Table of Content

    10 November 2015, Volume 23 Issue 11
    Relationship between glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphism in cord blood and low birth weight in Han and Uygur Newborns.
    DING Gui-feng,ZHOU Tian-hong,ZHANG Le,LIU Zao-ling.
    2015, 23(11):  1124-1126.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-02
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (418KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1,T1 genetic polymorphism in the Urumqi Uygur and Han newborns with low birth weight. Methods By 1∶3 matched case-control study methods,umbilical cord blood were collected and DNA was extracted,GSTM1,GSTT1 gene polymorphism were analyzed using multiple allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results The genotype of GSTM1 deletion was 60.5%,the genotype of GSTT1 deletion was 5%,and the frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion genotypes was 3.5%.The difference of genotype deletion frequency of GSTT1 in cord blood was statistically significant between the low birth weight and normal infants (P<0.05).The frequency of GSTT1 genotype was significantly different between normal and low birth weight in Uygur nationality (P<0.05).The distribution difference of Uygur normal birth weight and low birth weight infants in the different genotype frequency composition had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion GSTT1 gene deletion in umbilical cord blood may increase the incidence of low birth weight,and also increase the Uygur neonates with low birth weight.The absence of GSTM1 genotype in cord blood may not affect the occurrence of low birth weight.There are differences in the distribution of different birth weight among the Uygur newborns with different birth weight.So we should understand the cause of the low birth weight,so as to improve the birth quality of the newborn.
    Effects of pesticide exposure in the greenhouse on the birth quality of newborns
    LI Yuan-yuan,YAN Shao-mei,XING Jie,QIU Yu-gang,ZHAI Qing-feng
    2015, 23(11):  1127-1130.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-03
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (593KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore effects of long-term multiple pesticide exposure in the greenhouse on the birth quality of newborns. Methods The delivery women were randomly selected from the department of obstetrics and gynecology of 3 hospitals in Weifang during the period from March 2010 to December 2014.Among them,439 women farmers who had been continually working more than two years in the greenhouse during progestation and gestation with their 431 newborns were selected as exposure group;and 152 delivery women who didn't contact pesticide and engage in greenhouse with their 151 newborns were selected as control group.Informations about women farmers who were engaged in vegetable greenhouses were collected through questionnaire survey and look up data,which included the situation of pesticide exposure,the general situation of maternal and so on.The data were acquired about birth quality of newborns through field investigation and the conventional analysis of historical data.According to the cumulative pesticide exposure index,the exposure group was divided into low,media and high exposure group. Results About the newborns,sex ratio was 1.09∶1,gestational age (39.46±0.28) weeks,birth weight (3.06±0.86)kg.All morphological indexes such as height,head circumference,chest circumference were within the normal range.About the Agpar score,the rate of 1 minute score >7 points was 89.52%,the 5 minutes score > 7 points accounted for 92.61%,10 minutes score >7 points was 95.36%.There were 103 sub-health newborns,accounted for 17.70% of the newborns,and 7 birth defects accounted for 1.89%.The differences of gestational age,birth weight,body length,Agpar score and the sub-health newborns were statistically significant among the three exposed groups.Altogether,there were statistically significant between the high exposure group and the control group. Conclusion The pesticide exposure in the greenhouse can cause reproductive health damage such as premature birth,low birth weight,reduce the body length and Agpar score; and it may also increase the risk of congenital malformation of offspring.
    Levels of Toll- like receptor 4 and tumor necrosis factor-α in peripheral blood in neonatal with preterm birth and its relationship in the evaluation of preterm brain injury
    GU Hui-fang,RONG Xiao-ping,LIU Xue,ZHANG Huan-gai,CHENG Chun-ping,LIU Xiang,GUO Wei
    2015, 23(11):  1131-1133.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-04
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (426KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To observe the changes of Toll- like receptor 4 ( TLR-4 ) and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) levels in peripheral blood,and CDCC results of six months old,explore the relationship between the levels of TLR-4,TNF-α and preterm labor and its significance in evaluation of preterm brain injury,provide ideas for early intervention to the prevention of premature and prognosis of brain injury. Methods A total of 120 newborn cases were selected and divided into full-term infants and premature infant group according to gestational age;Preterm groups was divided into:idiopathic preterm group and premature rupture of fetal membranes group according to delivery reason (PROM).The serum levels of TLR-4,TNF-α in peripheral venous blood taken on 30 minutes after birth in newborns were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).And all the subjects had CDCC when they were six months old. Results The serum levels of TLR-4 and TNF-α in the two premature infant groups were higher compared with those of control group (P<0.05),The levels of TLR-4 and TNF-α were positively correlated in PROM preterm group and idiopathic preterm premature group.The serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in the neonates with abnormal CDCC than that of with normal CDCC (P<0.05) in preterm group after birth. Conclusions The levels of TLR-4 and TNF-α of two preterm groups are higher than those in full-term infants,which indicates significantly that cytokines are closely related to the onset of premature rupture of membranes and idiopathic preterm;The levels of TLR-4 and TNF-α are positively correlated,which suggests that TLR-4 may be as an upstream factor to activate TNF-α then promote preterm birth for premature.The level of TNF-α in serum after birth in preterm could be used as an early marker of brain injury.
