Table of Content

    10 May 2016, Volume 24 Issue 5
    Effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on neonatal fat mass in different gender.
    GUO Bing-bing,WEI Ya-rong,XU Yin,PEI Jing-jing,QIU Ting,JIANG Xin-ye.
    2016, 24(5):  452-454.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-02
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    Objective To explore the difference in association between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) and neonatal fat mass by sex,and to provide theoretical support for early nutrition interventions. Methods Population-based study of all neonates born to women with or without GDM (n=231) in Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January to July 2015.Neonatal anthropometric measures (weight,height,skinfold thickness) were collected within 24 to 48 hours of birth by trained health staff.Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect maternal health status during pregnancy. Results 1)Compared with control group,fat mass percentage and fat mass were significant higher in the neonates of GDM mothers (P<0.01),but not birth weight and length (P>0.05).2)After the adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI,gestational weight gain,delivery mode,maternal age,educational level and other confounding factors,maternal gestational diabetes mellitus was the main predictor of fat mass in male newborns,but not in female offspring.There were 80 g fat mass difference in the case group than control group in male babies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the increment of a newborn's fat mass related to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus appears greater for male neonates.The nutritional status of infants with maternal abnormal glucose tolerance observed in pregnancy should be closely monitored,especially for the boys' follow-up and nutritional guidance.
    Clinical study on the impact of gestation diabetes mellitus on the kidney function in newborn.
    GAO Xiao-yan,GAO Ping-ming,DAI Yi-heng,LIU Wei-dong.
    2016, 24(5):  455-457.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-03
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    Objective To investigate the effect of gestation diabetes mellitus(GDM) on the renal function in newborn within 7 days. Methods All the cases involved in this study were neonates borned in Foshan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from July 2014 to June 2015,60 cases whose mother had suffered from GDM were selected into the observation group,and other 60 cases who were borned in the same period were selected into the control group,and whose mother had not suffered from GDM.The levels of BUN,CREA,Cystatin C (Cys-C),β2-microglobulin(β2-MG) in serum were detected and compared in day 1,3 and 7. Results Compared with the control group,the levels of Cys-C and β2-MG in observation group were higher in day 1 (P<0.05),neither BUN nor CREA levels had significant change (P>0.05).The levels of β2-MG were higher in day 3 and 7 (P<0.05),but the levels of Cys-C had no significant changes (P>0.05).For the term infants,the level of β2-MG was higher in observation group (P<0.05),the level of Cys-C was higher only in day 1 (P<0.05);For the preterm infants,the level of β2-MG was higher in observation group in day 3 (P<0.05),the level of Cys-C was higher only in day 1 (P<0.05). Conclusions There is renal damage in neonates borned by GDM mothers,but the neonatal renal function improved within 1 weeks,and the level of Cys-C returned to normal earlier than β2-MG.
    Influence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia on maternal and neonatal outcome.
    LI Yu,WANG Guang-hua,CAO Zhi-juan,HUA Jing,GU Gui-xiong.
    2016, 24(5):  458-461.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-04
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    Objective To investigate the influence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia on pregnancy outcome,to decrease the adverse maternal outcome and promote the neonatal health. Methods A nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort.The pregnancy outcome of the case group which included 39 women with gestational hypertension and 45 with preeclampsia was compared with the control group (n=84),and the two groups were matched at the pregnancy age,gestational week,BMI,gravidity,parity. Results The differences in cesarean section,preterm,intrauterine hypoxia,low birth weight,in-patient,birth weight,height,1 min Apgar score,5 min Apgar score were significant compared with the control group (P<0.05).The preeclampsia induced a more serious outcome of women and infant. Conclusions Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia induced maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes,more attention should be paid to maternal health care,prevents and treats the pregnancy induced hypertension disease positively,realizes the eugenics.
    Correlation study of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene polymorphism and premature infants intraventricular hemorrhage.
    PAN Jin-yong,ZHANG Hui-rong,CAO Xiao-yan,DUAN Wei-hao.
    2016, 24(5):  462-465.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-05
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    Objective To detect the polymorphism of estrogen receptor 1 (estrogen receptor alpha,ESR1),to analyze the relationship of ESR1 genotypes and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH),to understand the pathogenesis and influence factors of intraventricular hemorrhage on premature infant,and to further improve the prevention,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis. Methods The diagnosis of 45 newborns of intraventricular hemorrhage were confirmed by head CT examination from January 2012 to February 2015,50 cases of normal newborn were selected as the control group.Using endonuclease PvuII in the disease samples and normal samples for ESR1 gene polymorphism,and the distribution and correlation of ESR1 gene polymorphism with premature infant intraventricular hemorrhage were analyzed. Results Premature infant's intraventricular hemorrhage with PvuII restriction fragment length polymorphism showed polymorphism,rs2234693 genotype was genotype CC (213 bp),the TT genotype (179/34 bp) and CT genotype (213/179/34 bp).In IVH experimental group,ESR1 (rs2234693) TC type and the frequency loci were higher than those of the control group,the difference was statistically significant between the two groups (χ2=6.57,P<0.05).The experimental group's IVH ESR1 (rs2234693) of TC allele frequency was higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant between the two groups (χ2=5.40,P<0.05). Conclusion There is a correlation between the ESR1 gene rs2234693 locus T and the premature infant intraventricular hemorrhage.
