Table of Content

    01 December 2016, Volume 24 Issue 12
    Correlation of sleep problems and executive functions among preschoolers.
    TAO Yong-hao,NI Ling-ling,YAN Shuang-qin,TAO Hui-hui,GU Chun-li,SHAO Ting,CAO Hui,SUN Yan-li,TONG Shi-lu,TAO Fang-biao.
    2016, 24(12):  1237-1240.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-02
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    Objective To realize the prevalence of problems about executive functions in preschoolers and examine the correlation of sleep problems and executive function. Methods Between May 2014 and June 2015,a total of 12 363 preschoolers were selected from 91 kindergartens of Maanshan,China from the birth cohort.The situation of sleep problems and executive functions by Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool (BRIEF-P) were evaluated. Results The elder children were, the higher parents' education level were, they got lower executive functions scores,the differences were statistically significant in preschoolers (P<0.05).Girls' executive function scores were significantly lower than boys' (P<0.05).The better sleep quality,shorter sleep time and fewer sleep problems they had, executive functions score was lower,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that the bad sleep quality,the long time to fall asleep and sleep problems were risk factors of the executive function (P<0.05). Conclusions Sleep problems are negatively associated with the executive functions among the preschoolers.Families should pay special attention to create appropriate environment for sleeping.
    Affection of social support on school-age children with leukemia and their parents.
    LIN Xiao-xia,CHEN Yan-hui,CHEN Shan,LI Jian,LIN Gui-xiu.
    2016, 24(12):  1241-1244.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-03
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    Objective To explore the impact of social support system on emotion of children in school age with leukemia and their parents' psychological health. Methods With perspective case control study,psychological questionnaires were employed to investigate the emotional statuses of school-age health children and children with leukemia and non malignant hematological diseases,including their parents.After social support intervention which included informational support,economical support and psychological support,the emotional statuses of children with leukemia and life quality of their parents were compared between before and after social support intervention. Results 1)Children with leukemia suffered more negative emotions (P<0.05).Social support helped to reduce the negative emotion of children with leukemia,and improved their mood.2)The group of parents of children with leukemia suffered more psychological problems than the control groups (P<0.05).Social support also helped to reduce the psychological problems of the parents of children with leukemia.3)The severity of psychological problems in parents had a positive correlation with the negative emotion in children with leukemia.4)Social support also helped the parents of children with leukemia to improve the quality of life. Conclusions Children in school age with leukemia and their parents suffer lots of psychological problems.With progressive psychological intervention and the help of social support system,their psychological health and life quality can be reserved and improved.
    Research on executive functions under dual-task in children with autism spectrum disorder.
    DU Yun-yun,FANG Jian-qun,WEI Jia,MA Xin-rong,ZHANG Zhao-xia,LI Lin-gui.
    2016, 24(12):  1245-1248.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-04
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    Objective To explore the executive function in dual-task situation of children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD),and to find the differences of executive function between ASD and normal children. Methods Working memory cards,mental rotation cards,day-night stroop and hand game tasks were used to perform a functional test of 48 children with ASD.Simultaneously,high and low voice frequency stimulation groups was set up as dual-task test mode.All the data were analyzed by independent sample t-test. Results The task scores of executive function of children with ASD showed no difference between the two groups (P>0.05),but high voice frequency stimulation resulted in more time to complete the tasks for ASD children (P<0.05).There were significant differences of executive function scores and total time between children with ASD and normal children (P<0.05). Conclusions Children with ASD are more sensitive to the simulation of high voice frequency,and sound stimulation may affect children with ASD to complete the executive function tasks.The executive function of children with ASD is significantly weaker than normal children.
    Correlation analysis of child anxiety emotional disorder and family upbringing styles of grade 4~6 school children.
    LEI Xiao-mei,YANG Si-ping,LIU Li,LV Ye,YANG Yu-feng.
