Table of Content

    10 May 2014, Volume 22 Issue 5
    Contents of original articles
    Relationship of physical growth and sexual characteristics for males at puberty
    ZONG Xin-nan,LI Hui,CHENG Hong,MI Jie,ZHANG Ya-qin
    2014, 22(5):  455-458.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-03
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    Objective To describe the relationship between physical growth and sex characteristics for males at puberty in order to add to the mounting evidence for the development of growth charts based on puberty phases. Methods Data about physical growth and sexual development of 9 767 school-aged males at age 6~19 years were obtained from part of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study conducted in 2004.General characteristics of height and weight gains were compared and analyze based on the different Tanner stages of pubic hair and testicular volume and the different phases of puberty,respectively. Results 1) Height is taller and weight heavier in spermatorrhea adolescents than no-spermatorrhea,showing a narrowing trend in difference of the two groups from the age of 11 to 16 years.2)Comparing with the growth pattern without developmental stages,both height and weight are significantly lower at age 11~13 years in stage of PH1 or TV<4 mL,following a cross with higher then lower in stages of PH2,PH3 or 4 mL≤TV<20 mL,and slightly higher in stages of PH4,PH5 or TV≥20 mL.3) The growth patterns of height and weight at different puberty phases are different from those of ignoring puberty phases.Height is shorter and weight lighter for some of normal population at pre-puberty,and taller and heavier trends are observed among another of normal population at in-puberty and completing puberty.4) P3 and P97 percentiles of height and weight based on different puberty phases do not shift cross corresponding P1 and P99 percentiles based on ignoring puberty phase,respectively. Conclusions The classification method of pre-puberty,in puberty and completing puberty based on pubic hair and testicular volume is useful to construct the growth references of puberty phases.Shifting up or down a major empirical percentile may be helpful to adjust the effect of sex development on height and weight when using conventional growth chart for age to assess growth level of adolescents.
    Quantitative relationship between puberty phases and height for Girls
    ZHANG Ya-qin,LI Hui,HOU Dong-qing,MI Jie,ZONG Xin-nan
    2014, 22(5):  459-463.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-04
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    Object To describe the quantitative relationship between puberty phases and height for Girls which could supply reference for assessment of linear growth. Methods A cross-sectional survey for 9 630 girls aged 6~18 years old was conducted in urban and suburban areas of Beijing by using the method of stratified random cluster sampling.Height,weight,secondary sexual characteristics were measured and age at menarche was obtain by questionnaire.The Methods of Pearson was used to describe the relationship between puberty phases and height and the ANOVA and t test were used to analyze the difference of height in different puberty phases. Results 1)There was positive correlation between sexual development and height,especially in the 9~12 years old (correlation coefficient 0.41~0.55).2) The difference of height among different puberty phases were obvious:At 8~12 years,height of pre-puberty was 5~7cm shorter than that of in-puberty for girls in the same age group.At 11~13 years,height of in-puberty was 4~6 cm shorter than that of completing-puberty for girls in the same age groups.The height percentiles of pre-puberty was 17~27 lower than that of in-puberty for girls in the same age group and that of in-puberty was 13~23 lower than that of completing-puberty for girls in the same age groups.3)Comparing the height of different puberty phases with that of ignoring puberty phases:the height centiles of in-puberty for 8~9 years girls and completing-puberty for 10~12 years girls was 12~24 higher than that of the same age girls,while the height centiles of pre-puberty for 10~11years girls and in-puberty for 12~13 years girls was 10~30 lower than that of the same age girls. Conclusions Height of different puberty phases in the same age group is different.The assessment Results of height by applying conventional growth curves could be added or subtracted one curves to correct the effect of puberty phase.
    Intervention on exclusive breastfeeding under 4 months in a certain community in Beijing
    CHEN Jie,ZHANG Si-qi,WANG Xiao-li
    2014, 22(5):  464-466.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-05
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    Objective To obtain the status of exclusive breastfeeding under 4 months of puerperal women in community in Beijing,evaluate the effect of follow-up intervention on increasing the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods A randomized controlled trial was used to select 155 pregnant women,who were divided into intervention group and control group.Brochures and phone messages were provided to the intervention group from late pregnancy to 4 months after delivery as a method of intervention,whereas the control group received nothing in intervention.The status of exclusive breast-feeding and the knowledge about it were evaluated at different times after delivery. Results After the intervention,the average scores of the exclusive breastfeeding knowledge of the intervention group and the control group were increased by 35.41% and 32.00% respectively,there was significant difference between the scores of two groups(t=3.95,P<0.001).The exclusive breastfeeding rate in intervention group was 54.7% at two months after delivery,10.9% higher than that of the control group.The exclusive breastfeeding rate in intervention group was 57.1% at four months after delivery,12.7% higher than that of the control group. Conclusion Intervention measures can increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate under 4 months to a certain degree,which can provide reference for a wide range of intervention on exclusive breastfeeding in urban communities henceforth.