    Two-week prevalence of illness among 0~6 years old children in 15 provinces,China.
    YU Ting,ZHANG Yue,WANG Hui-shan,XU Tao,YANG Jun,WANG Nian-rong,ZHOU Xin-jun,YIN Ying,LUO Tao,HUO Xiao-ya,JI Min,WANG Rui-ming,ZHANG Jie.
    2016, 24(5):  466-468.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-06
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    Objective To investigate the 0~6 years old children's common diseases and symptoms' occurrence and to analyze the health status and the major health problems of children in China at present for preventing childhood diseases and providing basis for the establishment of health care measures. Method A total of 43 370 children under six years old were sampled by the multi-stage stratified random sampling method in 15 provinces nationwide,and parents questionnaires were used to do the investigation. Results Two-week prevalence reported for 0~6 years old children was 22.35% and the boys' was higher than the girls',the urban areas was higher than the rural areas,and there were statistically significant differences among eastern,central and western regions in different age groups.Respiratory diseases' two-week prevalence was 4.48%,accounting for 74.68% of the whole system illness.Fever,cough and diarrhea were the common symptoms of childhood diseases and the incidence were 9.62%,9.39% and 6.43% respectively. Conclusion The differences among age-groups,urban and rural areas,and regions indicate that prevention and control of infants'common diseases such as children's respiratory and digestive system disease,and symptoms such as fever,cough and diarrhea should be strengthened.
    Correlation between vitamin D with fasting plasma insulin and blood glucose in neonates.
    WANG Ai-ping,LI Yang-fang,CHAI Lin,WU Yu-qin,TAO Na,YANG Ru-wen,ZHAO Xiao-fen,QIU Li-ling.
    2016, 24(5):  469-471.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-07
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    Objective To explore correlation between vitamin D with fasting plasma insulin,C-Peptide and blood glucose. Method The concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2[25(OH)D2],25-hydroxycholecalciferol[25(OH)D3],25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D],fasting plasma insulin(INS),C-Peptide(CP)and blood glucose (GLU) were measured in 58 full-term infants and 42 preterm infants,and the data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results The 25(OH)D3,25(OH)D,INS,CP and GLU in group of full-term infants were higher than those in group of preterm infants(P<0.05).Levels of serum 25(OH)D3,25(OH)D in full-term infants had positive correlations with INS,CP (r=0.515,0.324,0.523,0.335,P<0.05 or <0.01),and negative correlations with GLU(r=-0.489,-0.514,all P<0.01).Levels of serum 25(OH)D3,25(OH)D in preterm infants had positive correlations with INS,CP (r=0.509,0.367,0.598,0.432,P<0.05 or <0.01),and negative correlations with GLU(r=-0.539,-0.587,all P<0.01). Conclusion Levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in neonates have positive correlations with fasting plasma insulin and C-Peptide,and negative correlations with blood glucose.
    Association of locus rs1800683 G>A polymorphisms of lymphotoxin-alpha gene with Kawasaki disease.
    ZENG Cai-xiu,ZHAN Xia,ZHOU Jin,XIE Gui,YUAN Hai-bin,ZHOU Chai,YANG Zuo-cheng.
    2016, 24(5):  472-474.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-08
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    Objective To investigate the relationship between the locus rs1800683 G>A polymorphisms of lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene with Kawasaki disease (KD). Method The Sanger gene sequencing method was employed to detect the genotype of locus rs1800683 G>A polymorphisms of LTA gene in 100 patients with KD and 92 healthy controls. Results For locus rs1800683 G>A polymorphism in LTA gene,there was no significant difference between the KD and healthy controls in genotyping frequencies of AG,AA and GG respectively (χ2=3.78,P>0.05),and there was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of A and G between the two groups (χ2=2.84,P>0.05).There were no significant differences between the KD complicated with coronary artery injury (CAL) group and non coronary artery lesion (NCAL) group in genotyping frequencies of AG,AA and GG respectively (χ2=3.76,P>0.05) and in the allele frequencies of A and G between the two groups (χ2=0.43,P>0.05). Conclusion The locus rs1800683 G>A polymorphisms of LTA gene maybe not associated with the risks of KD and the coronary artery injury.