    2016, 24(12):  1249-1252.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-05
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    Objective To study the effecting factors of anxiety emotional disorder and family upbringing style of grade 4~6 school children,and to analyse correlation between anxiety emotional disorder and FUSQ. Methods By random sampling,841 students of grade 4~6 in the central Shaanxi plain were collected.All subjects were investigated by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorder(SCARED) and Family Upbringing Style Questionaire(FUSQ). Results 1)The relevance ratio of anxiety emotional disorder was 19.5% (n=164).Among different economic levels,there were differences in scores of somatization/panic and school phobia(F=4.796,3.252,all P<0.05).The score of school phobia was different in parents' education levels(F=3.425,2.667,all P<0.05).2) Among father upbringing styles,boys' scores of admit-refuse,democracy-dictatorship,respect-shame,tolerant-acolasia,award-penalty and warmth-rude were low than those of girls(P<0.05 or <0.01).The award-penalty score of girls was higher than that of boys in mother upbringing styles(P<0.01).3) Positive correlation existed among anxiety factors and upbringing styles,Including separation anxiety and discipline-control,social phobia and award-penalty,generalized anxiety and social phobia and democracy-dictatorship,somatization/panic and expect-exaction.Negative correlation existed in somatization/panic,social phobia and tolerant-acolasia,respect-shame; generalized anxiety and social phobia and discipline-control,school phobia and tolerant-acolasia. Conclusion The anxiety emotional disorder are general in students grade 4~6 of poor counties,and cacoethic family upbringing styles exist universally which is a external factor lead to anxiety emotional disorder and should be paid attention.
    Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Swanson,Nolan,and Pelham,version Ⅳ scale-parent form.
    ,LU Teng-fei,XIA Wei-ping,WANG Zhou-ye,TAN Xin.
    2016, 24(12):  1253-1256.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-06
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    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Swanson,Nolan,and Pelham,version Ⅳ scale(SNAP-Ⅳ)-parent form for preschooler in China. Method Parents of kindergarten students(4 y 0 m~5 y 11 m,n=81)and parents of non-reference clinical patients with ADHD(4 y 0 m~5 y 11 m,n=200) completed the SNAP-Ⅳ,75 of which completed Conners,265 of which completed Child Bahabior Checklist (CBCL) 32 of them completed SNAP-Ⅳ retest after 2 weeks. Results Retest reliability was 0.68~0.84 and Cronbach α coefficient was 0.84~0.93.Subscales of SNAP-Ⅳ were moderately correlated (r=0.38~0.79,P<0.001)with subscales of Conners and CBCL.Lisrel Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three factors model of SNAP-Ⅳ was reasonable.Compared with the normal control group,the ADHD group got higher scores in all aspects,which had significant statistically differences (t=-4.22~-9.67,P<0.001). Conclusion The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of SNAP-Ⅳ-parent form are satisfactory among preschooler in China.
    Association between child health care utilization and maternal health care in migrant child under 1 year old,Foshan city:a community-based cross-sectional survey.
    YANG Wei,QIAN Xu,LIANG Ji,TAN Hui,XU Xiao-li,PAN Xu-hong,HUANG Xiao-na.
    2016, 24(12):  1257-1259.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-07
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    Objective To explore the association between child health care utilization and maternal health care among migrant child under 1-year-old,and further improve child health care utilization in migrants. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Foshan city using a two phrase probability proportional sampling.Subjects were migrant mothers with child under 1-year-old.A total of 579 migrant mothers were face-to-face interviewed using a structured questionnaire.The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between child systematic management and the maternal health care utilization. Results Migrant child health care utilization:child health care rate was 89.1% while child systematic management rate was 49.2%.Maternal health care utilization:antenatal care at least one visit rate was 96.0%,antenatal care at 1st trimester 87.5%,antenatal care at least 5 visits rate was 61.5%,institutional delivery rate was 99.7%,postpartum home visit within 28 days was 37.3% and maternal systematic management rate was 22.2%.The multivariate regression results showed that child systematic management was positively correlated with postpartum home visit and maternal systematic management respectively (OR=2.017,95%CI=1.339~3.038;OR=1.941,95%CI=1.208~3.119). Conclusions Whole course utilization of maternal and child health care service are low among migrants in Foshan city.Postpartum home visit and maternal systematic management are contributing factors of child systematic management,which remind that improving maternal health service utilization is likely to increase child health service utilization.
