Table of Content

    10 April 2017, Volume 25 Issue 4

    Dietary guidelines for Chinese preschool children (2016)

    YANG Yue-xin, SU Yi-xiang, WANG Zhi-xu, et al
    2017, 25(4):  325-327.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-01
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    Relation between feeding patterns and timing of adiposity rebound in offspring in Xinjiang
    YE Ye-kejiergeli,A Da-libieke,DOU Ya-lan,CAI Ai-jie,TIAN Tian,DAI Jiang-hong
    2017, 25(4):  328-330.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-02
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    Objective To compare the effects of breast feeding positions of mothers on the timing of adiposity rebound (AR) in offspring,and to provide scientific basis for local children's healthcare policy. Methods A total of 13 kindergartens from Urumqi city,Kelamayi city,Altay city and Yining city were selected as study fields.From April in 2014,height and weight of the children from those kindergartens were measured every six months.A total of four follow-ups were made.AR values of all children were estimated by identifying the lowest point of BMI trending curves in four follow-ups.At baseline,parents of children were investigated by questionnaire to collect data on mode of delivery,birth weight,breast-feeding status in the first four months,and family monthly income,etc. Results A total of 883 children aged from 3 to 6 years old were investigated.Of them,boys 446 and girls 437,Han 426,Uyghur 275 and kazak 182.Prevalence of obesity or overweight among these children was 16.6%.Mean AR age was(5.26±0.91) years old.Breast-feeding was more frequent in mothers of Uyghur and Kazakh ethnicity compared to those of Han ethnicity(P<0.001).Artificial feeding was more frequent among families with higher monthly income compared to those of lower monthly income(P=0.022).After adjusted for factors above using multi linear regression analysis,the mean AR age of children who were given artificial feeding was lower by 0.165 years than those who were given breast feeding (B=-0.165,t=-2.15,P=0.032). Conclusion Breast feeding may delay the AR age and reduce the occurrence of obesity or overweight in late childhood.
    Investigation on nutritional status of infants and young children at different altitudes in Rikaze
    YANG Xiao-dong,GUO Chong,SHI Hui-qing,CHEN Jin-jin
    2017, 25(4):  331-333.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-03
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    Objective To investigate the difference in physical development,anemia and diet of infants and young children at different altitudes in Rikaze,and to explore the effect of altitude on their nutritional status. Methods The study coverd infants and young children who participated in health check-up in 9 countries in Rikaze.Physical development indexes and hemoglobin were collected.A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate their diet. Results The sample consisted of 285 infants and young children.Infants and young children at 4 000 m below had no underweight,but there was a certain proportion of growth retardation;the incidences of underweight and growth retardation in infants and young children at 4 000 m above were significantly higher (χ2=32.323,P<0.001).The incidence of anemia was high,and increased with altitude (χ2=19.369,P<0.001).The breast-feeding rate was 66.7% in Rikaze,however,44.6% of infants and young children added complementary foods before 4 months old. Conclusions The malnutrition of infants and young children at high altitude is more serious.The incidence of anemia in infants and young children in Rikaze is high,and increases with altitude.The breast-feeding rate is high in Rikaze,but the complementary foods is too early.