    Deficit of working memory on emotional faces in children with high-functioning autism.
    ZHANG Ling,PAN Ning,XU Cai-juan,LIN Qiong-xi,YE Jun,JING Jin,JIN Yu.
    2016, 24(5):  475-478.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-09
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    Objective To examine the deficit of working memory on emotional faces in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and analyze the relationship of working memory on emotional faces and the ability of facial expression recognition. Methods Nineteen children (aged 6.5~12 years old) with HFA and nineteen typically developing (TD) children matched with age and gender were recruited.To evaluate the abilities of working memory on emotional faces and facial expression recognition,all the children were required to complete the facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task and facial expression naming task. Results Children in HFA group showed lower accurate rates and longer reaction times in the facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task,while comparing to TD group.But no statistical difference was showed in the accurate rates of working memory on happy faces between two groups.There was positive correlation between the accurate rates of facial emotion delayed match-to sample task and facial expression naming task in HFA group,and positive correlation was showed in the reaction times of these two tasks for TD group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest the impairments of working memory on emotional faces in children with HFA.It's possible that the deficit of working memory on emotional faces is one of the important factors leading to the emotion cognition deficit in children with HFA.
    Expression of calcium-sensing receptor and Pi3k/Akt pathway regulate the cardiac myocyte apoptosis of epilepsy rats.
    WANG Li-min,HAN Xiao-wei,WANG Chao,ZHANG Xin-yang,WANG Shu-jing,BAI Ling-ling,SUN Yan-qiu,GUO Jin.
    2016, 24(5):  479-482.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-10
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    Objectives To observe the changes of the expression of calcium-sensing receptor and Pi3k/Akt pathway in regulating cardiac myocyte apoptosis of epilepsy rat. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly:normal control group and epilepsy group.The epilepsy rats group model were induced by subcutaneous injection of PTZ (64 mg/kg once).The level of CK,CK-MB and cTnI were assayed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.The morphological changes of cardiac tissues were observed under optical and electron microscopy.Heart rate and the cardiac function of the rats in each group were detected by echocardiography.The expressions of CaSR,Akt and p-Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results Compared with control group,CK,CK-MB and cTnI were increased obviously in epilepsy group (P<0.05).HE staining showed the cell swelled,and the nuclear fragmented.EEG showed epilepsy waves.By echocardiography,rhythm of the heart was increased,the left ventricular wall motion was abnormal,and the rhythm was disorder.The expression of CaSR,p-Akt were increased in epilepsy group(P<0.05),while Akt had no difference between of them. Conclusion Epileptic may injured cardiac tissues,and induced the increased expression of CaSR,and actived Pi3k/Akt pathway,then increased the expression of p-Akt,all of them regulated the cardiac myocyte apoptosis.
    Study on correlation between B/A Ratio and abnormal brain MRI in neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia.
    REN Chang-jun,HAO Ling,CHENG Si-si,DENG Yan-dong,QIU hai-nan.
    2016, 24(5):  499-501.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-16
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    Objective To investigate the relationship with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia between total bilirubin / albumin ratio(B/A)with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities and its clinical significance. Methods A total of 162 neonates hyperbilirubinemia (total serum bilirubin ≥342.2 μmol / L) between January 2013 and January 2014 enrolled in the study.They were divided into two groups,according to the Results of brain MRI:normal MRI group (n=126)and abnormal MRI group (n=36).Retrospective analysis of the relationship between B/A ratio of brain magnetic resonance imaging. Result The Results showed that the abnormal MRI group had a higher B/A ratio compared with the normal MRI group.it reached statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusions High B/A ratio is a risk factor for abnormal MRI neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia,which is the reason that could cause neurobehavioral sequelae of neonates.Primary hospital through observe B/A,high B/A ratiowith severe hyperbilirubinemia shoud active cut down jaundice,reduce neurobehavioral sequelae of neonates,enhance follow-up of high rise children.
    Investigation on the family living behavior of preschool obese children.
    SHI Mai,CAO Chun-hong,MA Xiao-tao,LIU Zhao-lan,CHEN Jie.