    Comparative study on visual and anditory continuous performance test in children with congenital hypothyroidism.
    HUANG Sai-jun,SU Xi,YU Hong,WU Cui-ling,SUN Ya-lian
    2015, 23(11):  1134-1137.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-05
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (612KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To assess the auditory/visual attention and response control ability of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods 36 children with CH,aged (8.64±2.51) years,44.4% males,were compared with HC.Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history,birth and perinatal period events,medications,and overall health history.All children were administrated by visual and auditory continuous performance test(IVA-CPT).The results were analyzed by statistic. Results The children with CH group had lower scores than control group (P<0.01) in auditory attention quotient,visual attention quotient and full attention quotient.In the aspect of control response,two groups of children in the auditory control and comprehensive control of comparative difference were not statistically significant,but quotient,differences between the two groups of children had statistical difference relatively in the visual control. Conclusion The children with CH performed more poorly than controls in sustained attention,especially the visual attention.
    Epidemiological survey of children asthma prevalence in Lanzhou urban area
    ZHANG Hong,WANG Xiao-li,GAO Yun,YAO Lan-ping,YANG Lei-hua,
    CHENG Xiao-di,ZHAO Hong-xia,ZHOU Cheng-rui,LU Xiao-ping,WANG Wen-jun
    2015, 23(11):  1138-1141.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-06
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (608KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the prevalence,diagnosis and management of childhood asthma in Lanzhou urban area. Methods Multi-stage,stratified and random cluster sampling was used to recruit children born during July 1st,1996 to July 1st,2010 from Lanzhou or other provinces but resided in Lanzhou for over half a year.The same screening questionnaires for the Third National Epidemiological Survey of Children's Asthma were distributed to parents of children at schools,kindergartens and communities.Asthmatic children were picked among the screening-positive children based on on-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records and supporting test results.Further survey of asthmatics was carried out to investigate the diagnosis and treatment status of childhood asthma and other associated allergic diseases.All data required double entry by Epi-Info 3.5.3 software and were processed by SPSS 19.0. Results Among a total of 11 068 questionnaires,10 566 were completed with a response rate of 95.46%.And 298(2.82%) children were diagnosed with typical (n=265,2.51%) and cough variant (n=33,0.31%) asthma.Among them,54.36%(162/298) had been previously diagnosed with asthma.The prevalence of asthma was higher in boys than in girls [3.31%(180/5 440) vs 2.30%(118/5 126),χ2=9.761,P<0.01].The asthma prevalence of preschoolers (3~<7 years old) was the highest (4.31%(116/2 690)).In the past two years,the symptoms of 84.90% (253/298) children persisted and the current two-year prevalence of asthma was 2.39% (253/10 566).Among the 162 children with previous asthma,87.65% (142/162) received inhaled corticosteroids according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and 87.04%(141/162) of them used antibiotics. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma is 2.82% in children under 14 years old in Lanzhou urban area,increased significantly over the past ten years,and it varied in children with different genders and ages.A considerable number of children are not diagnosed or treated properly,and the management of asthma requires further improvement.
    Relationship of tau protein in serum with the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the neurodevelopmental prognosis
    LU Yu-xin,JIANG Wen,LIN Yan,ZHONG Jian-feng
    2015, 23(11):  1142-1146.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-07
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (708KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the relationship of serum tau protien levels with the severity and neurodevelopmental prognosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE ). Methods A total of 68 full-term neonates with HIE were enrolled,including 29 cases mild,21 moderate and 18 severe,and 16 cases without HIE(control group) were enrolled too.Serum samples were collected at day 0,3,5,7 and 14 after birth.Tau protein levels in each group were studied to reveal the relation between serum tau protiens levels and severity and prognosis in neonates with HIE. Results Tau protein in serum was changed with the trend of increasing and then decreasing.The peak concentration of serum tau protein was reached at 5 day and still remained high level at 14th day.The serum tau protein level in control group was significantly lower than HIE groups at any time points(P<0.05).Serum tau protien level in severe group was significantly higher than other three group at all time points (P<0.05).After one year's follow-up,15 cases got a poor neurodevelopmental outcome:1 case in the mild group,4 cases in moderate group and 10 cases in severe group.Compared with other groups,the rate of poor neurodevelopmental outcome in severe group was significantly higher.Among those with a poor neurodevelopmental outcome,serum tau protein level was higher than the rest neonates with a good prognosis at different time points.No correlation was found between Apgar score and serum tau protien level at any time points (P>0.05).ROC analysis showed that serum tau protein level at the 14th day(>667.1 pg/ml) predict accurately of neurodevelopmental prognosis of HIE neonates:AUC=0.96,sensitivity 93.3%,specificity 90.57% and with the maximum positive predictive value(73.68%). Conclusion Serum tau protein can serve as a biomarker reflecting the severity and predicting the neurodevelopmental prognosis of neonates with HIE.