    Earlier screening and intervention for hip dysplasia of infants in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
    LIN Wen-yu,NIU Ai-ping,DU Wen-liang,Reyilamu·YUSHANJIANG,FEN Tai-shan
    2014, 22(5):  467-469.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-06
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    Objective To learn the hip development of infants within six months in Xinjiang Ili state and the detection rate of ultrasonography in infant developmental dysplasia of hip(DDH),investigate the epidemic factors of DDH and provide guidance for early interference. Methods From April,2011 to April,2012,1 862 infants within six months in our hospital(totaling 3 724 hips) were examined by regular physical examination and ultrasound screening.The epidemic factors of DDH were studied and at the same time,the exceptional cases were intervened with individualized treatment. Results 37 exceptional cases of hip dysplasia were examined by ultrasound screening(totaling 50 hips),with a 1.3% DDH detection rate.The incidence rate of baby girls was higher than that of baby boys,in a proportion of 2 to 1.The DDH detection rate of Kazak and Uyghur nationality was significantly higher than that of Hui and Han nationality (4∶1).All the patients of various types recovered after timely and individualized treatment. Conclusion DDH morbidity varies with different gender and nationality.Babies whose legs are wrapped after birth tend to have hip dysplasia.Earlier screening for infant hip development can prevent against pathogenic factors thus will have great significance on earlier individualized intervention treatment.
    Analysis of growth changes in height of the urban students in Yantai primary and secondary school in 1985-2010
    GUO Yu-lin,DING Er-liang,QI Cui-lian,SUN Yue-lin
    2014, 22(5):  470-472.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-07
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    Objective To analyze growth changes in height among the students aged 7~18 years in Yantai from 1985 to 2010,in order to give scientific basis of the strategy and measures developed by the department which is to promote the children's and adolescents' healthy growth. Methods Using the data of the Students' Constitution and Health survey from the year of 1985,2000 and 2010.Excel 2003 was used for established database and SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results In 1985-2010,7~11 years old boys' and girls' height increased by 7.6 cm and 5.8 cm;12~15 years old boys' and girls' height increased by 8.6 cm and 4.5 cm;16~18 years old boys' and girls' height increased by 6.2 cm and 4.0 cm;7~18 years old boys' and girls' height increased by 7.4 cm and 5.4 cm;18 years old boys' and girls' height increased by 6.3 cm and 2.9 cm,respectively.The increment of boys was significantly higher than that of girls.Besides,the boys' and girls' adolescence cross age for the height moved forward 1.0 and 1.5 years from 1985 to 2010,respectively.In 18-year old,the boys' height was 13.1 cm higher than girls'. Conclusions The heights of students aged 7~11 years old,12~15 years old,16~18 years old,7~18 years old and adults in Yantai have the sustained growth trend from 1985 to 2010.The growth rate of boys is higher than the girls'.The adolescent growth age in height moved forward.The height difference between boys and girls aged 18 years increased every year,which inferred the students' heights of this region still have growth potential.
    Early effects of vitamin D supplementation on 158 premature infants with IL-2 and immunoglobulin
    ZHANG Li-ping,REN Jian-li,ZHANG Xiu-fen,LIU Yan-ping,LI Gui-fang,QI Rui-ying
    2014, 22(5):  473-475.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-08
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    Objective To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in early preterm infants on the immune function. Methords The 158 preterm infants from Cangzhou People's Hospital were selected in the study,and were divided into the large for gestational age group and small for gestational age group.Each group was randomly divided into control group and experimental group.The control group was given formula feeding.The experimental group on the basis of the control group,was fed vitamin D intake 400 U/d from 3rd to 10th day after birth.Serum 25-(OH) D,IL-2 and IgG,IgA,IgM were tested before and after the experiment,and vitamin D toxicity was observed. Results It was high prevalence of moderately severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants.Serum 25-(OH) D level of experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).In the small and large for gestational age group,vitamin D supplementation of 400 U/d respectively increased mean 25-(OH)D levels from 23.556 nmol/L,27.771 nmol/L at birth to 27.423 nmol/L,32.198 nmol/L at discharge.With the development of 25-(OH) D level,IL-2 level increased significantly,experimental group had significant difference compared with the control (P<0.05),while IgG,IgA,IgM had no significant change (P>0.05). Conclusions Early vitamin D supplementation can improve immunity of premature infants.Further research is required on the effect on humoral immunity.