    2016, 24(5):  502-505.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-17
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    Objective To explore the relationship between family life behavior and childhood obesity,and to provide a reference for the prevention of childhood obesity. Methods A total of 1 246 children and their family caregivers were investigated with the self-made questionnaire,including the height,weight,and the daily dietary preferences,exercise habits and sleep habits of primary caregivers. Results The rate of boys' obesity was 11.78%,and the rate of girls' obesity was 10.82%.The incidence of overweight and obesity in obese boys' parents and the elderly were higher than those in the non-obese boys(χ2=59.22,114.42,34.73,all P<0.001);Incidence of overweight and obesity in obese girls' parents were higher than those in the non-obese girls(χ2=63.61,81.58,all P<0.001).Caregivers' eating habits of obese children had higher proportion in preference for sweet,salty,greasy,and a low proportion of light,a higher proportion of sleep late and get up late and a low proportion of early to bed and early to rise,and a lower proportion of exercises,compared with the caregivers of normal weight children,the differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). Conclusion The family primary caregivers' lifestyle behaviors have an important influence on children's obesity,and intervention of childhood obesity should pay more attention to family intervention.
    Development and comparative research on neonatal resting and tasking electroencephalogram power.
    CHENG Qi-rui,DONG Xuan,ZHANG Qin-fen,LI Hong-xin,SHEN Hui-juan,JIANG Kai-hua,LU Lu,TU Wen-juan.
    2016, 24(5):  506-508.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-18
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    Objective To explore the characteristic of neonatal brain function and development by the comparative research on resting and tasking electroencephalogram(EEG) power. Methods A total of 53 full-term babies were divided into three groups (the first group of 1 to 10 days,the second group of 11~20 days,the third group 21~28 days),tasking EEG was elicited by oddball paradigm auditory stimuli,comparative analysis was carried out between resting (normal) and tasking EEG power in delta frequency band. Results 1)Compared with resting,the increase of tasking EEG power was remarkable in group 2 and 3 at Cz lead [group 2:(281.41±121.73)μV2 vs (334.42±135.95)μV2;group 3:(166.39±84.43)μV2 vs (216.64±89.85)μV2 (P<0.05)];2)Development analysis on the tasking EEG power in three groups at Cz lead [group 1:(203.68±165.96)μV2;group 2:(334.42±135.95)μV2;group3:(216.64±89.85)μV2] showed a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion The quantity of neonatal brain activated neurons rised when cognitive information processed,which make the tasking EEG power enhanced;The δ EEG power in newborn changes with age,and reaches the maximum in 11~20 days.Accepting appropriate cognitive information can promote the development of neonatal brain function.
    Screening results analysis of neonatal deafness gene of 2 029 cases.
    JIANG Qi,XIN Rong,SHEN Xue-ping,GU Chun-jian.
    2016, 24(5):  509-511.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-19
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    Objective To understand the carrying rate and mutation of the gene of neonatal deafness in this area,and to analyze the difference of the gene carrying rate between high risk neonates and normal newborns.Method Application time of flight mass spectrometry,20 hot spot mutations of GJB2,SLC26A4,GJB3,mitochondria 12SrRNA four common deafness susceptibility genes were detected in 2 029 newborns. Results Among 2 029 newborns:400 cases of high risk infants,1 629 cases of normal newborns;101 newborns positive of gene screening:16 cases (4%) were found in high risk infants,and 85 cases (5.22%) were found in normal newborns.59 newborns were found with GJB2 gene mutation(2.91%).28 newborns were found with SLC26A4 gene mutation(1.38%).12 newborns were found with GJB3 gene mutation(0.60%).2 newborns were found with mitochondrial 12SrRNA gene mutation (0.10%). Conclusions Among the newborns without family history of hearing loss in this area,GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene mutation rates are higher,GJB3 and mitochondria 12SrRNA gene mutation are rare.There is no significant difference in the rate of deafness gene carrying rate between high risk neonates and normal neonates.
    Association analysis between rs10783826 of GLI1 gene and congenital heart disease in newborn.
    HU Jian-wei,HAN Xia,YAN Wei-li,QIAN Yan-yan,ZHANG Yi,YANG Wen-hong.
    2016, 24(5):  512-514.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-20
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    Objective To investigate the distribution of rs10783826,one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding-region of GLI1 gene,in Kunshan area,and determine the relationship between GLI1 gene and congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods Genotypes of the SNP were analyzed in 90 CHD patients and 90 normal controls by Denatured High Performance Liquid Chrom atography (DHPLC) and sequencing from August 2011 to May 2013.χ2 test was applied to analyze the genotype frequency and allele frequency be tween CHD groups and control groups. Results The rs10783826 of GLI1 gene was not statistically different between the CHD group and the control group(χ2=0.75,P=0.68),and the T allele carriers had no statistical difference between G allele carriers during CHD groups and control groups(χ2=1.40,P=0.23). Conclusions GLI1 gene rs10783826 polymorphism is not associated with CHD.The allele is not affect CHD in newborn.
    Epidemiological Characteristics of group A rotavirus and norovirus infection among children with diarrhea in Wuwei,Gansu province.
    LI Xing-bin,XUAN Hao,LI Xiu-mei,ZHANG Hong-shan.