    Investigation on nutrition and dietary status among Kashgar rural primary school students in Xinjiang
    PU Jin-fen,TUERXUNJIANG Maimaitiming,DING Zhi-kun
    2015, 23(11):  1147-1148.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-08
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (264KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand the nutrition and dietary status among the rural primary school students in Kashgar area Xinjiang,and to analyse the characteristics and deficiency for advices. Methods Dietary conditions of the students were surveyed using accounting methods,and the height and weight were measured in an accordance with the requirements of the School Health Situation Annul Report Technical Specifications of Ministry of Health. Results Among the students in this region,intake of grain was 600.09 g,livestock and poultry meat were 100.65 g,these two were higher than the recommended value of the balance diet pagoda;salt intake was 14.37 g which exceeded the standard seriously,the breakfast energy intake was 456.89 g;three large capacity nutrients,fat intake was 60.21 g,accounted for the low percentage of total dietary energy.Malnutrition was serious and the girl's malnutrition rate was higher than boy students,but the students of overweight and obesity were lower than the national level. Conclution The dietary constitution of the rural primary school students in Kashgar is unreasonable,the nutritional status is worring,physical condition is not optimistic,it would like to make a improvement plan of adapting to circumstances in view of this phenomenon.
    The clinical study of catch up growth of 50 extremely low birth weight infants
    QUAN Mei-ying,WANG Chang-yan,WANG Dan-hua
    2015, 23(11):  1149-1152.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-09
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (548KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objectives To study the catch up growth of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants during hospitalization and after discharge. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of ELBW infants in our hospital from 2005 to 2014 and evaluated growth retardation rate. Results Fifty ELBW infants were followed up for over 6 months.The average weight gain was (17.9±2.8)g/(kg·d) during hospitalization.Z scores for weight,length and head circumference at discharge were lower than that at birth.The period with the lowest growth retardation rate was at 0~3 months of corrected age(CA),which was respectively 20%,26% and 22% by weight,length and head circumference.By the time 24 months of CA,the rate of growth retardation showed a little increase.These infants were divided into groups according to SGA or not,the gestational age at birth(≤28 weeks and >28 weeks),birth weight (≤750g and > 750g) and the period at birth(2004~2009 and 2010~2014),and the growth retardation rates were compared between groups at 6 and 24 months of corrected age.The SGA group and >28 weeks group had higher growth retardation rate at 6 months of corrected age.By the time of 24 months of CA,growth retardation rate (by head circumference) was higher in the group with birth weight≤750 g. Conclusions ELBW infants shows high rate of intrauterine growth retardation and with even higher rates of extra-uterine growth retardation.With more aggressive nutritional support recent years,the majority of preterm infants accomplished catch up growth by 3 months of CA.ELBW infants who are SGA at birth or with birth weight ≤750 g may be more prone to show growth retardation.
    Effects of social reward withdrawal on metabolic learning and memory.
    ZHANG Ling-li,DENG Shi-ning,LI Fei
    2015, 23(11):  1153-1156.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-10
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (558KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To research the effects of social withdrawal on the metabolic learning and memory,to shed more lights on the relationship between social activities such as parent-child relationship,social isolation,collective life and feeding behaviors in children. Methods A total of 39 three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into communally and lonely living groups,both of which were then subject to the conditioned flavor preference training using the metabolic energy as the unconditioned stimulus.As the feeding training was done in a single-living behavioral cage,where the communally but not lonely living mice would produce strong social withdrawal.The effects of social withdrawal on the metabolic learning and memory were assessed. Results Prior to conditioned flavor preference training,the social withdrawal group of mice drunk less flavored solution during the pre-test period compared with the control group,but had no significant preference over the two unconditioned flavors.After the conditioning,both groups of mice preferred to the flavor coupled with energy metabolism over the other one.However,the social withdrawal group of mice produced less flavor preference compared with control.During the entire training process,there were no significant changes in body weight of both groups of mice. Conclusion Social withdrawal indeed significantly affects feeding behavior,especially on the metabolic learning and memory in mice.The research emphasizes on the impact of proper social interaction for diet feeding behavior in children.