    Investigation and analysis about nutritional status of the preschool children with cerebral palsy
    DONG Shang-sheng,LIU Zhen-huan
    2014, 22(5):  476-478.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-09
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    Objective To investigate the nutritional status of the preschool children with cerebral palsy and its relation between clinical types and the grade of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Methods The height,weight and Hb of 149 cerebral palsy preschool children were measured,rats of lowweight,growth retardation,emaciation and anaemia were calculated out,compared with normal nutrition status of preschool children. Results Malnutrition indicators of preschool children with cerebral palsy were significantly higher than normal children,and the lowweight,growth retardation,emaciation and anemia incidence rates were 31.54%,33.55%,41.28%,28.85%.In the involuntary movement and the spastic cerebral palsys' comparison,the lowweight and emaciation group difference had statistical significance (P<0.05).the lowweight、growth retardation,emaciation and anemia incidence rates of 105 children with spastic cerebral palsy were 26.6%,31.43%,24.76%,28.57%.Lowweight,growth retardation,emaciation group had statistical significance (P<0.05),and correlated with the grade of GMFCS. Conclusions Cerebral palsy children malnutrition rate is significantly higher than the normal preschool children.Cerebral palsy children nutrition situation is not optimistic,and strengthen nutritional intervention is very meaningful and imperative.
    Analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 3~6 years old children in Chengdu
    LI Wei,CAO Li,ZHANG Ya-guo,LUO Hong-quan,WU Kang-ming
    2014, 22(5):  479-481.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-10
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    Objective To investigate the levels and deficience of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D]in children at 3~6 years old. Methods Two kindergarten which have more than 200 children in each district were chosen,in total of ten kindergarten.a survey about vitamin D was conducted,the parents informed choice on the basis of the investigation.All tests were done in April to June 2013. Results A total of 753 cases of 3 ~ 6 years old children in the detection of vitamin D,183 cases (24.3%) were relative sufficient,360 cases (47.8%) were relative deficient;207 cases (27.5%) were absolutely deficient.There were statistical differences between different age groups in the deficience of vitamin D(P<0.05)There Was no statistical difference between different gender groups(P>0.05).In these children,only 11.6% of the children drank milk more than 500ml every day,75.8% of the children didn't take any calcium and cod liver oil for more than one month,33.5% of the children's activity time was up to 1 hour after school. Conclusion The deficiency rate of 25-(OH)D might be high in children of 3~6 years old in Chengdu,we need to do something to improve the level of vitamin D.
    Comparision of nutritional status of children under 5 years old in Jinan in 2004-2013
    LI Ning,LI Ling,ZHANG Yan-qing
    2014, 22(5):  482-483.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-11
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    Objective To know the change of the nutritional status of children under 5 years old in Jinan of Shandong,provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of malnutrition and obesity. Methods A total of 15 985 children under 5 years old were selected by cluster sampling.The questionnaires of nutrition were answered,the weight and height of the children were measured. Results The reduction rate of malnutrition under 5 years old in 2004-2013 was 66.30%,instead the prevalence rate of obesity increased 264.00%. Conclusions In the last 10 years,the nutritional status under 5 years old improved significantly.The prevention and control of malnutrition and obesity is still the keys of preschool children in Jinan of Shandong.
    Abnormal white matter microstructure study on high-functional autism of school age
    ZHANG Wen,JING Jin,LI Yong-mei,CAO Mu-qing,KANG Zhuang,HU Bing,YU Mei-qiao,YE Xiao-fang,LIU Bu-yun
    2014, 22(5):  484-487.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-12
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    Objective To examine the abnormal white matter microstructure of acdism spectrum disorders (ASDs) children of school age via Diffusion Tensor Imaging,so as to investigate the possible evidence of dysplasia of neurodevelopment. Methods 14 ASDs boys of school age and 7 age,IQ and handedness matched typically developing controls were examined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI),the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were compared between two groups through voxel-based analysis. Results Compare to TD group,the FA value was increased in the left temporal gyrus,left frontal gyrus,left occipital gyrus,hippocampus and thalamus,and the MD value was decreased in the left calcarine fissure,bilateral fusiform gyrus,right temporal gyrus,right frontal gyrus,right occipital gyrus,left parahippocampus gyrus,posterior cingulate cortex and left lingual gyrus in ASDs group. Conclusion Abnormal white matter microstructure widely spread over the brain of high-functional autism of school age.