    Vitamin D status and its relationship to the time of outdoor activities and the body mass index in 0~6 years old children
    QIN Zhen-ying,LIANG Guan-yu,HU You-fang,FU Yan-rong,YANG Zi,ZHAO Yan,QIN Rui
    2017, 25(4):  334-337.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-04
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    Objective To evaluate the vitamin D (VitD) nutritional status,and to investigate the interaction of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and outdoor activities time and the body mass index in 0~6 years old children. Methods Utilizing a stratified random cluster sampling design,a total of 5 289 healthy children aged 0~6 years old were recruited from 12 regions of Jiangsu province.Anthropometric indices:weight,height,VitD levels were estimated by ELISA,and the related questionnaire investigation was carried. Results 1)The means and standard deviations of serum 25-(OH)D levels was (66.59±30.27)nmol/L,65.6% had VitD deficiency,VitD overdose and poisoning cases were not found.The level of 25-(OH)D was significantly higher in 0~2 years old group.2)When children's age,gender and other variables were adjusted,outdoor activities time and the BMI were correlated with the serum 25-(OH)D levels (P<0.01),Daily time for outdoor activities up to 4 hours had best VitD level (F=11.45,P<0.05).The research objects receiving physical examination were screened by BMI(BMI>P 97th was the standard for obesity).In the study with 409 cases of obese children,the 25-(OH)D concentration increased with BMI(F=4.168,P<0.05).In addition,the serum 25-(OH)D levels in obesity and normal group were (65.94±29.56)nmol/L and (66.65±30.34) nmol/L,and this difference was not significant(t=0.454,P=0.650). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of VitD deficiency in 0 to 6 year olds in Jiangsu province,especially for children over 2 years of age.The average VitD levels among children more exposed to sunlight is sufficient.When it is not up to the obesity standard,there is a positive correlation between 25-(OH)D levels and BMI.
    Secular trend on prevalence of obesity among students aged 7~18 years old of 5 minorities in china from 1991 to 2010
    GUO Ling,SONG Yi,MA Jun
    2017, 25(4):  338-341.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-05
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    Objective To examine the trends of obesity prevalence among students aged 7 to 18 years old of 5 ethnic minorities (Mongolian,Hui,Uyghur,Zhuang and Korean) from 1991 to 2010,and help obesity prevention strategy making. Methods Analysis was based on 5 cross-sectional surveys (1991,1995,2000,2005 and 2010) of Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health.Secular trends were analyzed by χ2-test to examine the prevalence between adjacent years.It was also used to examine the ethnic,urban-rural and gender disparities. Results The prevalence of obesity among 5 minorities was increasing continuously during the last 2 decades,as well as the age group of peak obesity prevalence shifted from 13~15 years old to 10~12 years old.Among the 5 minorities,Korean and Mongolian students' prevalence of obesity were higher (12.72% and 7.10% in 2010,respectively) than the others.It was getting more and more obvious among all minorities that the prevalence of obesity of urban students was higher than their rural peers,except Korean.A girl-dominated obesity population (1991) shifting to a boy-dominated obesity population (2010) was observed. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity is continuously increasing in students among the 5 minorities,especially Korean and Mongolian.It should be on alert that obesity become epidemic among the students of ethnic minorities.
    Genetic and prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification
    ZHONG Qing-yan,YAN Ti-zhen,ZENG Ting,LUO Shi-qiang,TANG Ning,TAN Jian-qiang,ZHENG Min,YA Jiao-lian,LI Hong-hui,CAI Ren
    2017, 25(4):  342-345.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-06
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    Objective To assess the value of multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the genetic and prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). Methods Twenty two patients clinically diagnosed with DMD/BMD were recruited.Copy number variations (including deletion or duplication mutations) of the 79 exons of the DMD gene were detected by MLPA.For cases requesting prenatal diagnosis,short tandem repeat (STR) capillary e1ectrophoresis,linkage analysis and MLPA were applied to determine fetal DMD gene. Results Among the 22 patients,deletions and duplications encompassing two or more exons were identified in 15 and 4 cases with MLPA,respectively.Three patients had no copy number variations.Of the 14 mothers with MLPA positive sons,9 were found to carry either deletions or duplications.Prenata1 diagnosis had identified 3 female carrier fetuses,3 male normal fetuses and 1 female normal fetal in the 7 cases examined,which was in conformity with linkage analysis. Conclusion The data demonstrated that MLPA is a accurate,rapid and reliable method for detecting copy number variations (deletions or duplications) of the DMD gene.