    2016, 24(5):  515-517.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-21
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    Objective To explore the epidemiological characteristics of group A rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) infection among children under the age of five with diarrhea in Wuwei city. Methods The stool specimens were collected from children's outpatients with diarrhea in two sentinel hospitals from 2012 to 2014.Group A RV was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),and the positive specimens were used to make G/P genotyping with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The NoV was also detected by RT-PCR. Results A total of 182 stool samples were collected,the RV antigen-positive was 53 strains,and the positive rate was 29.12%.The difference between male and female was statistically significant (χ2=182.000,P<0.001).The cases were mainly concentrated in children aged 0~23 months.There was statistically significant difference in the positive rate between high-risk age group and the low-risk age group (χ2=219.576,P<0.001).The peak appeared in May and November,and November had the highest positive rate.There was statistically significant difference in the positive rate in high-risk month and the low-risk month (χ2=279.000,P<0.001).For the G/P genotyping,the style of G9,G3,P[8] were the main epidemic strains.While the analysis of G,P type combination mode showed the main epidemic strains were G9+P[8],followed by the G3+P[8].Additionally,the NoV antigen-positive rate was 15.93%.All cases were children under the age of two.In one year,the incidence of NoV also had two peaks,which were in April and December.There was also statistically significant difference in positive rates among the high-risk month and the low-risk month (χ2=159.641,P<0.001).In the taping of the two NoV positive specimens,one was GI accounted for 55.17%.One was GII,accounted for 44.83%.And the mixed infection positive rate of group A RV and NoV was 6.04%. Conclusion The group A RV and NoV are the main pathogens for children under the age of five infected diarrhea in Wuwei city,the related prevention work should be carried out according to the epidemiological characteristics.
    Clinical features and follow-up of cholestasis in preterm infants.
    CHANG Shu-ting,GAO Xi-rong,LIU Xin-hui,LI Qiang,ZHUANG Yan,ZHAN Cai-xia,MA Jin-xia,HU Yang.
    2016, 24(5):  518-520.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-22
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    Objective To analyze clinical features and follow-up of cholestasis in preterm infants for better diagnosis,treatment and follow-up plans. Methods In 1 894 cases,there were 73 cases diagnosed with cholestasis.A retrospective study was conducted for 73 cases of cholestasis from January 2010 to June 2014 of Hunan Children's Hospital.Neonates were divided into parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC) group and non-PNAC group.The associated factors were analyzed. Results In the 78 cases,58 cases of male,female was 15 cases.The efiologies of 56 term infants were parenteral nutrition,associated with cholestasis(PNAC)(n=56,76.71%),11 term infants were systemic infection (n=11,15.07%),biliary tract disorders (n=1,1.37%), others (n=5,6.85%).The comparison of clinical datas of PNAC group and non PNAC:differences of the hospitalization days,PN time duration,total parenteral nutrition,total quantity of amino acids,fat milk total were statistically significant (P<0.05).The dangerous factors of PNAC were PN total duration,total amino acids,and fat milk.The rate of recovery was 94.52%(69/73).Four cases of giving-up treatment died after discharge. Conclusions The etiologies of neonatal cholestasis are diverse.It may be more complicated than PNAC.The effect after treatment is remarkable.
    Comparison analysis about the children's passive smoking between the urban and suburban in Shizhong district,Jinan.
    TIAN Huan,LIU Zhao-lu,LI Jun,ZHANG Wei,HU Yu,ZHANG Jiao-jiao.
    2016, 24(5):  521-524.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-23
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    Objective To investigate the present situation of children's passive smoking on the three primary school of urban and suburban in Shizhong district,Jinan,and provide corresponding policy and suggestions to control the children's passive smoking. Methods The 3~6 grade children were surveyed by questionnaire,adopting the method of stratified cluster sampling.The informations included the passive smoking situation of the children,the awareness of the tobacco knowledge and the attitude of the tobacco control and other relevant information. Results The passive smoking rate of all children was 20.8%,the suburban children was 26.2%,the urban children was 18.4%,the difference of two regions was statistically significant,(P<0.01).The difference of the constitute ratio about the urban and suburban children's passive smoking areas was statistically significant (P<0.05).The cognition,attitude and behavior of passive smoking of urban children were better than those of the suburban children.The urban schools and parents' health education of passive smoking were better than the suburban.The urban children's acceptable ways of passive smoking education were parents' or teacher's explanation,newspapers and magazines and posters,radio and television.The suburban children's ways were parents' or teacher's explanation,doctor individual interpretation,broadcasting and TV/on the web. Conclusion The urban and suburban children should be targeted to carry out the tobacco knowledge education to reduce the children's passive smoking rate and obtain satisfactory effect
    Study on the psychological behavior and related factors of primary enuresis children aged 6 to 11.