    Effects of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio during maternal pregnancy and lactation on expression of bdnf gene in offspring
    DONG Hua,FAN Chao-nan,WANG Cui,LU Yuan-yuan,XIA Lu-lu,DING Xu,QI Ke-min
    2014, 22(5):  488-491.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-13
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    Objective To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during maternal pregnancy and lactation on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in offspring. Methods Forty 6~8 week-old C57BL/6J female mice were randomly divided into 5 groups,and fed with the n-3 PUFA deficient diet,and four n-3 PUFAs diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs at 15∶1,5∶1,1∶1 and 1∶5 respectively.Followed by 6 weeks feeding,the mice were mated for breeding pups,who received the same diets with their mothers.At postnatal 7,21 d and 3 months respectively,pups were sacrificed and the brain were used for detecting bdnf expression.Equal pups from groups of n-3 PUFA deficient diet and n-6/n-3 PUFAs (5∶1) diet were selected and diets were changed each other at postnatal 21 d lasting for 3 months.The mRNA expressions of bdnf in the brain cortex were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Results Compared to n-3 PUFAs deficient diet group,at both postnatal 7 d and 21 d,the increased bdnf mRNA expression was only seen in the n-6/n-3 PUFAs (1∶5) diet group;at 3 months,all the diets containing n-3 PUFAS had increased bdnf mRNA level.Feeding with the n-6/n-3 PUFAs (5∶1) diet to pups from the n-3 deficient diet group did not increase bdnf mRNA expression,whereas feeding with the n-3 PUFA deficient diet to pups from the n-6/n-3 PUFAs (5∶1) diet group increased bdnf expression. Conclusion Higher dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs during maternal pregnancy and lactation may be needed for optimal expression of bdnf gene.The appropriate n-3 PUFA intake may be beneficial in keeping bdnf expression normal in adult.
    Expression of cytoglobin in hypoxic neurons in vitro
    MA Hai-ran,SHI Xue-chuan
    2014, 22(5):  492-496.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-14
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    Objective To examine the expression of cytoglobin(CYGB) of neurons in vitro when suffered hypoxia,which provides an experimental basis for exploring the physiological and pathological mechanism and seeking new treatments of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Methods The primary cortical neurons from embryonic rat were cultured in a serum-free culture system of B27-supplemented neurobasal medium.The neurons were identified by polyclonal antibody against neuron specific enolase(NSE) on the 6th day.They were divided into 4 groups randomly for assessing cell viability by CCK8 and observing the expression of CYGB by Real-time PCR and Westernblot at 0、8、16、24 h after hypoxic model(oxygen concentration between 0.5% and 0.9%) was induced. Results The purity of neurons was greater than 99%;and cell viability were slightly reduced after hypoxia.Expression of RNA and protein of CYGB was increased in a time-dependent manner.And there was statistical differenc in each group (P<0.05). Conclusions CYGB can up-regulate in neurons in vitro after hypoxia,indicating CYGB may play certain important roles in neurons under hypoxia.
    Effect of short-term intensive training on body composition in children with simple obesity
    ZHANG Yao-dong,TAN Li-na,WEI Hai-yan,LI Chun-zhi,CHEN Yong-xing
    2014, 22(5):  506-508.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-18
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    Objective To investigate the effect of short-term intensive training on body composition in children with simple obesity. Methods All the obese children were selected from participating in the weight loss summer camp of Zhengzhou Children's Hospital in July 2012 and 2013,including 28 males and 32 females,aged 8 years and 6 months to 14 years old.Weight loss program was including aerobic exercise,proper diet.Aerobic exercise program was designed according to different children of different treatment options,using the principle of gradual and orderly progress,and gradually achieve weight control requirements.The body composition and height,weight,BMI,body water,protein,inorganic salt,fat,body fat percentage,muscle were analyzed in children with simple obesity before and after training.SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for the above data,paired t-test before and after weight training. Results After 3 weeks of training,weight[(64.97±17.89) kg,BMI (27.42±5.24) kg/m2],fat[(26.68±10.88) kg],body fat percentage[(39.49±9.38%)]were significantly lower than those in before training[weight (68.06 ± 20.19) kg,BMI (29.09±6.41) kg/m2,fat (30.02±12.22) kg,body fat percentage (42.40±8.61)%](P<0.05),while height[(152.64±10.28) cm vs (151.61±10.15) cm],inorganic salts[(2.70±0.66) kg vs (2.61±0.65) kg]were significantly increased (P<0.05),but the water in body[(28.07±6.27) kg vs (27.98±6.72) kg],protein[(7.50±1.68) kg vs (7.45±1.80) kg],muscle[(20.67±5.06) kg vs (20.50±5.44) kg]were no significant changes (P>0.05). Conclusions Short-term intensive training can effectively control the weight through reduced fat in obese children,but is also conducive to the enhancement of children's height and physique enhancement.
    Analysis of growth and development status of 7582 urban and rural students
    TIAN Tian,XUE Jian,LI Jun
    2014, 22(5):  508-511.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-19
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    Objectives To study the growth and development status among 7 582 students,to analyze the urban-rural differences,and to provide appropriate information for the related research. Methods Based on the students constitution and health survey data of Shandong students in 2010 provided by the education administrative department in Shandong province,the students aged 7~18 years were selected as research objects,and compared the differences of indexes between urban and rural students. Results The mean height,weight,chest weight,lung capacity and grip strength increased with ages,the male students were higher than female,urban were higher than rural areas; rural students were higher than urban in 50 meters run time; rural male students were higher than urban in sit-and-reach test and sit-ups; urban female students were higher than rural in endurance run time. Conclusions There are differences between urban and rural students in physical growth,physiological functions and sport quality among 7 582 students.