    Research on the relationship between pre-pregnancy body,pregnancy exercise and neonatal birth weight
    FENG Ling,XIE Ying,WANG Xiao-lin,HU Huan-yu,LI Zeng-ning
    2015, 23(11):  1172-1174.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-16
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (421KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analysis relationship between pre-pregnancy body,pregnancy exercise and neonatal birth weight and to investigate the factors affecting birth weight. Methods To use the inclusion and exclusion criteria of cohort study methodology,525 cases of pregnant women answered questionnaire survey and conducted physical examination,and obtained relevant indicators of pregnant women and newborns. Results Maternal prepregnancy under weight problems in Hebei province was 16.76%.The rate of overweight was 13.9%,the rate of obesity was 7.63%; pregnancy weight increase is insufficient and excessive incidenced rates were 8.8% and 45.7%.There were significantly higher rates of exercise influence on the birth weight of newborns(F=3.82,P=0.034).The neonatal birth weight was (3.33±0.42)kg during the pregnancy insist on exercise,and the birth weight was (3.36±0.44)kg during pregnancy did not persist in exercise(F=1.853,P>0.05).while the pre-pregnancy body was not statistically significant on the birth weight of newborns. Conclusion Exercise is good for pregnant women and newborns grow properly,reducing the incidence of huge children's.
    Clinical study of passive smoking pregnant maternal plasma interleukin-6 and interleukin -10 and preterm.
    CHENG Gui-hui,CUI Qi-liang,QIU Qi-zhou,XIONG Wei,YANG Yong-ling,XIAO Yi
    2015, 23(11):  1175-1177.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-17
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (456KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study pregnancy changes of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the passive smoking pregnant women to explore it's relationship with premature. Methods According to the exist of passive smoking,155 cases of premature pregnant (28~36+6 weeks) of study group were divided into two groups,study group 1 as passive smoking group,study group 2 during pregnancy without passive smoking or smoking; and 82 cases of pregnant women were selected as the control group (no passive smoking or smoking during pregnancy and the final normal term labor).Maternal plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during 28~36+6 weeks' gestation. Results Maternal plasma IL-6 concentration of study group 1 were significantly higher than that of study group 2 and control group(P<0.05);But maternal plasma IL-10 concentration of study group 1 was lower than that of the study group 2,but had no significant difference(P>0.05);and maternal plasma IL-10 concentration of study group was significantly lower than that of control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Passive smoking during pregnancy can cause IL-6 increased significantly,and IL-10 decreased,which may participate in the mechanism of passive smoking causing premature high-risk,to increase the risk of preterm delivery.
    Vaccination status and influencing factors of children under five years old in Shandong province
    WANG Cheng-peng,ZHU Lin,LI Jia-jia,ZHANG Tao,LIU Fang,XU Ling-zhong
    2015, 23(11):  1178-1180.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-18
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (508KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To survey implementation of national expanded immunization program in children under 5 years old in Shandong province,and analyse its influencing factors,then to provide scientific basis for formulating strategies and policies of health literacy. Methods A sample of 1 502 children under five years old in the 17 cities of Shandong province in 2013 was included in this study through stratified cluster sampling.The basic demographic characteristics and the vaccination status of the children were investigated and influencing factors were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results The coverage rate of children under 5 years old was over 90%.The urban and rural coverage rate of category B vaccines were 71.1% and 83.7% (χ2=34.152,P<0.05) respectively.The coverage rates of rural children were higher than the urban children of category B vaccines except varicella vaccine.The results of multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that age,urban,census and annual household income were considered as the influencing factors. Conclusions The coverage rate of children under 5 years old in Shandong province is higher,whereas the overage rate of category B vaccine is rather lower,urban and rural shows heterogeneity.Vaccination services provided by medical institutions are expected to be improved.
    Case-control study on risk factors and complications of premature
    ZHANG Mei,KUANG Xiao-ni,QIAN Hong-yan,LI Chuan
    2015, 23(11):  1181-1184.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-19
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (541KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate risk factors and complications of premature,to provide data for prevention and improve clinical outcome. Methods In case control study method,102 premature infants were selected as case group,117 full-term infants as the control group,the medical records and questionnaire survey were collected.Application of unconditioned Logistic regression analysis was used to risk factors for premature,the comparison of rate was used by χ2 test. Results Multiple pregnancy,premature rupture of membranes,placental abruption,gestational diabetes,threatened abortion history,placenta previa,gestational hypertension were risk factors for premature.Premature rupture of membranes and gestational diabetes were in the first place according to the incidence of sorting,both accounting for 31.4% of the premature,followed by gestational hypertension and multiple pregnancies,23.5%,22.5% respectively.Low blood sugar,high blood bilirubin,intracranial bleeding,anemia,neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS),infection rates in premature were higher than the full-term (P<0.01).Anemia prevalence,NRDS in gestational age group of 30~34+6 weeks premature were higher than those in 35~36+6 weeks group(P<0.05).High blood bilirubin,anemia,NRDS,infection rates in low birth weight premature were higher than those of premature with 2 500 g or higher (P<0.05). Conclusions Premature rupture of membranes,gestational diabetes,gestational hypertension and multiple pregnancy are major risk factors for premature.Premature complication rates are higher than the full-term.With the smaller gestational age,the lower birth weights is,the higher the rate of complications is.Low birth weight premature infants are more likely to have complications.