    Situation and effecting factors of preschool children among several cities in China
    WANG Fu-man,JIN Xi,JIANG Jing-xiong,YAO Yi,YANG Qi
    2017, 25(4):  346-349.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-07
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    Objective To understand the status and effecting factors of preschool children among several cities in China,and to provide basis for obesity preventing. Methods Cluster sampling method was used and preschool children of 56 kindergartens in 9 project areas were selected,the information of children's birth date,birth weight,parents' education level,and effecting factors were collected,the children's height and weight were also obtained by measuring.χ2 test and Logistic regression analysis were used in this study. Results A total of 11 960 cases were analyzed in this study,12.22% and 10.38% of the children were overweight and obesity,the prevalence of overweight was 12.67% in boys and 11.72% in girls,and the prevalence of obesity was 13.61% in boys and 6.82% in girls,the difference was statistically significant(χ2=157.52,P<0.001).Along with the age increased,the prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys increased,the difference was statistically significant(χ2=16.10,P=0.041).Preschool children in South of the Yangtze River region had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than those in Yangtze River basin region and North of the Yangtze River region,and the difference was statistically significant(χ2=145.24,P<0.001).Boys,children birth with overweight and cesarean delivery were the risk factors for preschool children's overweight and obesity,and the risk odds ratios were 1.53(1.40,1.68),1.92(1.62,2.29) and 1.21 (1.10,1.34) respectively. Conclusions Preschool children have high prevalence of overweight and obesity in survey areas; boys,children birth with overweight and cesarean delivery are the risk factors.Obesity preventing should be start from pregnancy.
    Correlation of growth hormone deficiency and COL11A2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms
    LI Xin,SHAO Qian,ZHANG Yan-hong,BAN Bo,ZHANG Mei,LI Ping,SUN Hai-ling
    2017, 25(4):  350-353.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-08
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    Objective To study single nucleotide polymorphisms of COL11A2 gene in the growth plate and identify the correlation with the growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Methods Using the MALDI-TOF MS methods,the COL11A2 gene single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNP) genotyping were detected in 229 cases of GHD children and 314 children with normal control group.And then the differences between the two groups with the SNP loci genotype frequency and allele frequency and genotype distribution of explicit and implicit model frequency were analyzed. Results The COL11A2 gene loci rs9368758 was associated with the occurrence of GHD (P=0.012).The allele of G in rs9368758 gene loci was a risk factor for GHD,the risk of GHD which would increase 1.71 times (P=0.02,OR=1.71.95%CI=1.11~2.65).The allele of A was a protection factors for GHD,which would reduce the risk of GHD in 0.63 times (P=0.02,OR=0.63,95%CI=0.43~0.92). Conclutions There is a correlation between COL11A2 gene loci rs9368758 and GHD.The allele of G in rs9368758 gene loci are GHD susceptible factors of the disease.A allele is GHD protective factors of the disease,which carriers are not easy to suffer from GHD.
    Analysis of behavioral problems and family effect factors of children in the rural poor area,Shaanxi plain
    LEI Xiao-mei,YANG Si-ping,LIU Li
    2017, 25(4):  354-357.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-09
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    Objective To study on behavioral problems and family effect factors of poor children in the rural area,Shaanxi plain,and in order to provide reference foundation for the healthy growth of children. Methods By random sampling,1 000 poor students of grade 4~6 in the rural area Shaanxi plain were collected by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.Among them,836 subjects were investigated by Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire(PSQ). Results 1) There were differences in scores of conduct problem,study problem,impulse-activities and anxiety in different grades (P<0.05).Among them,differences existed in scores of conduct problem and anxiety between grade 4 and grade 5,in scores of study problem and impulse-activities between grade 4 and grade 6,in scores of conduct problem,study problem,impulse-activities and anxiety between grade 4 and grade 6(all P<0.05).2) The scores of psychophysical problem and anxiety in boys were higher than those of girls (P<0.01).3) There were differences in scores of study problem and impulse-activities in different economic levels (all P<0.05).Of them,the score of study problem in poor family was higher than that better and common family,also higher in impulse-activitie than good family.4) Differences existed in scores of anxiety in different culture levels (F=3.321,P<0.05),and the score of mother with primary school education was higher than that of mother with university education. Conclusions Behavioral problems exist in children in the rural poor area,Shaanxi plain,and family factors can not be ignored .So much attention should be paid to school-age children` parents.