    Evaluation of extrauterine growth in premeture infants during hospitalization
    LI Xiao,YU Sheng-lin,GAO Sha-sha,LIU Zhi-hua,GUAN Xin-xian,ZHANG Ming-ming,JIAO Hai-mei
    2014, 22(5):  511-514.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-20
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    Objective To describe the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in premature infants from NICU in the affiliated children's Hospital of Soochow University hospital and analyze the correlated factors with EUGR. Methods Data of the premature infants hospitalized from NICU in our hospital were reviewed.The incidences of IUGR and EUGR were assessed and the correlated risk factors was analyzed. Results The subject included 126 premature infants.The incidences of IUGR and EUGR were 29.37% and 27.78% by weight,of which the incidence rate of EUGR in SGA preterm children was 54.05%.Logistic regression analysis showed the risk factors associated with EUGR including small gestational age at birth,low birth weight,and merge complications. Conclusion The IUGR,EUGR incidence rates of preterm children are still high.It will be better to take early positive nutritional support,prevention and treatment of common complications in preterm children to reduce the incidence of EUGR and improve their quality of life.
    Analysis on determination of bone mineral density in Zibo children aged 3~6 years
    HUANG Xiao-ling,WANG Che,LI Ai-mei,SUN Sheng-yu
    2014, 22(5):  515-517.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-21
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    Objective To determine the bone mineral density of tibia in healthy children aged 3~6 years old in Zibo area and set up normal reference value of speed of sound(SOS) for preschool children. Methods 7 920 children aged 3~6 years old,who hand body examination in kindergarten were selected and according to the age divided into 12 groups ( every 3 months apart as a group).Their tibias SOS were assayed by adopting quantitative ultrasound system.Height and weight of subjects were measured, and body mass indexes were calculated.The data were analyzed by using SPSS 20.0 software. Results With the age increasing,the values of tibias SOS increased in general more over,SOS was closely related positively to age(r=0.209,P<0.01).There were significant differences of SOS between boys and girls aged 3~6 years old within the same age group (P<0.05).There were significant differences of SOS between healthy children and obese children aged 3~6 years old within the same age group (P<0.05). Conclusions SOS of tibias are related to age.SOS of tibias are different between male and female in preschool children,and SOS of tibias of obese children are lower than the other children.The reference value of SOS should be set up according to the age and sex.
    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 13 to 18 years old adolescents in Changsha city
    QIU Jun,WU Xiao-li
    2014, 22(5):  517-520.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-22
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    Purpose To analysis the current situation of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents range from 13 to 18 years old in Changsha city and to provide the basis of strategies and measures for controlling obesity. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of a represent sample (n=16 843) in Chinese children and adolescents from 13 to 18 years of age was derived from 12 middle schools and 12 high schools by a cluster sampling method.And the 16 843 students were measured heights and weights according to the requirements of WHO between September and December in 2009. Results In 2009,10.11% (1 703/16 843) of the children and adolescents from 13 to 18 years old were overweight and 4.98% (838/16 843) of children and adolescents were obese.The prevalence of overweight was 11.68% in males and 8.64% in females.The prevalence of obesity was 7.09% in males and 2.99% in females.There were different in overweight prevalence and obesity prevalence between males and females (χ2=42.89,149.73,P all <0.001).With increasing age,the prevalence of overweight increased in initial stage and then declined,while the prevalence of obesity showed an upward trend in males.With increasing age,the prevalence of overweight was on the rise and the prevalence of obesity increased in initial stage and then declined in females. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity from 13 to 18 years of age is high in Changsha city and the prevalences of overweight and obesity are higher in males than in females.Therefore,strategies and measures should be combined with the family,nursery kindergarten or school and community in order to control obesity.
    Effect of system management of infants born by GDM women
    WANG Ai-ping
    2014, 22(5):  520-522.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-23
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    Objective To explore the effect of system management of infants born by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women. Methods Provide follow-up care for the group of 98 infants born by GDM women and gave them early intervention,then compared them with the other group of 110 infants born by healthy women to observe differences between the two in physical development,intelligent development and sports development. Results There were no statistical differences between the two groups in physical development and intelligent development.But two groups of infants showed some statistical differences in sports development at 6 and 12 months of age.After the intervention treatment,infants born by GDM women stop showing statistical differences with the control group at 18months of age. Conclusion If GDM women can strictly control blood-sugar level during pregnancy and provide early intervention to infants after birth,negative effects on the development of infants brought by GDM can be largely reduced.
