levels were obtained.A caregiver questionnaire was also administered. Results Anemia prevalence rate was 47.15% among 1 226 children aged 6~23 months,IDA prevalence rate was 32.87%.There was statistical different anemia prevalence in areas with different poverty levels.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that male children had the higher risk of IDA,the risk of IDA decreased with increasing age,mother's occupations were farmers,lower income of family,without adding nutrition package for children were positively associated with children IDA. Conclusions IDA prevalence rates among 6~23 months children in rural minority areas in Yunnan are high.Poverty,poor accessibility of health care and without adding nutrition package for children are risk factors.The study suggests that parents' nutrition knowledge and feeding guidance need to be strengthened,and it is necessary to give nutrition package to wider rural young children to reduce IDA during infancy and childhood in Yunnan.
    Nutritional status investigation about vitamin D of the young children in Shenyang.
    GAO Shuang.
    2017, 25(1):  88-89.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-25
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    Objective To investigate the levels of vitamin D in the young children aged 0~3 years old and relationship with genders,ages and seasons. Method The serum levels of 25(OH)D in 2 381 children aged 0~3 years old were detected by electrochemiluminescence. Results Among 2 381 cases,the serum levels of 25(OH)D were (36.73±18.75)ng/ml,in which 8 cases(0.34%) were severe deficiency; 174 cases(7.31%) were deficiency;149 cases(6.55%) were insufficiency;2 026 cases(85.09%) were sufficiency; 24 cases(1.01%) were excess.There was no statistical difference between gender groups(P>0.05).The serum 25(OH)D levels in the infants aged 0~1 year old were much lower than those of the children aged 1~3 years old group.There was statistical difference between 0~1 year old group and 1~3 years old group (P<0.05).The serum 25(OH)D levels reached the highest in winter and the lowest in spring. Conclusions The level of serum 25(OH)D is great in the children aged 0~3 years old in Shenyang area.Supplementation of vitamin D should pay attention to scientific and reasonable,avoid VitD deficiency or excess,and even intoxication.
    Analysis of the status and influencing factors of the exclusive breastfeeding among six months infants.
    WU Xiang-qi,SUN Xiao-mian,HE Shan-ru.
    2017, 25(1):  90-93.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-26
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    Objective To investigate the status of the exclusive breastfeeding and analyze the influencing factors among six months infants in Shenzhen,in order to provide a scientific basis for promoting the exclusive breastfeeding. Method A total of 1 000 mothers whose baby within six months were asked to fill in a questionnaire from three maternal and child health hospitals in Shenzhen selected by random sampling. Results The exclusive breastfeeding rate within six months was 61.2%.The main reason for non- exclusive breastfeeding was insufficient breast milk(42.01%).By univariate and multivariate analysis,the results showed that the puerpera with highly educated,high family income,multiparity should less choose the exclusive breastfeeding,and the puerpera with maternity leave,the confidence of the exclusive breastfeeding for six months,family support for breastfeeding,the early time to start breastfeeding,nighttime breastfeeding should more choose the exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions To further improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate in six months,health education should be strengthened for breastfeeding and postpartum guidance,encourage families to participate,and strengthen the confidence of breastfeeding.Labor units should provide convenience for supporting breastfeeding.The hospital should implement the policy of baby friendly hospital.
    Study of physical growth levels of 2 069 urban school-age children in Yiwu city.
    RUI Qiu-qin,YU Cai-yong,XU Jing,CNEN Ya-nan,SHI Chang-chun.
    2017, 25(1):  94-96.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-27
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    Objective To understand the status of height and weight of urban school-age children in Yiwu,investigate the incidence of overweight,obesity and short stature,and to provide the clues for early intervention of children. Methods Totally 2 069 school-age children were selected from urban area of Yiwu city.Data of height and weight were collected and body mass index was calculated.Using the survey data of children's physical development in nine provinces and municipalities in 2005 as a standard,the prevalences of overweight,obesity and short stature were calculated and analyzed. Results 1) The height and weight levels of boys and girls in 6.0~6.5 and 8~11.5 groups were all higher than the national levels.2)The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.68% and 14.16% respectively (11.27% and 14.77% for boys,9.91% and 13.36% for girls).3)The total prevalence of short stature was 2.80%( 2.73% for boys and 2.90% for girls). Conclusions The prevalence of obesity is high.The prevalence of short stature is lower than the national level.The situation of childhood overweight and obesity becomes more serious,and the short stature problem can not be ignored,they all deserve timely and effective interventions.