    Investigation and association between allergic disease and sleep disorders in preschool children in Nanjing.
    YUE Li-wen,QU Hong-ming,MAO Chen,LIU Jing,XIE Hai-hong.
    2016, 24(12):  1260-1262.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-08
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    Objective To analyse the sleep time,the prevalence and the risk factors of sleep disorders in children with allergic diseases of 3~6 years old in Nanjing,and to provide evidence for the prevention and intervention of sleep disorders. Method A total of 1 432 children of 3~6 years old were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method from Nanning city.The parents were surveyed with Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Results The mean of total sleep time of 3~6 years old children were(10.74±0.85)h,remarkably shorter compared with the typical sleep time of Western children of the same age.Sleep times in allergic rhinitis and asthma children were shorter than those of healthy children with significant difference (P<0.05).The incidence of sleep disorder was 52.7%,the incidence of sleep disorders in asthma and allergic rhinitis children were 68.3% and 66.5% respectively. Conclusions The total sleep time of preschool children is relatively less in Nanjing,and the prevalence of sleep disorders is higher compared to the existing data.Allergic diseases could be the risk factor which should pay a great attention.
    Parental stress and related factors of children with autism spectrum disorder.
    HU Chun-chun,ZHOU Bing-rui,LIU Chun-xue,LI Chun-yang,ZHANG Ying,XU Qiong,XU Xiu.
    2016, 24(12):  1263-1266.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-09
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    Objective To explore parental stress and related factors of children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD),and provide the basis for reducing parental stress and promoting the results of intervention. Methods Parents of ASD children who were first diagnosed in the Department of Child Health Care,Children's Hospital of Fudan University were included in the research as experimental group,parents of children who were first diagnosed as intellectual disability/language disorder and of typical children as control groups.Interview included parental stress index/short form (PSI/SF),self-made general parenting information questionnaire,Developmental Screening Test (DST) was performed for developmental quotient (DQ) of ASD children. Results Most included ASD children were comorbid with developmental delay-a higher proportion of intellectual disability and poor social adaptability than motor abnormality.Parents of ASD children scored higher than control groups in the total score of parenting stress,PCDI domain and DC domain (total score:100.67±15.08 vs 93.19±13.85 vs 82.61±17.68,F=43.85,P<0.05).They also scored higher in PD domain than parents of typical children(33.34±7.07 vs 29.77±7.47,P<0.05),with no statistical difference comparing with parents of children with intellectual disability/language disorder.Increasing nursing time of father and family income,parents with higher education level could help to relieve stress. Conclusions 1) A large number of ASD children are comorbid with developmental delay.Parents of ASD children experience higher stress.2) To increase nursing time of father,father should be guide to participate in the family intervention of ASD children.It is also important for the government and society to invest more funds and education resources for the ASD families for relieving stress and improving the effect of intervention.
    Influence of feeding behavior on the curative effect for children with phenylketonuria.
    LIU Feng-yan.
    2016, 24(12):  1267-1270.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-10
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    Objective To investigate the influence of feeding behavior of parents on the blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentration and deterioration quotient (DQ) of children with phenylketonuria(PKU). Methods Totally 49 cases of classic PKU children and their long-term following parents were chosen,who were diagnosed by newborn screening center of Taian between January 2000 to May 2010 and continued insurance treatment for six years(28 boys,21 girls;parents:father 9 cases and mother 40 cases).The dietary feeding behavior of parents was investigated by a self-made questionnaire and analyzed by single factor analysis of variance and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results The multiple stepwise regression analysis of 26 items were carried out,high protein diet,tend to high protein diet behavior,food preparation(food pattern,whether parence cook dinner for the children specially),had significant influence on the blood Phe concentration and DQ (P<0.05). Conclusion The feeding behaviors of parents of classic PKU children have significant influence on the curative effect of children.
    Research on the subjective living quality and the social adaptive behavior in children with short stature.
    CHEN Ling-hua,ZHAO Hui,ZHANG Su-zhen,ZHANG Li-wen,LIN Jie.