    Study on the characteristics of the basic facial expression recognition in autism spectrum disorder spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children
    LI Hai-bei,SHANG Qing,LI Jing-jie,MA Cai-yun,YAN Jin
    2017, 25(4):  358-360.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-10
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    Objective To test the ability of the face recognition of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) disorder,attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and normal children.To explore the characteristics of facial expression recognition disorder in ASD children. Methods Totally 32 children with ASD,32 children with ADHD and 32 normal children were matched at the age of development.They were tested with the emotional expressions recognition software system developed in this research with took the response time and the correct rate were taken as the analysis indexes. Results 1) There was no significant difference in the response time of gaze between the Sadism and ADHD group,while happy and angry were tested (t=1.04,0.16,P>0.05).The ASD group showed significant difference in sadness,surprise and fear (t=1.83,1.79,2.96,P<0.05) with ADHD group.The average duration of attention was significantly shorter in ASD group and ADHD group than in normal group (P<0.05).2)There were no significant differences in the recognition rate of happiness,angry between ASD group and normal group (χ2=0.318,0.067,P>0.05 ).The recognition rates of sadness,surprise and fear in ASD group were lower than those in normal group(χ2=0.428,8.532,5.455,P<0.05);ADHD group had lower recognition rate of fear than normal group(χ2=5.406,P<0.05);Other kinds of emotion recognition rate of ADHD was no significant difference with the normal group (P>0.05). Conclusion ASD children face recognition disorder is not only due to reduced visual attention;ASD children with emotional disorders mainly reflected in the sadness,surprise,fear of emotion recognition.Recognition rate of happiness,and angry is relatively high.
    Study on CTRP9 inhibits the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells and attenuates airway inflammation in infant asthmatic mice
    LIU Cui-cui,ZHAO Long,SHI Xiao-lan,WANG Ning,MA Cai-ling
    2017, 25(4):  361-364.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-11
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    Objective To explore the effects of CTRP9 on proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and airway inflammation in infant asthmatic mice. Methods Elisa kits were used for detecting the contents of CTRP9 in serum from the normal and asthmatic children and mice respectively.ASMCs of asthmatic mice were isolated and cultured followed by transfection with pcDNA3.1-CTRP9,MTT were used to determine the level of cells proliferation and elisa kits were used again to measure the levels of TNF-α and IL-6.Besides,the levels of TLR4,NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 were detected by Western blot analyses.Asthmatic mice were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CTRP9 and observed the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissues by HE staining.The number of eosinophils,neutrophils and macrophages in BALF were counted under light microscope.Finally,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6,TLR4 and NF-κB in lung of mice were measured again as above methods. Results The asthmatic children and mice showed lower CTRP9 content and mRNA expression in serum compared to control group.After transfection ASMCs with pcDNA3.1-CTRP9,the cells proliferation,inflammatory cytokines secretion and TLR4/NF-κB pathway were all inhibited obviously.Moreover,overexpression of CTRP9 in asthmatic mice suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissues,the number of inflammatory cells,as well as the inflammatory cytokines secreting and activation of TLR4/NF-κB. Conclusion CTRP9 inhibits the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells and attenuates inflammation in asthmatic mice.
    Research progress of executive function in children with iron deficiency
    ZHU Liu-yan,SHAO Jie
    2017, 25(4):  365-368.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-12
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    Iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most commom form of nutrient deficiency worldwide.It's highly prevalent in pregnant women and infants.Early ID affects brain metabolism,neurotransmitters and myelination.Consequently,it affects nerve cognitive function and behavior such as working memory,inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility that is the main component of executive function.Executive function is senior congitive function and develops quickly to top in children born after 1~2 years,there may be an iron-dependent crucial period.To understand the development of children's executive function and find out the most important development window will benefit public health prevention strategies of early iron deficiency.