    Nutritional status of infants aged 6~24 months in poor rural areas of Chongqing.
    JIANG Qiu-jing,XIAO Nian,YANG Li,ZHOU Xiao-jun.
    2017, 25(1):  97-99.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-28
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    Objective To investigate nutritional status and feeding patterns of infants aged 6~24 months in poor rural areas of Chongqing. Methods A total of 706 subjects were selected by multistage cluster sampling to analyse children aged 6 to 24 months in three poor counties and received hemoglobin (Hb) test and physical examination.Information on infant's birth and feeding was obtained by questionnaire interviews with the caregivers. Results The prevalence of anemia was 51.7%;The prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were 4.8% and 13.7% respectively.The caregivers had no adequate nutrition and feeding knowledge.Complementary feeding was reported in 28.7% of the infants at 6 months old. Conclusion Anemia among infants aged 6~24 months is common in poor rural areas of Chongqing,complementary food supplement should be supported and the propaganda was enhanced to improve the nutrition and feeding knowledge of the caregivers to add assist food supplements timely and correctly.
    Investigation and assessment of health examination in 761 preshcool children from Nanning urban area.
    CHEN Hong-wei,LONG Yong-mei,GAN Na.
    2017, 25(1):  100-103.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-29
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    Objective To investigate and assess the growth and development,rate of caries,hepatitis B surface antigen positive and anemia of preschool children in Nanning city for the purpose of further improvement of children's nutritional status and physical fitness. Methods A toatl of 761 preschool children aged 2 to 7 years old were extracted from six kindergartens in Nanning city.The data of weight,height,dental caries,anti-HBS and hemoglobin were collected,analyzed and compared to evaluate the growth and development and health situation of preschool children in Nanning. Results Children's height and weight in this study were lower than those of the national standards,and upper- middle and lower-middle levers of the ratio of height and weight were majority.Caries rate was 31.93%,dental caries number was 4.71 per capita.Caries rate in boys was higher than that in girls.Caries rate increased gradually with age and reached a peak in 5~6 years age group (50.62%).Total anti-HBS positive rate was 68.78%,65.65% in <3 age group,69.9% in 3~4 age group,68.26% in 4~5 age group,72.7% in 5~6 age group,58.06% in 6~7 age group.Total anemic rate was 6.22%,5.88 % in <3 age group,9.41% in 3~4 age group,4.13% in 4~5 age group,6.71% in 5~6 age group,3.17% in 6~7 age group. Conclusions The overall level of preschool children's nutrition in Nanning city is low,and the health awareness need to be improved.Health education for preschool children on balance diet caries prevention and vaccination should be strengthened.
    Investigation on the knowledge of nutrition and food and diet behavior of high-level graders in primary school.
    ZHAI Yan-li,DUAN Pei-fen,FENG Xiang-xian,YUAN Jian-hui,FAN Li.
    2017, 25(1):  104-106.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-01-30
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    Objective To understand the knowledge and diet habit among students from grade 4 to grade 6 in primary school with regard to nutrition and food-related in Changzhi urban,in order to provide basis for the following health education. Methods A questionnaire survey of nutrition and food safety knowledge for primary school students was conducted among 1 265 primary school students selected from grade 4 to grade 6 in 8 primary schools by cluster random sampling in Changzhi urban area from September to December 2013. Results Respondents score about nutrition and food safety knowledge was low,and nutrition knowledge score was lower than food safety knowledge score.The difference was statistically significant (t=29.37,P<0.001).Nutrition knowledge score of students from grade 6 was higher than the score of students from grade 4 and 5(F=15.600,P<0.001).The score of the only child was higher than the score of the non-only-child (t=19.280,P<0.001).Food safety knowledge score of girls was higher than the score of boys(t=2.840,P=0.005).70.7% primary school students ate breakfast every day.21.7% and 36.0% primary school students could eat eggs and milk daily for guarantee.53.9% of primary school students could eat fruits every day.However,39.6% and 24.1% students would eat fried food and pickled foods more than once a week.29.0% and 29.9% primary school students would eat barbecue food and puffed food more than once a week.The firth two ways for the primary school students to get knowledge were networks (49.2%) and parents (25.4%),but they would rather obtain the relative knowledge by health lecture (43.5%) and the network (40.0%). Conclusions The degree of respondents nutrition and food safety knowledge is low,there are also some bad diet habits.The health education is badly needed to intervene and improve the health level.