    The epidemiological analysis of preschool obesity in Kunshan during 2009-2013
    HAN Xia
    2014, 22(5):  522-524.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-24
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    Objective To know the obesity status of preschool children in 2009-2013,for providing the basis for policy formulation of health administrative departments. Method "June" medical examination informations of preschool children in 2009-2013 were collected for general descriptive analysis,chi-square test and trend analysis. Results Preschool obesity was 4.80% in 2009,and 6.28% in 2013.The preschool child obesity rates showed a gradual upward trend (trend P <0.05) from 2009 to 2013,boys detection rate of obesity was higher than girls (P<0.05),childhood obesity prevalence increased with age and showed upward trend (trend test P=0.000).Detection rate of obesity in urban was higher than township (P<0.05),private kindergartens detection rate of childhood obesity was higher than public kindergartens (P<0.05). Conclusion Preschool obesity in Kunshan has higher incidence,showing a upward trend.It should be combined with epidemiological characteristics of the region,and take comprehensive measures to reduce the incidence of obesity.
    Influence of football exercise on muscle strength of lower limbs of 10~11 years old boys
    LU Peng-tao
    2014, 22(5):  525-527.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-25
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    Objective To compare the difference of muscle strength of lower limbs between 10~11 years old boys who take football exercise in long time and who don't take football exercise. Methods A total of 60 boys who have similar height and weight were divided into two equal groups,and one group who had two years football exercise as football exercise group and the other group without football exercise as control group,the tests on flexion and extension model of hip joint,knee joint and ankle joint of two groups were done by using Germen IsoMed 2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Results 1)The peak torque of football exercise group which get hip joint flexion(t=1.314),extension(t=1.972),knee joint flexion(t=1.897),ankle joint extension(t=1.128),were larger than the control group,but not significant (P>0.05).2)The peak torque of football exercise group who get knee joint extension (t=-5.812),and ankle joint flexion (t=3.064),were significantly larger than control group (P<0.01). Conclusion To boys,long football exercise can significantly improve the strength of knee joint extensor,ankle joint flexor and slightly improve the strength of hip joint flexor and extensor.
    Analysis on influencing factors of premature and low birth weight infants in two counties in Chongqing
    HE Chun-yan,ZHOU Xiao-jun,XIAO Nian,WANG Lan,ZHOU Wen-zheng,JIANG Qiu-jing,LIU Ying-hui,ZHAO Geng-li
    2014, 22(5):  527-530.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-26
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    Objective To examine and compare dietary nutrients status,prenatal care,life style of mother of preterm /low birth weight (LBW) infants (preterm group) and full term infants (full term group) in two counties in Chongqing. Methods Interviews were conducted among the mother of 460 preterm/LBW infants and 460 full term infants by trained interviewers using questionnaires about maternal nutition,prenatal care and life style.Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were employed to test between-group differences in demographic characteristics,maternal nutition,prenatal care and life style. Results The proportions of mother during pregnacy taking folate,the proportion and and frequency of mother eating animal foods,milk and dairy products,fruits,and eating average amouts of animal foods for preterm/LBW group were all lower than the full term group.Such differences were statistically significant.The differences of mother during pregnancy taking calcium,vitamins for two groups were not statistically significant.While the differences of mother during pregnancy taking the amount of staples,the frequency of vegetables,eggs,beans and soy products weekly were not statistically significant.The frequency of prenatal care,the proportion of prenatal care in second-class medical institution,the weight of mother before delivery for preterm group were all lower than the full term group,WBC at childbirth for preterm group was higher than the full term group.Such differences were all statistically significant.No significant differences were observed in the proportions who took prenatal care in different levels of hospitals,who passived smoking,who with prenatal intercourse,who used electric blanket,who physical activity,and neutrocyte at childbirth. Conclusions The status of maternal nutition in pregnancy for preterm group is worse than the full term group,and the frequence of antenatal care for preterm group is less than the full term group.It is necessary to suggest for strengthing maternal nutition in pregnancy and maintaining regular antenatal examination for the decrease of reducing preterm /low birth weight infants.
    Feeding and feeding difficulties analysis of infants and young children in poor areas of Gansu province
    LIU Yue-fen,HUANG Lei,ZHANG Ling,HE Li,ZHU Ying,MAO Hong-yan,LI Jia-yue,LIU Hong
    2014, 22(5):  530-533.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-27
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    Objective To explore effective Methods of resolving infant feeding problems by learning infant and young child feeding and feeding difficult situation in poor areas of Gansu province. Method Cluster sampling method was used to obtain 6 to 36-month-old infant feeding patterns,feeding behavior and feeding difficulties through a questionnaire. Results 1) Prominent problems of feeding patterns and behaviors were:50.6% chose pure milk or goat milk as a substitute for breast milk;56.5% weaned when child was 6~12 months;51.2% and 15.8% began complementary feeding at 7~8 months and > 9 months,respectively;72.9% added new foods attempts <5 times.2)The factors significantly associated with feeding difficulties (P<0.05) were weaning time <6 months,giving children not fresh food and correcting kids bad eating habits. Conclusions Infant feeding problems in poor western regions have emerged in the early time.Thus,scientific concepts and Methods must be introduced to dependents from early infancy.