    Effect of maternal nutrition on asthma,wheeze,and hereditary allergic diseases outcome in offspring during childhood
    YAN Si-you,XU Rong-xian
    2017, 25(4):  369-371.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-13
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    More and more epidemiological investigation and animal experiment indicated that the maternal nutrition has associated with the risk of developing adult offspring's non-infectious diseases in later life.These findings showed that the unbalanced maternal nutrition not only arouses their adult offspring non-infectious diseases,but also influences the risk of developing their offspring's asthma,gasp,and hereditary allergic constitution in childhood.These diseases will bring about psychological burden to the children,and seriously influence their growth,development and living quality,accompanied with life danger.However,many researches indicated that the rational nutrition and scientific diet during the pregnancy can reduce the morbidity risk of these diseases of the offspring.This paper makes simple summary for the effects of maternal nutrition on asthma,wheeze,and hereditary allergic diseases outcome in offspring during childhood.
    Research progress of nutrition education for preschoolers
    WANG Lian-zhen
    2017, 25(4):  372-374.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-14
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    As one of the contents of health education of preschoolers,nutrition education is getting more and more attention,but because of its late start,it needs to be developed and perfected in the specific implementation strategy.The educational goal,educational content,content organization,curriculum implementation and evaluation are summarized in the thesis after looking up the literatures at home and abroad to provide the reference for future research.
    Different neurological assessment tools and its research progress on cerebral palsy predictive validity(review)
    WANG Ling-ling,WEN Xiao-hong
    2017, 25(4):  375-377.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-15
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    Cerebral palsy(CP) cause serious damage to the children's physical and mental health,therefore,early screening,diagnosis and intervention of CP to improve the prognosis and improve their life quality of children with CP play an important role.The studies on early detection of CP show that neurological examinations (General Movement Assessment,Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment,Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development,Infant Neurological Motor Assessment 20 Items,Vojta Posture Reflex)are in common use.These neurological examination tools have certain evaluation function,and it can predict the occurrence of CP,to some extent.several kinds of neurological assessment tools and its predictive validity on children with CP were summarized in this paper.
    Prevention and treatment of lead poisoning in children—A review with recent updates
    GUO Yan,WU Xiao-yan,XIONG Wei,HUI Chang-ye
    2017, 25(4):  378-381.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-16
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    Lead,a systemic toxicant,primarily affects the central nervous system,particularly the developing brain.There is not a safe level of lead exposure for children,the intervention level is often interpreted as a threshold.Children lead poisoning has become a public health problem of global magnitude and concern.The prevalence and severity of childhood lead poisoning have been greatly reduced since the removal of lead from environment in China recently.Primary prevention consists of health education and avoidance of lead-contaminated products,and chelation therapy with necessary.Metal-chelating agent has been used for many years,but the potential risks of administration chelator to children exist.Oral exposure represents the most significant route of lead intake for children.Blocking the intestinal absorption of lead will be one of new measures for prevention and treatment of lead poisoning in children.
    Relationship between cesarean section and incidence of cerebral palsy:Meta analysis
    DONG Shang-sheng,CHEN Yan-juan
    2017, 25(4):  382-385.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-17
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    Objective To analyze the relationship between cesarean section and incidence of cerebral palsy. Methods Using the keywords (cerebral palsy,causes or risk factors or caesarean section),a search was performed to collect the case-control studies on the risk factors of cerebral palsy childhren from 1990 to 2016,the data base included the China journal full text database (CNKI),Wanfang database,Chinese VIP database (VIP) and PubMed,MEDLIN,OVID,the Cochrane library database.The included literatures were conducted the Meta analysis by the Manager 5.2 Review software,the test level of α=0.05. Results A total of 9 literatures were included,2 Chinese,7 English.And the observation group were included 3 327 children with cerebral palsy children,totally 852 were performed by caesarean section; and the control group were included 1 700 535 children,a total of 126 323 performed by caesarean section.The analysis Results were as follows:the relationship between the cesarean section and cerebral palsy children(OR=1.61;95%CI:0.93~2.79;I2=95%);Term cesarean section and cerebral palsy children (OR=2.04,95%CI:1.81~2.29;I2=23%); premature caesarean section and cerebral palsy children (OR=0.84;95%CI:0.63~1.13;I2=94%); emergency caesarean and cerebral palsy children (OR=9.77;95%CI:7.37~12.96;I2=95%). Conclusion Cesarean section is not a protective factor for cerebral palsy,but about the emergency caesarean section,we need to conduct a further study to demonstrate the relationship with cerebral palsy.
    Prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among infants and young children aged 6~24 months in poor areas of Hubei Province
    LIU Wei,SHEN Ya-li,ZHAN Xiao-li,YANG Yin-mei,WANG Ke-kun,YAN Hong,LI Shi-yue
    2017, 25(4):  386-388.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-18
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    Objective To analyze the prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among infants and young children aged 6~24 months in poor areas of Hubei Province,and to provide basis for improving anemia status of them. Methods Multi-staged PPS sampling was adopted in this study.Caregivers of the infants and young children were surveyed with a questionnaire and the children's hemoglobin was also measured.Chi-square was used to analyze ratios and Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the associated factors. Results A total of 2 675 infants and young children aged 6~24 months were investigated and 571 of them were diagnosed with anemia.The prevalence of anemia was 21.3%.The prevalence in boys and girls were 22.9% and 19.5%,respectively,and there was significant difference between gender (P<0.05).The prevalence in infants aged 6~11 months,young children aged 12~17 months and 18~24 months were 30.9%,20.5%,11.7%,respectively,there was also significant difference between them (P<0.05).Infant aged 6~11 months who was boy,low-birth weight,the caregiver's knowledge rate about anemia was lower than 60%,the family had more than two children who were under 5 years old might have higher prevalence of anemia (P<0.05).Young children aged 12~17 months whose caregiver's knowledge rate about anemia was lower than 60%,the family had more than two children who were under 5 years old might have higher prevalence of anemia (P<0.05). Conclusions Anemia is still an outstanding issue in infants and young children aged 6~24 months in poor areas of Hubei Province.Different health education programs and intervention policies should be adopted according to different age period for their better health development.
    Investigation and analysis on the status of nutrition and health of children in urban district of Shenyang city
    LI Li-li,HUANG Yan-hong,YANG Liu,LI Jing,NI Jia,ZHANG Xue-jiao
    2017, 25(4):  389-391.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-19
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    Objective To understand the nutrition and health status of children in urban areas,and to master the incidence,causes and influencing factors of common nutritional diseases in children. Methods Using cluster sampling method,an epidemiological survey was conducted on 6 477 children under 5 years old in 8 streets of Shenyang City,which were randomly selected from 2 urban districts of city. Results The weight and height average were higher than the WHO (2006) standard in different months and different sexes,and boy's weight and height were higher than those of girls,there were significant difference (all P<0.01) for children under 5 years of age,the prevalences of low weight,growth retardation,weight loss,overweight,obesity were 0.12%,0.35%,0.75%,22.59%,8.17%,respectively;The incidence of anemia in children under 6~8 months and 5 years old were 12.35% and 8.12% respectively;Respiratory infection and diarrhea in children under 5 years of age were 8.65% and 14.40%,respectively. Conclusions The management of children under 5 years of age should be strengthened,physical and nutritional development of children are carried out,The scientific feeding of children's parents is guided in the area in order to increase the rate of breast feeding and reduce the occurrence of children's nutritional deficiency anemia in children under the age of 5,especially for 6 months,and improve the nutritional health of children under the age of 5.
    Research on the relationship between changes of IGF-I levels in children with functional dyspepsia and indicators of nutrition
    XIAO Man-tian,XIAO Can-rong,QIU Xiao-shan,QIAN Xing-guo
    2017, 25(4):  392-394.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-20
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    Objective To research the relationship between the level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the nutrition state of children with functional dyspepsia. Methods A total of 50 cases of children with functional dyspepsia were selected as the observation group,and 50 cases of healthy children as the control group,both of whom were within 1~7 years old.The levels of serum IGF-I,PA,RBP,TRF,ALB and FFA were checked on each single child and analysis data were rendered and processed by means of SPSS18.0 statistical software. Results The level of serum IGF-I of the functional dyspepsia children was significantly lower than that of the healthy children,nutrition indicators of PA,RBP,TRF also were lower than those of the healthy children( t values were 7.60,5.00,2.50,2.40,P<0.05),but there were not obvious differences of free fatty acids and ALB (t values were 0.15、1.1,P>0.05). Conclusions Children with functional dyspepsia have a digestive disturbance,the barrier of children's absorption of nutrients disorder,and reduction of PA,RBP,TFR,which leads to decrease the serum IGF-I content.Lower level of IGF-I will affect growth and development of the functional dyspepsia children.