    Survey of oral health knowledge and habits of twelve years old left-behind children in Henan province countryside
    JI Ya-li,WANG Zhi-gang,YANG Bian-sheng,SUN Jing,HE Jian
    2015, 23(11):  1185-1187.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-20
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (419KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the oral healthcare habits,concepts and knowledge of twelve years old "left-behind" (LB) children in the countryside of Henan province to lay foundation for the prevention of oral diseases in these children. Methods A total of 740 LB and 783 non-LB twelve year old children from the countryside of Henan province were selected and surveyed using stratified random sampling method.The survey questionnaire was developed according to the questionnaire used for twelve year old children in the the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey.The questionnaires were answered on the spot in school. Results The ratio of eating sweet food,candy or chocolate,sugar-contained water,soft drinks and sugar-contained fruit juice in LB children were 39.3%,32.7%,23.7%,27.8% and 27.5%,respectively.42.6% LB children brushed teeth less than once a day or never.Very few children knew floss,floss usage and fluoride-contained toothpaste.Only less than half LB children knew some oral health knowledge whereas most LB children agreed with the importance of oral health.26.4% visited dentist in the past one year because of toothache. Conclusions The twelve year old LB children in Henan province are active for oral health.However,they lack oral health knowledge and often have wrong oral habits and concepts.There is a inconsistency between idea and action of LB children.
    Epidemiological investigation of cerebral palsy in children aged 1~6 years in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang province
    LIN Wen-yu,YANG Le,REYILAMUO·Yushanjiang,DU Wen-liang
    2015, 23(11):  1188-1190.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-21
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (569KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To investigate the current prevalence and risk factors of infantile cerebral palsy (CP) in children in Ili state,to provide a basis for further study of etiology and prevention of cerebral palsy information. Methods Cluster sampling survey was carried out among children aged 1~6 years old in the eight counties and one city of Ili state,and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 statistical analysis software. Results The average morbidity of infantile CP in Ili state was 1.79‰.The prevalence rate in male and female was significantly different;the male to female ratio was 1.68∶1.00(χ2=33.378,P=0.000).The CP morbidity for Uyghur nationality was higher than that of other ethnic groups,the morbidity for each ethnic group was as follows:2.34‰ for the Uyghur nationality,1.82‰ for the kazahk nationality,1.23‰ for the Hui nationality,1.20‰ for other nationalities,and 0.95‰ for Han (χ2=42.170,P=0.000).CP prevalence rate increased in accordance with the newborn survival rate's improvement.The CP prevalence for the group of children aged 4~6 years old was 1.56‰,1~3 years old group was 2.09‰.The significant differences were observed in all of the data above (χ2=10.801,P=0.001).In the classification of CP,the spastic type was the most,with 68%;the mixed type took 11.3%; the hypotonic type took 11.1%;the dyskinetic type took 8.5%;the ataxia type took 1.2%. Conclusion The survey results can basically reflect current prevalence and risk factors of infantile cerebral palsy in children aged 1~6 years in Ili state,and can be served as a basis for further prevention and treatment of cerebral palsy information.
    Phenotyping and genotyping studies in a family with the compound heterozygosity for a deletional Gγ+(Aγδβ)0-thalassemia and a β-thalassemia alerts
    WANG Chun-fang,WEI Chuan-dong,LEI Ming,ZHANG Ting,WANG Jun-li,LUO Hong-cheng,NONG Le-gen
    2015, 23(11):  1191-1193.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-22
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (409KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To analyse the relationship between genotype and phenotype of the deletional Gγ+(Aγδβ)0-thalassemia with β thalassemia,and explore an approach to rapid prenatal diagnosis for compound heterozygotes of those defect with β-thalassemia. Methods A total of three members in a Chinese family who had a 1-year-old propositus with thalassemia major and requested prenatal diagnosis for the second pregnancy were studied.The results of phenotyping on hematological data including the RBC indices,quantification of HbF and HbA2 by Hb electrophoresis were obtained.Mutations of the β thalassemia were defined by reverse dot blot (RDB) genotyping analysis,and the deletion of Gγ+(Aγδβ)0-thalassemia was analyzed using the method of gap-PCR. Results The propositus inherited the mutation of Gγ+(Aγδβ)0-thalassemia gene from her mother's and inherited the frameshift mutation of CD17(A>T) from her father. Conclusion It is the first time to have performed prenatal diagnosis in Chinese family under risk of compound heterozygotes for Gγ+(Aγδβ)0-thalassemia and β-thalassemia in mainland China,and this strategy to analyze the disease presented may be a valuable reference to the similar problem.