    2016, 24(12):  1271-1273.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-11
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    Objective To understand the subjective living quality and the social adaptive behavior in children with short stature,and to provide theoretical basis and guidance. Methods By means of Inventory of Subjective Life Quality (ISLQ) and Social of Adaptive Behavior (SAB) scales,adaptation control study was conducted in 120 cases short stature children and 120 normal children to understand their subjective quality living quality and social adaptive behavior. Results Short stature children ISLQ in peer interaction,self perception scores were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),there were significant differences in school life,experience of depression,anxiety,somatic sensory,cognitive level,emotional level in the overall level of score with the control group (P<0.01);Adaptability quotient (ADQ) was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05),and there were difference in cognitive function,social/self factor between short stature children and control children(P<0.01). Conclusions The subjective living quality and the social adaptive behavior in children with short stature are significantly lower than those of normal children.It is necessary to have treatment with psychological,behavioral and other comprehensive intervention,and improve the quality of life and social adaptability.
    Study on praxiology and mechanisms of animal models of tic disorders.
    CHE Li-chun,LIU Xiu-mei,CHEN Lang,LIU Shi-guo,YI Ming-ji.
    2016, 24(12):  1274-1277.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-12
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    Objective To observe the behavior and evaluate the levels of dopamine(DA) and hydroxytryptaminel(5-HT) in striatum and plasma in rat models of tic disorder(TD) induced by iminodipropionitrile(IDPN) or 1-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI),and provide the evidence of selecting rat models reasonably. Methods The rats of IDPN inducement were intraperitoneally injected IDPN,and the rats of DOI inducement were intraperitoneally injected DOI.The activity scale scores,stereotypy scale scores and classified stereotypy scale scores were observed and recorded by double-blind method.The levels of DA and 5-HT in striatumin and plasma of the rat models of TD induced by IDPN or DOI were observed by ELISA,and the mechanism of the rat models was discussed. Results The activity scale scores,stereotypy scale scores in the IDPN and DOI inducement groups were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The scores of circling and choreoathetoid movement of rat in the IDPN inducement group were higher than those in the DOI group and control group (P<0.05).The scores of paw-to-mouth movements and self-gnawing of rat in the DOI inducement group were higher than those in the IDPN group and control group (P<0.05).The DA concentrations in plasma and striatum were higher in the IDPN model group (5.70±3.12,137.45±20.14) than those in the control group(0.32±0.12,68.13±12.34)and DOI model group(1.01±0.74,88.56±21.30) (F=13.43~8.6,P<0.05).The 5-HT concentration in striatum was found to be lower in the DOI model group(56.83±34.72) compared to that in the control group(109.14±14.05) and IDPN model group(72.52±10.03)(F=3.65,P<0.05). Conclusions The generalized tics are obviously observed in the IDPN models.The partial tics are obviously observed in the DOI models.The decreasing DA concentration in striatum of the IDPN models could lead to tic disorders.The exciting 5-HT receptor of the DOI models could lead to tic disorders.

    Currens status of application of the Family Functioning Assessment Scale

    LUAN Feng-huan, DU Ya-song
    2016, 24(12):  1287-1289.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-16
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    Analysis of walking ability of school aged children with cerebral palsy.
    LIU Hao,SHI Wei,ZHOU Mei-qin,LI Hui-juan,YANG Hong,RAN Xiao-hua.
    2016, 24(12):  1296-1298.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-19
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    Objective To determine the waking ability of teenagers with cerebral palsy at school age. Methods Fifty-three students with cerebral palsy were selected including 36 males and 17 females.The average age were (12.2±2.7) years old with range from 7.0 to 17.9.Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) gradeⅠ had 15 cases and grade Ⅱ had 38 cases.10 m run test (10 mRT) and 1-minute walk test (1MWT) were applied to evaluate the walking speed.6-minute walk test (6MWT) was applied to assess the walking endurance and physical cost index (PCI) was applied to assess the walking energy consumption.All the students accepted retest after at least three months.The first test outcomes between GMFCSⅠand Ⅱ meanwhile and the difference between the first and the second test results were compared. Results In the first test,the walking speed of the students with GMFCS gradeⅠwas significantly faster than those with GMFCS gradeⅡ(P<0.01) and the walking endurance was also better in GMFCS gradeⅠ(P<0.001).There was no statistical difference for the PCI between them.All the students with cerebral palsy received the second test after (4.8±1.3) months of average and there was no statistical difference of the results between the two tests. Conclusions Among the teenagers with cerebral palsy at school age,the walking speed and distance of students with GMFCS gradeⅠ are significantly better than those with GMFCS grade Ⅱ.However,there is no remarkable difference in walking energy consumption.After short-term interval,all the test parameters of walking ability stay the same.