    Analysis of nutritional status among children in poverty-stricken areas of Hubei province
    ZHOU Yong-jie,LI Fu,CAO Zhong-qiang,DU Yu-kai
    2017, 25(4):  395-397.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-21
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    Objective To analyse the characteristics of nutritional status,and association with poverty,and to provide scientific basis for improving children's nutritional status in poverty-stricken areas. Methods 0~17 years-old children in 4 800 rural families of four impoverished areas were selected as this subjects,and 4 621 families completed the interview,the completion rate was 96.3%.Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was applied and SPSS18.0 was adopted for data processing and analysis. Results The incidence rate of growth retardation and emaciation rate was 8.5%,and anemia prevalence rate was as high as 33.3% among underprivileged children.Safe drinking water and sanitation deprivation,anemia and emaciation were closely related to growth retardation in children.Economic and education deprivation,health and information deprivation,growth retardation and anemia were related to emaciation in children.All poverty except of safe drinking water was related to anemia in children (P<0.05). Conclusion The children's nutritional status is not optimistic in poor regions,and which is closely related to all dimensions of poverty,the key measures of improve children's nutritional status is to relieve poverty.
    Evaluation on the vitamin D status of breastfed infants from 0 to 6 month-old
    LI Na,HUANG Wen-qing,LIU Tao,ZHANG Wei
    2017, 25(4):  398-400.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-22
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    Objective To investigate vitamin D status of 0~6 month-old breastfeeding infants in Beijing area and the relationships between 25(OH)D,PTH and BAP. Methods Mother-infant pairs were recruited.All breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU.Venous blood was collected and the levels of serum 25(OH)D,PTH and BAP were also measured when infants were born and 4 months and 6 months of age. Results At 0 month group,only a small part of infants whose (28.8%) vitamin D level were in normal range,and the proportion rose to 82.8% when they were 4 months old,and 83% at 6 months of age.There was a significantly positively correlation of serum 25(OH)D between 0 month group and 4 months group (r=0.418,P<0.01).At 4 months group,serum 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with both BAP and PTH (r=-0.485 and -0.216,P<0.05). Conclusions Vitamin D status of newborn in Beijing is low,but most of breastfeeding infants can have a good vitamin D status through a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU.Neonatal vitamin D reserves may affect the vitamin D levels of their early days.
    Survey of the prevalence of short stature of children in three citys of Anhui province
    CHEN Xian-jun,YANG Li-qi,LIU De-yun,WANG Qian,LIU Yue
    2017, 25(4):  401-404.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-23
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    Objective To investigate the body height distribution profile and prevalence of short stature of primary school students aged from 7 to 12 years old in Anhui province,and to provide basis for local children's health development. Methods Three areas (Suzhou city,Hefei city,Chizhou city) in Anhui were selected.6 082 urban and rural primary school students aged from 7 to 12 years old were recruited.Body heights were measured and evaluated using the nine cities' growth standard,the prevalence of short stature was calculated. Results In addition to 11 years old girls' height was significantly higher than that of boys,the rest of the age group of the girls were behind the height of the boys during children aged from 7 to 12 years old in AnHui province.In Hefei city,height of 12 years old boys and 11~12 years old girls were significantly higher than those of Suzhou city,height of 9 and 11 years old boys were shorter than those of Suzhou city.In the rest of the age group,there were no significant differences in Hefei and Suzhou city in the same gender group.Children's heights of Hefei and Suzhou city were higher than that of Chizhou city.The total prevalence of short stature in 7~12 years old children in Anhui province was 2.83%.The prevalence of short stature in boys and girls in urban areas respectively were 2.32% and 2.13%;Those in rural area were 3.15% and 3.72%.At the same age and gender group,children's height of Chizhou city was significantly behind the other two cities,the rate was significantly higher in rural area than that in urban area. Conclusions The prevalence of short stature is still higher in three areas of Anhui Province,especially in rural area.The study could provide basis for local children health development and provide reference for clinical intervention of short stature.