    PAN Xiao-fen,LEI Xin-yan,LIN Guo-mo,LIU Yu-ling,DENG Cheng.
    2016, 24(5):  525-527.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-24
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    Objective To study the primary enuresis (PNE) in children's psychological and behavioral problems and related factors,and to provide reference for clinical psychological intervention and treatment aged 6 to 11. Methods Using cross sectional design,72 cases of PNE children aged 6 to 11 were selected from Boai Hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 as observation group;At the same time,82 cases of children aged 6 to 11 who participated in physical examination were selected as control group.Their psychological behavior problems were measured by Achenbach Child Behavior Scale (CBCL),while self-designed questionnaires were used to collect general data.The each factor scores of CBCL were compared between two groups.The PNE children's psychological behavior problems and related factors were analyzed. Results For boys,except hyperactivity and discipline,the other factors' scores of the observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05);For girls,in addition to schizophrenia,hyperactivity and discipline,other factor's scores of the observation group were higher than those of control group (P<0.05).CBCL behavior problems detection rate (34.72%) of the observation group was obviously higher than that of control group (7.32%),with statistically significant difference (χ2=18.541,P=18.541).Children whose age older,parents relationship worse,nocturia children raised by olders or a nanny,had higher CBCL total score,and the serious psychological behavior problems.Children with parents education higher,the family main parenting was democratic or hybrid,had lower CBCL total score,so they were protective factors. Conclusions Primary enuresis children aged 6 to 11 have adverse psychological behavior problems such as depression,social withdrawal.They are associated with age and parents' education.So combined with the related factors,such measures as a good family environment should be created to strengthen the psychological intervention treatment.
    Study on the related risk factors of infant allergic disease.
    WANG Xiao-xia,CUI Yi-fan,WANG Qi-lan,YAN Hong,XIAO Xu-wu.
    2016, 24(5):  528-531.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-25
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    Objective To study the factors related to infants allergic diseases,to provide the basis for seeking the effective intervention measures. Methods Parents of 0~24 months infants who taken healthy check-up were chosen as the object between September 2014 and June 2015 in Dalian Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital.A questionnaire survey was conducted,data statistics used the SPSS 13.0 software. Results A total of 330 infants and young children were investigated,300 case completed information collection.The single factor analysis showed:childbirth way,complementary feeding time,feeding way,kids and smoking environment,kids and pets,kids and plush toys,parents have allergies as well as prenatal maternal psychological pressure and environmental exposure to smoking during pregnancy were significant factors by statistical analysis (P<0.05).In the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed:parents have allergies,the months of supplementary food,children's access to smoking environment,feeding Method and kids and pets factors were significant factors (P<0.05). Conclusion Parents have allergy history,the months of supplementary food,children's access to smoking environment,feeding Methods and kids contact pets are the main related factors of infants allergic disease.
    Effect of systematic intervention management on neural development and the incidence of cerebral palsy of high-risk infants with brain damage.
    CAI Rong-lan.
    2016, 24(5):  534-537.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-27
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    Objective To investigate the influence of the systematic intervention management for neural developmental and the incidence of cerebral palsy of high-risk infants with brain damage. Methods A total of 198 full-term brain injury high-risk infants in the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were selected and divided into intervention group (n=103) and control group (n=95) according to the parents intend.Two groups were given conventional treatment and care.On this basis,systematic early intervention was given in intervention group according to the hospital-family management mode.Differences of the incidence of abnormal muscle tone and abnormal primitive reflex were compared in two groups of high-risk infants at 3,6,12,18 months.Besides,differences of developmental quotient (DQ) and the incidence of cerebral palsy were compared in two groups of high-risk infants at 6,12,18 months. Results The incidences of abnormal primitive reflex and abnormal muscle tone of 3-months-old infants in two groups had no obvious differences (P>0.05).In terms of 6,12,18-months-old,they were obviously lower in the intervention group than those in the control group.Also,the incidence of cerebral palsy was significantly lower than the control group,difference was statistically significant(P<0.05 or <0.01).In the case of infants at 6,12,18 months,MDI and PDI score in intervention group were obviously higher than those in control group(P<0.01 or <0.001). Conclusion Systematic intervention management helps promote neural development,improve the level of mental development,and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy of brain injury high-risk infants.
    Assessment and intervention effect of the environment about children's home security in a community in Shanghai.
    ZHANG Sheng-bing,WANG Jun,ZHOU De-ding.