    Incidence of traffic injuries among children and adolescents in China:a systematic analysis of studies between 2002 and 2012
    LI Mei-li,WANG Li,SHI Qian,MAO Xin,ZHENG Jian-zhong
    2014, 22(5):  533-537.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-28
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    Objective To comprehensive evaluat traffic injuries incidence among children and adolescents in China from 2002 to 2012 using the method of Meta-analysis,and provide evidence for preventing traffic injuries. Methods CNKI、WangFang database,CBM,VIP and PubMed database were searched to collect the studies that were included between 2002 and 2012 about the traffic injuries incidence among children and adolescents in China.The pooled incidence was estimated using Meta-analysis and analyzed the differences between sex,urban/rural,research region and injury standards,Sensitivity analysis and Publication bias were performed. Results Strict accordance with the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria,39 studies were selected with a total sample size of 637 330.The pooled incidence of traffic injuries was 1.38%(95%CI:0.90%~2.12%).Subgroup analysis showed the following results:1.97% and 1.66% for boys and girls,1.26% and 1.32% for urban and rural,1.43% and 0.64% for injury standards of 1996 and 2004,0.94%,2.30% and 2.38% for eastern,central and western region differences were significant (P<0.05) for each group. Conclusion The traffic injuries incidence among children and adolescents has differences in sex,urban/rural,research region and injury standards,we should be put focus on boys,rural and the western to take some measures to protect them.At the same time,it is necessary to further unify injury standards about children and adolescents.
    Maternal vitamin D status and the effect on physical growth of infants
    CENG Li,LI Jun-jun,SHEN Hong-yu,ZHU Wei-wei,WANG Zong-jie,SHI Shu-hua
    2014, 22(5):  537-539.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-29
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    Objective To investigate the maternal vitamin D status and the effect of maternal vitamin D during pregnancy on physical growth of infants. Methods 25-(OH)D concentrations were measured in late pregnancy and neonatal umbilical venous serum.Anthropometry of infant was recorded at birth,3,6,and 9 months.Tibial quantitative ultrasonometry was done at 3,6,and 9 months.Atopic eczema was assessed. Results The level of 223 cases of maternal serum 25-(OH)D was (50.7±18.5)nmol/L.There were no associations between maternal 25-(OH)D concentrations and physical growth of infants.There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal 25-(OH)D.Both maternal and neonatal 25-(OH)D levels varied with season. Conclusion There are no associations between maternal vitamin D status and physical growth of infant.
    Analysis of the status of poor eyesight in pre-school children in Ezhou city from 2008-2012
    ZHANG Hai-lin
    2014, 22(5):  542-544.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-31
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    Objective To find out the status of preschool children poor eyesight in Ezhou city and provide a scientific basis for protecting eyesight. Method Eyesight data of 3~6 years old children from 4 kindergartens of the urban area were examined and analyzed. Results The poor eyesight occurrence rates were 16.6%,14.6%,13.9%,14.0% and 12.2% from 2008-2012,respectively,with the average of 14.1%.There were significant differences among years (χ2=144.9,P<0.01).The poor sight occurrence rates were 17.0%,14.6%,12.3%,12.2% from 3~6 years old children,respectively.There were also significant differences among age groups (χ2=42.7,P<0.01).The major cause for ametropiais was hyperopia (75.0%),followed by mixed astigmatism (19.7%) and myopia (5.2%).There were significant differences (χ2=2 442.3,P<0.01). Conclusions The poor eyesight occurrence is high enough to be concerned with.Parents and teachers should pay attention to the problem of eyesight development of preschool children.Care service hospitals at all levels should strengthen the eyesight care for preschool children.
    Condition of malnutrition and anemia of preschool children in Kunshan city of 2013
    FENG Pei,HAN Xia,HU Jian-wei,NIU Xiao-hu,XU Tan
    2014, 22(5):  544-546.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-32
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    Objective To investigate and analyze the condition of malnutrition and anemia of preschool children in Kunshan city,and provide some scientific basis to improve children's health. Methods The Results of physical examination of preschool children who had been examined were collected.Descriptive analysis and chi-square tests were analyzed. Results The number of malnutrition was 1 347,and the detection ratio was 3.15%,while the number of anemia was 655,and the detection ratio was 1.53%.The detection ratios of malnutrition and anemia in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas(P all <0.05),and the detection ratio of anemia in private kindergartens was higher than that in public kindergartens (P<0.05). Conclusion The condition of malnutrition and anemia of preschool children in Kunshan city remained to be further improved.