    Analysis of preschool children's subnormal vision and its influencing factors in Shanghai Minhang district
    2015, 23(11):  1194-1197.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-23
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (542KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objectives To grasp the general situation of the subnormal vision among the preschool children in Minhang district and analysis its influencing factors by conducting questionnaire survey so as to provide effective intervention measures. Methods A total of 2 054 preschool children aged 3~6 years old were recruited from 6 kindergartens of Minhang district.The chart light illumination was 500 lx and the distance between the subjects and the chart was 5-meter far.Then the questionnaire surveys were conducted among the parents.The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software package for Windows.The Student's t Test,Chi square test,Logistic regression analysis statistical method were used. Results The detection rate of subnormal vision among preschool children reached up to 33.9%,in which boy children reached up to 32.8% and girl children was 35.0%,but there was no significant difference between boys and girls.The older group was associated with higher subnormal vision detection rate,and there was significant difference.Children with squinting habit and elder age were the influencing factors of subnormal vision among preschool children. Conclusion Much more attention should be paid to preschool children's eyesight protection work,and comprehensive measures of early intervention to preschool children with subnormal vision should be conducted as early as possible.
    Prevalence and influencing factors of fall injuries among school-aged children in rural area of Jianshi
    TAO Xi,XIANG Bing,LI Yan,ZHU Chang-cai,LUO Chang-sheng,ZHU Jun-qing
    2015, 23(11):  1198-1200.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-24
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (535KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the status and analyse the influencing factors of fall injuries among school-aged children in rural area of Jianshi,and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of fall injuries. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among children in 3 primary and 3 secondary country schools of Jianshi by stratified cluster sampling.Retrospective data about fall injuries occurred last year were collected. Results The incidence rate and the person-time incidence rate of fall injuries among school-aged children were 7.1% and 7.4% respectively.The top three places where fall injuries happened were homes(35.6%),schools(30.7%),roads(19.0%).The three leading sites of injuries were upper limbs(37.4%),lower extremities(33.1%),heads(25.2%) and the fall injuries mostly occurred in casual play(49.7%)and physical activity (17.8%).The unconditional Logistic regression showed that the risk factor was scold punishment way of education and the protective factors were girls,non-left-behind children and higher ages. Conclusions The falling injury rate of school-aged children in rural area of Jianshi was relatively high,which is the result of various factors.We should strengthen the protection of high-risk groups and change the education way in order to reduce the occurrence of fall injuries among school-aged children in rural area.
    Comparison of therapeutic effect for different mode of positive airway pressure in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome
    YU Fang,GUO Chun-yan
    2015, 23(11):  1201-1203.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-25
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (377KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To compare the advantages and disadvantages of two modes as a primary mode of ventilation in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods From January 2012 to December 2014,80 preterm infants with RDS who received in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups based on the primary mode of ventilation:nasal continuous positive airway pressure(NCPAP,n=40),bi-level positive airway pressure(SiPAP,n=40).The success rate of treatment and the incidence of different complications were compared. Results 1)Significantly,more infants in the SiPAP group remained extubated compared with those in the NCPAP group,whereas the success rate in SiPAP group was higher in NCPAP group(52% vs 26%,P<0.05).2)No significant difference in the complication was found between two groups(P>0.05). Conclusion The effect of nasal SiPAP for preterm infants with RDS appears to have greater advantage than that of NCPAP obviously,and without increasing the incidence of adverse events.
    Comparative study on the value of interleukin 6 and C reactive protein as early diagnosis markers of neonatal infection
    LI Zhi-ling,XU Feng,LIU Hong-xia,HU Wen-juan,XIAO Zhi-jun,LI Jun,SHEN Yang,SUN Hua-jun
    2015, 23(11):  1204-1206.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-26
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (534KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To compare the significance of IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) in early diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal sepsis,and to timely detect neonates in high-risk of infection. Methods A total of 80 neonatal sepsis patients from January 2009 to December 2012 in NICU who met the criteria were included,and 80 cases of non-sepsis were set as the control group.After admission,blood was collected before use of antibiotics,and then submitted for CRP,IL-6 detection,blood routine examination and blood culture.The CRP and IL-6 were reviewed at 4 h,24 h after the use of antibiotics for patient in the case group and control group. Results 1) There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the sepsis group and the control group for the IL-6 and CRP.After 4 h of the antibiotics usage,IL-6 increased significantly to a peak;whereas CRP peaked at 24 h after the antibiotics usage.2) In premature and full-term neonates group,the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity of IL-6 were significantly higher than CRP after 4 h of the antibiotics usage. Conclusions IL-6 has a high sensitivity and specificity for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.IL-6 monitoring at 4 h after infection is most sensitive,and CRP is most sensitive at 24 h after infection.Abnormally high levels of IL-6 increased early than CRP.
    Benefit incidence analysis of children health care services utilization
    LIU Tian-li,YU Zhen-jie,WANG Pan-li
    2015, 23(11):  1207-1210.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-27
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (587KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand the beneficiaries and the level of benefit about child health services by using benefit incidence method to evaluate the child health services. Method The data about 989 children were analyzed by statistical methods like Kakwani,Concentration Index(CI) and so on. Results Peoples in low income were benefit more from child health services on the whole.The children whose mother was in low education were benefit more from postpartum visit services.But in child health examination services,rural children were benefit more. Conclusion Pay more attention to the children who are benefit little from the child health services,improve the utilization of poor families and low educational level home by economic and policy support and health education,could promote benefit equal.