    Screening results and analysis of fundus examination in 1 313 premature infants.
    CHENG Yang-yang,ZENG Ya-wei,HU Jie,SHI Jing.
    2016, 24(12):  1299-1302.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-20
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    Objective To investigate the incidence of the premature infants and analyse the high risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. Method Retinal imagine system (RetCam 3) was applied to a screening of the fundus diseases in premature infants born between March 2015 and March 2016,and logistic regress analysis of ROP risk factors was conducted. Results A total of 301 infants with fundus diseases were screened out,consisting of 208 cases of ROP,53 cases of nonspecific exudative retinal lesions,33 cases of retinal hemorrhage,4 cases of original residual vitreous artery,1 case of optic nerve hypoplasia,1 case of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and 1 case of macular pigmentation.Logistic regress analysis indicated that young gestational age,low birth body weight,non-standard history of using oxygen,simple polyembryony and transfusion history were high risks for the development of ROP in premature infants. Conclusions RetCam 3 is an important means of fundus examination in premature infants.Young gestational age,low birth body weight,non-standard history of using oxygen,simple polyembryony and transfusion history are high risks for the development of ROP in premature infants.
    Scale revised and current situation research about adolescent body safety education.
    ZANG Yun-hong,YANG Jing,WU Lin.
    2016, 24(12):  1303-1305.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-21
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    Objective To explore the scale structure and characteristics about adolescent body safety education scale. Method The cluster sampling method was used to investigate 2 375 adolescent from primary and secondary schools. Results Adolescent body safety education scale was composed with two factors which included safety education way and education attitude.The two factors explained 58.239% of the total variance.Internal consistency coefficient of the scale was 0.856 and split-half reliability was 0.801.On grade,gender and family locating,significant differences appeared in adolescent body safety education(P<0.05). Conclusions Adolescent body safety education scale has high reliability and validity,which can effectively measure.In terms of demographic variables,adolescent body safety education has different characteristics.
    Longitudinal study on infantile nocturnal sleep-wake pattern development trajectory in Haidian district of Beijing.
    WEN fang,ZHANG Liang-fen.
    2016, 24(12):  1306-1308.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-22
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    Objective To understand the infantile nocturnal sleep-wake pattern developmental trajectory with Actiwatch,and to be benefit to the clinical assessment of infantile sleep. Methods Longitudinal study was conducted between October,2009 and October 2011 in Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Haidian district.Actiwatch was used to track the sleep-wake pattern development trajectory of health infants in the first year of life in the home setting.Participating infant were followed up at monthly from the 1~6 months after birth,and then at 9 months and 12 months of age respectively.Meanwhile,infantile sleep was observed continuously for about 60 hours at each visit.Data of 32 infants were collected with Actigraphy. Results With infants' age increasing,the nocturnal sleep duration(366.07~497.04 min)and the longest continuous interval (213.21~381.10 min)increased.Compared with the first month,the nocturnal sleep duration at 5 months increased 102.57 minutes,the longest continuous sleeping interval at 6 months increased 99.39 minutes,these differences were statistically significant (t=4.12,5.45,P<0.05).The latency of infants' nighttime sleeponset (56.85~15.13 min)and the number of nighttime awakening(2.83~1.60 times) decreased with age.Compared with the first month,the latency of infants' nighttime sleep onset at 4 months decreased 29.65 minutes,the numbers of nighttime awakening at 5 months decreased 0.36 times,these difference were statistically significant (t=9.47,3.51,P<0.05).There were no significant differences between adjacent ages and sex. Conclusions During the first 4~6 months after birth,infantile sleep-wake pattern undergo obvious change.The capability of sleep-onset and uninterrupted sleep improve with age.