    Analysis on children prevalence and disease status of child-care institutions in Jinan city
    MA Shan-jing,ZHAO Dong-mei,DU Jing-hui,YUAN Xia,ZHANG Jing,LI Jun
    2014, 22(5):  546-549.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-33
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    Objective To know the children disease status of child-care institutions in Jinan city,and provide theoretical basis for prevention of children common diseases and guiding of children's health care work. Method The children's health examination data of 1 203 child-care institutions in Jinan city were analyzed. Results 139 176 children from 3 to 6 years old were examined,and 58 547 cases were checkd out and about 10 types were common diseases.The rate of dental caries detection was highest,account for 24.15% of the number of physical examination,and followed by poor vision,obesity and anemia,and so on.The detection rates of children dental caries,obesity,poor vision and chickenpox in the city were higher than the countryside,and there were significant differences (P<0.01),and the prevalence rates of anemia and malnutrition in the countryside were higher (P<0.01).The detection rates of obesity,dental caries,poor vision and hand-foot and mouth disease in the public kindergarten were higher than the private kindergarten,and there were significant differences (P<0.01),the incidence rate of accident harm in the public kindergarten was higher than the private kindergarten (P<0.05),and the prevalence rate of anemia in the private kindergarten was higher (P<0.01).The prevalence rates of dental caries,obesity and poor vision in the experimental demonstration garden were higher than other categories kindergarten,and the prevalence rates of anemia and malnutrition in the second class the following garden were highest,and there were significant differences (P<0.01). Conclusion Dental caries,obesity,poor vision,anemia and malnutrition and other chronic diseases were main diseases hazarding children health of child-care institutions in Jinan city.
    Risk factor of overweight and obesity for infants in Chongqing
    WANG Li,WANG Nian-rong,GAN Wen-ling
    2014, 22(5):  549-551.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-34
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    Objective To explore the risk factors of overweight and obesity for infants,and to provide evidences of the early intervention of child obesity. Methods 2 139 infant were selected by stratified-clustered sampling when they were one month old.Normal group and overweight group were divided by BMI.Meanwhile,related factors were investigated using a standardized questionnaire.The data were analyzed by mono-factorial and multi-factorial conditional logistic regression with SPSS 11.5 software. Results The rate of overweight was 15.96% for 18 months infants.High birth weight(OR=2.07),father overweight (OR=1.07),meat and vegetables consumpution≥7 times/week(OR=1.04、OR=1.05),sweet drinks consumpution>1 time/week(OR=0.90) were risk factors for obesity. Conclusion High birth weight,genetic and eating habits are the maior risk factors,they should be early and synthetic intervented.
    Prevalence of obesity among preschool children in Maanshan city
    WANG Su-mei,Liu Qian-qi,YAN Shuang-qin,GU Chun-li,LI Yue-xia,ZHAO Yong-hua
    2014, 22(5):  553-555.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-36
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    Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of overweight and obesity in children of Maanshan,provide a scientific basis for developing effective interventions. Method Preschool children was conducted among 3 891 children in ranging from ages 3 to 6 years old.Anthropometric measurements were collected. Results The prevalence of overweight was 13.6%,The prevalence of simple obesity was significangtly higher in boys(χ2=10.546,P=0.001).The detection rate of simple obesity among the children wed a rising tendency with age(χ2=19.504,P<0.001),and increased obviously after 5 years old. Conclusion Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Maanshan need a substantial focus on preschool children.
    Effects of health education on promotion of breastfeeding
    WU Yi-ping,GUO Chun-quan,CHU Yu-juan,LIU Xiao-zhou,TONG Xiao-long,XU Tao
    2014, 22(5):  556-558.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2014-22-05-37
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    Objective To evaluate the role of health education in improving breastfeeding knowledge,breastfeeding behavior,and reducing the breastfeeding mother's anxiety. Methods By choosing 202 exclusively breastfeeding infant mothers with infants respectively at 1,2,3,4 months of age as investigation subjects,self-designed questionnaires were delivered to them to collect the information about the breastfeeding knowledge,the breastfeeding behaviors,the anxiety and other related things.According to the Results of questionnaires,the relevant education intervention were carried out face to face with the mothers about the knowledge of breastfeeding,feeding skills,and emotion regulation. Results After 4 times of health education interventions followed by interviews,infant and young children mother breastfeeding knowledge score increased from 8.43 to 9.55; The ratio of empty suction on one side after the other rose from 73.3% to 87.5% during the breastfeeding; With mothers' anxiety dropping from 18.8% to 13.1%,the proportion of the differences was statistically significant. Conclusion Health education plays an obvious promoting role in improving the knowledge and skills about mother breastfeeding as well as reducing the mother's anxiety.