    The incidence rate and influential factors of wheezing among infants aged 6 to 24 months from Enshi,China
    XIAO Han,NIE Xiu-hong,XU Ya-yun,SHI Hui,YAN Hong,LI Shi-yue
    2015, 23(11):  1211-1212.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-28
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (398KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand the incidence rate and influential factors of wheezing among infants aged 6 to 24 months in Enshi,China,and to provide evidences for wheezing prevention. Methods A total of 1 724 infants were recruited using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling,and informations including demographic characteristics,family condition,in utero exposure,nursing behavior and wheezing information were collected by questionnaire survey.Multivariate Logistic regression was performed to analyze associated factors with wheezing. Results Among 1 724 infants,897 (52%) were boys and 827(48%) were girls,and the average age was (14.6±5.4) months.The incidence rate of wheezing was 1.97%,2.56% for boys and 1.33% for girls respectively.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed wheezing was associated with food allergy history and in utero exposure to second-hand tobacco. Conclusion Infants who had food allergy history and in utero exposure to second-hand tobacco have higher risk of wheezing.
    A new mode to improve screening compliance in hearing screening
    DONG Hang,GAO Xiu-e,JIA Xiu-hong
    2015, 23(11):  1213-1215.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-29
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (451KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore a new mode to improve screening compliance in hearing screening. Method A total of 956 patients undergoing failed in hearing screening of newborns,were randomly divided into Intervention group and control group,the intervention group used "Health education-education information dissemination-mobile phone SMS booking-call notification" mode back to the hospital screening before intervention;the control group was divided into fore groups,group 1 of health education,group 2 of releasing related information,group 3 of mobile phone SMS booking,group 4 of telephone notification;statistics of five groups of screening rate,gender,the living condition and the guardian education level,results were statistically analyzed. Results Screening rate of the intervention group was 92.75%,screening rates of four control group were 65.08%,57.07%,78.24%,83.68%,respectively.There were significant differences between intervention group and control group (P<0.05),and there were no significant differences in the gender,the living condition and the guardian education level of the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion To improve the hearing screening compliance is necessary,and the application of "Health Education-education information dissemination-mobile phone SMS booking-call notification" combination mode is effect to improve the screening compliance than single mode.
    Detection and analysis of the virus in 1 200 cases children with acute respiratory tract infection
    WU Yuan-qiao
    2015, 23(11):  1216-1218.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-30
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (416KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) of children,to know the situation of respiratory virus epidemic of children in Wenling of Zhejiang Province,to assist the diagnosis of children's respiratory virus infection and to offer reference for clinical treatment. Methods A total of 1 200 nasopharyngeal secretion (NPS) samples were collected from ARI children who were hospitalized between February 2013 to January 2014.Direct immunofluorescence (DFA) was utilized to detect 7 respiratory viral antigens,including influenza virus A (FluA) and B (FluB),respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),adenovirus and parainfluenza viruses 1,2 and 3 (PIV1,PIV2 and PIV3).And then statistical analysis was performed. Results 424 virus infection in 1 200 cases of children with ARI were found,the positive rate was 35.33%.Among them,RSV in 290 cases accounted for 68.40% of positive cases,which listed the first;26 cases of FluA,accounted for 6.13%; 10 cases of FluB,accounted for 2.36%;12 cases of ADV,accounted for 2.83%; 22 cases of PIV1,accounted for 5.90%; 6 cases of PIV2,accounted for 1.42%; 55 cases of PIV3,accounted for 12.97% of the positive cases.The detection rate of respiratory viruses of children from the first quarter to the fourth quarter was 41.27%,11.56%,12.74% and 33.96%,respectively.The positive rates of the first and fourth quarter were higher than the second and third quarter,and there was a significant difference between them (P<0.05).With the increase of age,respiratory virus infection rates gradually decreased in children,virus infection rate was 50.85% among the infants within 6 months,which listed the first.Whereas,the minimum virus infection rate was 16.92% among the children above 3 years old.And there was a significant differences among the groups (P<0.05). Conclusions Respiratory viruses are the main pathogens in children with ARI.Using the direct immunofluorescence (DFA) can not only provide quick and accurate diagnostic basis but also can offer viral materials in clinic,guide the proper drug use and prevent the abuse of antibiotics.
    Effect of classified referral of high risk infants on child health care in community
    GAO Mei-zhe,WANG Chun-xia,QU Ke-li
    2015, 23(11):  1219-1220.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-31
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (420KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To explore the effects of classified referral of high risk infants on child health care in community. Methods From April 2014 classified referral of high risk infants were carried out in Jiaotong community,distribution of high risk infants were observed after referral.Referral situation before and after classified referral and attitudes of parents of high-risk infants were analyzed. Results There were 395 infants before classified referral,110 high risk infants,and there were 478 infants after classified referral,143 high risk infants,including 108 type Ⅰ and 35 type Ⅱ.The referral rate after classified referral was significantly lower than that before classified referral (P<0.01);the compliance rate was significantly higher than that before classified referral (P<0.01);There were no significant differences of the screening rate,positive rate and rate of project management between the two groups(P>0.05).The necessity,compliance and understanding of parents of high risk infants of type Ⅱ were much higher than those of parents of type Ⅰ(P<0.01). Conclusion As the important part of systematic management of high risk infants,classified referral of high risk infants could improve the compliance,promote the community management mode of high risk infants,and could be popularized in child health care of community.