    Analysis of behavior problems and nursing countermeasure discuss in schoolage children with asthma.
    RONG Yue-fang,YU Jie,TANG Ai-hua.
    2016, 24(12):  1309-1311.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-23
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    Objective To analyze behavior problems and discuss nursing countermeasure in schoolage children with asthma. Method 64 schoolage children were interviewed,and a self-made disease cognition questionnaire was used for asthma children and their parents,Conners Parent Questionnaire(PQS) was used to analyze management status and behavior problems on them.In addition,continuous nursing measures were introduced to navigate these parents to participate in management of asthma,and improve behavior problems of these children. Results After continuous nursing measures,parents sticking to proper medicine use,avoiding to asthma trigger factors,properly using inhalation aerosol and awareness of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program and behavior problems were much higher than before.Children with asthma were often accompanied with problems in conduct,learning,psychosoma,behavior problems such as impulse-hyperactivity and anxiety.However,at 6 months after continuous nursing measures,schoolage children with asthma achieved very significant improvements in learning,anxiety and psychosomatic disorder(P=0.0213,0.0584,0.3174),and the effects became even more obvious after 1 year(P=0.0040,0.0162,0.0378). Conclusion Schoolage children with asthma are often accompanied with obvious behavior problems,and a long-term regulated continuous nursing measures can guide their parents to stick to long-term asthma management,change of educational notions and methods,so as to effectively improve behavior problems of these children.
    Discussion on the effect of began age and duration of comprehensive intervention on children with autism spectrum disorders.
    FU Yi-kun,ZHOU Ai-qin,DAI Qiong,WU Mei-rong,XU Hai-qing.
    2016, 24(12):  1312-1314.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-24
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    Objective To analyse the efficacy of different age to begin comprehensive intervention and duration of comprehensive intervention of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD),and to provide a reference for improving the quality of life of children with ASD. Methods A total of 221 children were diagnosed as ASD according to American Psychiatric Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th edition criteria (DSM-Ⅳ) and conducted the self controlled study of comprehensive intervention treatment.Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to analyse the efficacy. Results There were significant differences in scores of feeling,sports,language,and social/self-control factors of ABC between before and after therapy,between different age to start comprehensive intervention and comprehensive intervention duration(P<0.000 1).Started earlier and the longer duration of comprehensive intervention,the differences of the each factor and total scores of ABC rating scale were statistically significant. Conclusions Comprehensive intervention can improve the ASD abilities of feeling,sports,language,and social/self-control.At the same time,the more effective is by younger to start comprehensive intervention and longer duration of comprehensive intervention.
    Analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Hubei province in 2005-2015.
    DENG Qing,ZHANG Chi,WANG Xiao-nan,WANG Lei.
    2016, 24(12):  1315-1318.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-25
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    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic trend of pertussis in Hubei province in 2005-2015,and provide scientific basis for the strategy of monitoring and controlling pertussis. Method The individual data of pertussis cases from National Notifiable Disease Reporting System in Hubei during January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Results Totally 565 cases were reported in Hubei in 2005-2015,with no cases died.The reported incidence of pertussis declined from 0.163 to 0.047 cases per 100 000 in 2005-2009,keep a low level from 0.028 to 0.056 cases per 100 000 in 2010-2013,showed a noticeable rising trend in 2014,and reached 0.217 cases per 100 000 in 2015.The disease occurred all through the year and peaked in March to September,which accounted for 83.4% of the total cases that mainly occurring in infants,around 62.7% cases were less than 1 year old.A proportion of 85.5% of the cases were scattered children. Conclusions Laboratory diagnosis Methods of pertussis should be improved.The proportion of pertussis cases diagnosed by laboratory should be increased,and the incidence should be estimated by active surveillance to effectively control and prevent prevalence of pertussis with reinforce of full-course immunization.
    Clinical analysis of 12 cases with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia in children.
    LIU Jing-tao,ZHANG Jun-ping.