    2016, 24(5):  538-540.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-28
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    Objective To assess the injury risk factors of children's home environment and the effect of intervention. Methods A total of 120 one-child families were selected in child health clinic by systematic sampling,their family environment were assessed and invented by medical staff door-to-door referring to Self-designed Children's Home Security Assessment form,and the 5S principle of household goods safety inspection recommended by the Safe Kids Worldwide. Results A total of 53 family environmental risk factors were detected in 75 family environmental risk factors before the intervention.The detection rate ranged from 0.92% to 78.90%.There were the door without security card or door stop(78.90%),the telephone without emergency phone cards(64.22%),unused power socket without protection(54.13%) and pan on the stove without cooking with the detection rate of more than 50%.The differences about the detection rate of the 11 environmental risk factors including the door without security card or door stop before and after the intervention were statistically significant(P<0.01).To assign the environmental index showed that the average assignment scores before the intervention were 67.9±4.4,and 72.9±2.3 after.There was statistically significant difference between the scores(t=15.542,P<0.001).The rate of children injury in home was 3.67% during the intervention.Conclusions The children home injury can be effectively reduced children's home environment risk factors assessment and the intervention by the medical staff implement.Prevention of children's home injury needs to strengthen the use of home security products and the safety precaution in the kitchen and bathroom.
    Objective hearing evaluation of 109 infants failed in hearing screening.
    HOU Xiao-juan,YU Meng,DING Wei.
    2016, 24(5):  541-543.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-29
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    Objective To investigate the hearing change and the characteristic of hearing thresholds of the infants failed in the hearing screening. Methods Totally 109 infants failed in the hearing screening were referred to People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.The Objective hearing of the infants were evaluated by the auditory brainstem response(ABR) and tympanometry. Results Finally 17( 15.6%) infants were normal hearing subjects and 92( 84.4%) showed hearing loss,including 52(47.7%)with milder hearing loss,17(15.6%)with moderate hearing loss,8 infants (7.4%) with severe hearing loss and 15 infants (13.7%) with very severe hearing loss.23 cases( 21.1%) of conductive hearing loss and 69 cases( 63.3%) of sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusions Development of auditory system and middle ear function in infants are the important factors in hearing screening.ABR and tympanometry for hearing evaluation and diagnose could improve the detection rate and provide useful information for early identification and intervention in this population.However,poor follow-up compliance and high loss of follow-up rate of Uygur are still big problems demanding urgent resolution.
    The incidence and causes of asymptomatic hematuria in collective children between 3 to 6 years:an epidemiological investigation in Luogang District of Guangzhou.
    ZHANG Qiao-ling,HUANG Yi-shan,XIE Wen-rui,MAI Wen-ying,CHEN Li-zhi,XU Guo-sheng.
    2016, 24(5):  544-546.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-30
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    Objective To identify the prevalence of asymptomatic hematuria between 3 to 6 years old children of Luogang district,Guangzhou city. Methods Totally 5 602 children between 3 to 6 years in Luogang District were included in our study.Each child was received routine urinalysis.Asymptomatic hematuria was diagnosed as three consecutive times of microscopic hematuria in two weeks.The children with asymptomatic hematuria were received more tests in order to find out the causes of the disease. Results The incidence of asymptomatic hematuria in Luogang District was 0.88%(49/5 602).The incidence was different between boys and girls(0.64% vs 1.14%,P<0.05).Forty children with asymptomatic hematuria were received further examinations.As a result,left renal vein entrapment syndrome was the most common cause (n=9,22.5%).Idiopathic hypercalciuria (n=5,12.5%),urinary tract infection (n=5,12.5%) and acute glomerulonephritis (n=3,7.5%) were also common.There was only one child with purpura nephritis,IgA nephropathy,polycystic kidney disease or hydronephrosis respectively.Unfortunately,the causes of the last forteen children (n=14,35%) with asymptomatic hematuria were still unknown.Conclusions The incidence of asymptomatic hematuria in children between 3 to 6 years was 0.88%.The common causes of the disease are organic diseases which might lead to long-term kidney injury in the future,so we should try to diagnose and treat as early as possible.In a conclusion,we suggested that routine urinalysis should be included in children's health care programme.
    Analysis of tuberculosis screening of newly enrolled students of primary school in Xi'an.
    ZHANG Lin,WANG Chao.
    2016, 24(5):  547-548.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-31
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    Objective To study the infection and prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the newly enrolled students of primary school of Xi 'an,and get a scientific basis for further prevention and control of TB in children and schools. Method Seven primary schools were selected from city and township,respectively.A total of 2 982 newly enrolled students were screened by PPD and chest X-ray. Results New TB infection rate was 2.1% (64/2 982) in the newly students;There was no significant statistical difference in infection rate of different gender (χ2=3.848,P>0.05);And there were significant difference in different district (χ2=8.896,P<0.05).Further chest X-ray were proceed in the PPD positive students,2 patients with tuberculosis were detected,and the prevalence of TB were 67/105. Conclusion TB infection rate of rural students is higher than urban ones.Great importance to the tuberculosis (TB) screening for school students should be attached to prevent and control the TB in children
    Curative effect of the dust mites drops sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric allergic rhinitis.