    Study on vitamin A and mineral substance in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
    MENG Jun,WU Hong-tao
    2015, 23(11):  1221-1223.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-32
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (431KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To observe the levels about vitamin A and mineral with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Methods A total of 40 neonates with NRDS were chosen as research group in the neonatal department of Dezhou People's Hospital,and 30 healthy neonates were enrolled into the study as control group.The levels of vitamin A,calcium,magnesium,copper,iron and zinc were detected from venous blood at 24 h after being admitted to hospital. Result The level of vitamin A in the research group were lower than that in the control group (P<0.01),The levels of iron and zinc in the research groups were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05),and there were no significant differences on the levels of calcium,magnesium and copper between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Vitamin A,iron and zinc could promote the development of the lung tissue,enhance the content and activity of the pulmonary surfactant and reduce the occurrence rate and the severity of NRDS.
    Result analysis of combined using otoacoustic emission and auto auditory brainstem respons tests in universal newborn hearing screening
    CHEN Lei,YAN Ju-hua
    2015, 23(11):  1224-1225.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-33
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (394KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To learn the sensitivity,specificity,the rate of missed diagnosis,misdiagnosis rates of otoacoustic emission (OAE),auto auditory brainstem respons (AABR) and the combined screening. Method OAE hearing screening were carried out in the 3~5 d after birth,each referred infant received OAE joint AABR screening in 42 days after birth.Those who have not passed the combined screening referral to higher hospital for ABR,acoustic impedance examination and the diagnosis and classification of hearing impairment.AABR and OAE as a parallel method of testing,anyone of the two method referred was positive,both of them passed was negative. Results 1 271 newborns received OAE and AABR combined screening,1 064 passed,207 did not pass.The sensitivity of OAE screening in the 42 days after birth was slightly higher;Compared with OAE,AABR screening had a lower sensitivity and higher specificity;Combined screening had improved the sensitivity and reduced the rate of missed diagnosis than a single method of screening. Conclusion Using OAE newborn hearing screening have a higher rate of missed diagnosis,OAE and AABR combined screening can effectively reduce the rate of missed diagnosis,and therefore worthy to be popularized.
    Study on the clinical diagnosis and treatment of milk protein allergy in 68 cases of infants
    FENG Xia,XUE Ji-hong,FENG Xiao-qiang,REN Hua
    2015, 23(11):  1226-1227.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-34
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (267KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To study the clinical diagnosis and treatment of milk protein allergy in children and infants. Methods A total of 68 patients with milk protein hypersensitivity were randomly selected from March 2014 to March 2015,and the clinical symptoms,avoidance test and treatment were analyzed. Results The main clinical symptoms of 68 cases of milk protein allergy were vomiting,intestinal spasm,abdominal distension,sneezing,facial edema,atopic eczema,etc.Take food avoidance methods in children with symptoms somewhat relieved or disappeared,the parents consent to provocation test positive,to take after amino acid formula powder feeding symptoms again improved or disappeared,body weight slowly recovering,nutritional status improved. Conclusions For children with milk protein hypersensitivity,the clinical symptoms of food stimulation test and food avoidance method can be used.During the food avoidance,the use of amino acid formula powder feeding not only can meet the needs of infants and infants,but also can effectively remove the allergic source.
    Cognitive effects assessment of haze related knowledge of primary school students in Changchun
    LI Xin,WANG Rui,WANG Nan,BU Jin-song,XING Wei-li,LIU lian-kun
    2015, 23(11):  1228.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2015-23-11-35
    Asbtract ( )   PDF (470KB) ( )  
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Objective To understand awareness and health behavior formation rate of the haze relevant knowledge in Changchun city pupils,and to provide scientific basis for the health effects for the prevention of haze. Methods By using the cluster sampling method,a retrospective survey was carried out and the haze related knowledge of 1 256 pupils in Changchun city was statistical analyzed. Results The awareness rate of haze related knowledge was 81.68%,high-grade group awareness rate was higher than that of low-grade group (χ2=23.138,P<0.005),the rate of girls was slightly higher than the boys.Behavioral health of low grade group of girls was higher than that of boys(χ2=21.349,P<0.05),high-grade's group's health behavior formation rate was higher than that of low-grade group (χ2=116.74,P<0.001). Conclusion The pupils to carry out targeted haze prevention knowledge propaganda and education,improve students' haze awareness rate of related knowledge is conducive to physical and mental health of students,which is one of the essential measures at all levels of school.