    2016, 24(12):  1319-1321.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-26
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    Objective To analyse the clinical effect of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) necrotizing pneumonia in children. Method A retrospective analysis was performed based on the clinical records,laboratory data and treatment effects which were collected from 12 cases with CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia. Results Of the 12 cases,5 cases were male and 7 female.The median age was 23 months (8 months ~3 years old) and they were healthy before admission.They were febril for 12~ 36 days and hospital day was 28 ~70 days.The general condition of all cases were poor,all had high fever and cough.Dyspnea was found in eight children.Fine rales were found on 10 cases.Sighs of pleural effusion were discovered by physical examination and chest X-ray.During the course of admission,2 children complicated with deep soft tissue abscess,2 cases complicated with staphylococcus scalded skin syndrome and the other complicated with sepsis syndrome.WBC count was (14.8~42.36)×109/L and neutruophil was 78.8%~91.9% in peripheral blood routine test.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 52~114 mm/h and C-reactive protein was 68~140 mg/L.The pleural effusion biochemistry and routine test revealed a WBC count of (5 800~12 560)×106/L,protein of 35~60 g/L.Pleural effusion culture and (or) blood culture in all cases was positive for MRSA.Chest CT revealed high density lesions in the area of lobar consolicated were found a week later.All cases were treated with vancomycin.After a followed up of more than 6 months,chest CT showed that almost lesions in lungs recovered during 6 months.No cases received pneumonectomy. Conclusions MRSA necrotizing pneumonia is more common in children younger than 3 years old.Pathogenesis of acute and rapid progress,clinically characterized by high fever,coughing and lung tissue necrosis.If diagnosed and treated promptly,the prognosis of MRSA necrotizing pneumonia is relatively well.
    Research on the age and gender characteristics of the development of gross motor in preschool children.
    NING Ke,SHEN Xin-sheng,SHAO Xiao-jun.
    2016, 24(12):  1322-1325.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-27
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    Objective To access the age and gender characteristics of the development level of gross motor in 3~6 years old preschool children. Methods Test of gross motor development third edition(TGMD-3) was used to measure the development of gross motor in 119 preschool children.The differences in development level between different age gender groups were compared. Results The total score of TGMD-3 (33.24,43.11,52.09),the score of manipulative skills (14.79,19.57,24.94).locomotor skills score all increased with age (18.45,23.54,27.15),differences were significant (all P<0.01).The total score of TGMD-3 of 3~ age girls group was higher (32.29) than boys (29.5)(P<0.01),and 4~ and 5~ age boys was higher than girls (P<0.01).The manipulative skills scores of boys were higher than those of girls (P<0.05),mobility skill score of 3~ age girl group (18.60)was higher than that of boys (13.69)(P<0.01).In 4~ and 5~ age groups.The manipulative mobility skill scores were higher than those of girls (P<0.01). Conclusions Preschool children's motor development level increase with the age,the locomotor skills have good development and operation skills are poor;Boys' manipulative skill is better than girls' at the same age,boys' are better than girls' at locomotor skills (except 3~ age group).
    Clinical analysis of peripheral blood elements in infants with recurrent respiratory tract infections.
    ZHANG Shao-yu,LI Peng,LIU Yin,LIU Jian-ying,TAO Fang,CUI Yu-jie.
    2016, 24(12):  1326-1328.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-28
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    Objective To evaluate the value of the level of peripheral blood elements in children with recurrent respiratory tract infection(RRTI),and study the relationship between peripheral blood elements and RRTI in children. Methods The registered data of elements in peripheral blood examination was collected in Chengde Central Hospital pediatric clinic from November 2015 to March 2016.6 months to 4 years old children were randomly selected as the research object.132 cases of children suffering from RRTI were study group,and the healthy children of the same period were set up as the normal control group.Children in each group were divided into three age groups,under 1 year of age group,1~2 years old group and >2 years older group.In this study,Beijing Bohui BH5100S atomic absorption spectrometer were employed to determine the children's peripheral blood.Data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. Results 1)The levels of blood zinc had significant differences (P<0.01) between RRTI group and the control in children among different ages.There were also statistical significance (P<0.05) in the level of blood calcium between two groups in children under 1 year old.Moreover,there were statistical significances (P<0.05) in the levels of blood calcium and iron between two groups in children of >2 age,and the level of iron reached significant level too (P<0.01).2)According to the correlation analysis of five trace elements,the result indicated that calcium,zinc and iron were positively correlated. Conclusion The RRTI is related to the lack of zinc,and there is a certain relationship with the deficiency of calcium and iron,and there might be synergistic effects in the metabolism process among them.