    LI Jing,LI Xiao-lan.
    2016, 24(5):  549-551.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-32
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    Objective To compare the curative effect of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with standardized dermatophagoides farina drops in monosensitized and polysensitized children with allergic. Methods A total of 150 pediatric allergic rhinitis patients were enrolled as desensitization group and were allocated into monosensitized group (61 cases) and polysensitized group (89 cases) according to the number of coexisting allergens.Meanwhile 32 allergic rhinitis children treated by pharmacotherapy during the same period were collected as control group.The symptom scores (TNSS),drug scores (TMS) and visual analogue scale(VAS) were assessed at the beginning,6 months,1 year and 2 years of the treatment. Results The scores of TNSS and VAS in desensitization were slightly higher than those in the control after 6 months treatment,but without difference at 1 year and 2 years;The score of TMS had significant improvement in desensitization compared with the corresponding points in control.All the parameters in monosensitized group were equivalent with polysensitizend group,except the score of TMS was slightly lower than the polysensitizend group at 6 months. Conclusions Dust mites under the SLIT can significantly improve nasal symptoms of the monoallergen sensitized and polyallergen sensitized allergic children,reduce the symptomatic drug use,and two groups have similar curative effects.The rise of dust mites specific IgG4 can be used as immunotherapy effective predictors.
    Usage and related behaviors of network among adolescents in Jinshan district,Shanghai.
    ZHANG Ling-ling,CHENG Wei.
    2016, 24(5):  552-554.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-33
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    Objective To study the current situation of the network involvement and related behaviors among adolescents,and provide scientific evidence for targeted interventions. Methods Totally 8 schools were chosen by stratified cluster sampling."Questionnaire of Health Related Behavior among Adolescents" was administered among 2 010 students. Results In the past 7 days,the proportion of students surfed the internet,spent more than 4 hours on the internet and video games was 84.5%,11.9% and 11.3% respectively; Main purposes were films (60.2%),chat (51.6%),data (50.0%) and news(37.6%);In the past 12 months,11.1% of the teenagers had browsed pornographic websites and approached audio-visual products.The proportion of senior middle school students(15.3%) and boys(18.2%) were higher than junior middle school students(6.7%) and girls(4.9%) (χ2=37.425 and 90.479 respectively,P<0.001);The proportion of boys(14.9%) and senior middle school students(15.9%) accessed sexual knowledge via the internet were higher than girls (8.8%) and junior middle school students(7.1%)(χ2=18.293 and 36.523 respectively,P<0.001). Conclusions Network usage among students is common.Excessive use should need attention which may bring adverse effect on physical and mental health of youth.Appropriate measures should be adopted.
    Prognosis evaluated in hyperbilirubinemia of neonates with long term video-electroencephalography monitoring.
    LI Lei,LI Li-jun,SUN Wei-wei,HUANG Xiu-hua,MA Xiao-yan.
    2016, 24(5):  555-558.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2016-24-05-34
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    Objective To investigate the combination between the electroencephalography(EEG) and the hyperbilirubinemia of full-term newborn by the long term video-electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring,and to evaluate the clinical value of the long term (VEEG) monitoring in the prognosis judgment of hyperbilirubinemia of full-term newborn. Methods EEG was studied for 42 full-term newborns without hyperbilirubinemia and nervous system disease,and 98 full-term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia in the first week.And they were assessed for EEG and neurological development three times(postnatal 15 days,1 and 3 months).A statistical method of rank-sum test was adapted in investigate relationship of EEG,serum bilirubin and prognosis judgment. Results 1)There were significant differences in EEG Results among the serum bilirubin level.The abnormal rate of EEG was related to the increase of serum bilirubin level.Especially EEG Results had significant differences of serum bilirubin level among the normal,moderate and severe groups,and between the mild,moderate and severe group.2)The EEG Results were valuable to hyperbilirubinemia prognosis judgment,and with increase of the degree of EEG abnormality,the prognosis was not optimistic,especially the neonates of severe abnormal EEG with hyperbilirubinemia and the incidence of sequelae was significantly higher than that of EEG Results in both normal and mild abnormal neonates.Conclusions The long term video-electroencephalography monitoring is combined with serum bilirubin level,it is not only reflect the extent of the damage of hyperbilirubinemia brain function,but also as the early prognosis judgment of an important method.The method is simple,convenient and economic.One of the routine method can be used as the severity of brain injury induced by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and prognosis.