    Application of Gesell Developmental Scale on autism spectrum disorder children under 2-year-old.
    ZHOU Xiang,CHEN Qiang,CHEN Hong,ZHUANG Zhi-cheng,ZENG Cai-xia.
    2016, 24(12):  1329-1331.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-29
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    Objective To explore the evaluation of Gesell Developmental Scale on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children under 2-year-old. Methods Gesell Developmental Scale was used to evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children under 2-year-old,who were divided into three groups including 55 children with ASD,40 children with mental retardation (MR),and 131 normal children.The development quotients of the three groups were compared with each other. Results The growth retardation rate of ASD group was 87.26%.There were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of adaptability and fine motor between ASD group and MR group (P>0.05).The developmental quotient of gross motor in ASD group was significantly higher than that of MR group (P<0.05).With respect to developmental quotients of language and individuality,ASD group were significantly lower than MR group (P<0.05). Conclusions Children with ASD under 2-year-old could perform growth retardation and imbalance development with obvious language,individuality retardation and relative normal gross motor.Gesell Developmental Scale is helpful to early detection of ASD children.
    The role of reinforced behavioral training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    ZHOU Yi,LIU Ming-xia,ZHANG Cai-ying,WANG De-feng,GU Jing-wen,XU Tong.
    2016, 24(12):  1335-1337.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-31
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of "behavioral modification" based on social skills training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Methods A total of one hundred ADHD children were divided to intervention group and waiting group randomly.The intervention group received 12-week social skill trainings,"behavioral modifications" priority to "positive reinforcement" were used throughout the whole process,and ADHDRS-Ⅳ-Parent scale and Rutter parent scale were used to evaluate the effect before and after intervention. Results Before intervention,the scores of ADHDRS-Ⅳ-Parent Scale and Rutter Parent Scale between two groups had no difference.After intervention,the scores of both ADHDRS-Ⅳ-Parent Scale and Rutter Parent Scale of intervention group were decreased rapidly,and had significant difference with the waiting group (P<0.01).The subtraction rate of attention deficit score was much larger than the hyperactivity/impulsity score (P<0.05 or <0.01).The ADHD children,parents and teacher were all satisfied with the training,but the satisfied rate of ADHD children was the highest,and the teacher's was the lowest. Conclusion The reinforced behavioral training is helpful in the treatment of children with ADHD.
    Epidemiology of indoor injury of children aged 1~6 years old in community and the cognitive behavior of their guardians.
    YAO Yu-hua,YANG Mei-jie,YU Yan,YAO Wen,ZHOU De-ding.
    2016, 24(12):  1338-1340.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-12-32
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    Objective To investigate the prevalence of indoor child injury in community,and explore the cognitive behavior of guardians,and to provide prevention basis for indoor child injury. Methods A retrospective questionnaire was conducted in March 2014 to obtain child injury happened indoor from March 1,2013 to February 28,2014.The cognition and behaviors of guardians on indoor child injury were also been investigated by self-administered questionnaires. Results A random sampling of 928 children within 1~6 years old was obtained in one of the community in Hongkou district,Shanghai.Out of 364(39.22%) participants once had indoor injury,380(40.95%) person-time had been observed.There was no significant difference in age group or gender.While,344 (90.53%) happened as accidental fall or drop.Living room and bedroom were the most common place which injury happened,33.68% indoor injury came from living room and 28.68% happened in bedroom,respectively.In this study,10.74% respondents tended to believe that child injury could not be prevented effectively; while,48.78% had never accept any training or guidance relate to child injury prevention; more than half of the guardians had poor knowledge in child injury,and most of them existed unsafe feeding care behavior. Conclusions The indoor child injury in this community is prevalent.Living room and bedroom are the most frequent places where indoor child injury happened,and the unsafe behaviors are common in guardians.The further intervention researches in this field are necessary.