    Comparison of nutrition and feeding practices between 8-month-old infant of local and migrants in Beijing community
    ZHOU Zhuan-ning,ZHANG Jing-xu
    2017, 25(4):  405-408.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-24
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    Objective To study the feeding practices and child nutrition of different household registration infant aged 8-month in surveyed area,and to find the existing problems and provide evidence for feeding intervention. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted.Infants aged 8-month were selected who accepted a conventional community child health services in Beijing in 2014,excluding those of premature birth,low birth weight and congenital birth defects and heart,liver,kidney,blood diseases babies.Questionnaire on infant feeding practices and nutrition were surveyed and analyzed. Results Several indicators related to the local population and migrants were surveyed:complementary feeding rates before 6 months were 52% and 65.1% (P<0.05),early initiation of breastfeeding were 41.8% and 21.9% (P<0.05),minimum dietary diversity rate were 57.7% and 36.7% (P<0.05),Bottle feeding rate were 78.6% and 54.4% (P<0.01),mean of length for age z-score (LAZ) were 0.93±1.071 and 0.54±1.130(P<0.01),mean of height for head circumference z-score (HCZ) were 0.44±0.910 and 0.11±0.978 (P<0.01),underweight rate were 0.5% and 4.1% (P<0.01),prevalence of anemia were 27.6% and 47.3% (P<0.01),respectively.The mothers' feeding knowledge in local population was better than the migrants. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition of 8-month-old infant of migrants are not optimistic in the surveyed area.
    Clinical analysis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in children
    ZHANG Hui-qin,FAN Rui,ZHANG Jing-jing,TAO Xiao-juan,SUN Xin
    2017, 25(4):  409-411.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-25
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    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics,treatment,and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis(IPH),and to provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods Totally 36 IPH cases who were hospitalized from January 2005 to June 2016 were collected and followed up for more than 1 year.Their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.According to the duration of oral prednisone treatment,the patients were divided into different groups and the relapse ratios were compared among groups.Based on the existence of relapse,the patients were divided into two groups to analyze the risk factors of relapse. Results In 36 cases(20 males,16 females),the median age of the onset was 4.3 years old and the median age of diagnosis was 6 years old.The main clinical manifestations were anemia,cough,hemoptysis,shortness of breath,fever and fatigue.Glucocorticoid could control the acute symptoms of IPH.Among the patients with oral prednisone treatment≤ 1 year,~ 2 years,~3 years and >3 years groups,there were no significant diferences of relapse ratio (P>0.05).The misdiagnosis time (OR=0.08,95%CI:0.01~0.93)and hemoptysis at first visit (OR=0.02,95%CI:0~0.461) might be the independent risk factors of relapse. Conclusions IPH has diverse clinical manifestatios and easy to be misdiagnosed.Glucocorticoid is effective to control the acute symptoms of IPH.Prolonging the course of glucocorticoid therapy can not reduce the relapse of IPH.To diagnose and start treat in time would be good to relieve symptoms,delay the process of pulmonary fibrosis and improve prognosis.
    Analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration results in 242 Xuzhou children in winter
    MIAO Zhong,ZHANG Jing,LIU Yuan,SHI Xiang-kui,YAO Cong-yue
    2017, 25(4):  412-414.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-26
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    Objective To collect information on nutrition of vitamin D in Xuzhou children aged 0~5 in winter,and to instruct parents how to properly use vitamin D. Method The serum samples were collected from 242 cases at the age of 0~5 who received conventional healthcare in the outpatient of children healthcare at the Xuzhou Maternial and Child Health Care Hospital,and the serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitaminD [25(OH)D]were determined using immunochromatography. Results The mean level of 25(OH)D was (51.34±19.38) nmol/L in these 242 cases aged 0~5.108 cases,accounting for 44.63% of them,exhibited adequate levels of 25(OH)D,while 55.37% of them showed low levels of 25(OH)D (deficient in 26.45%,scarce in 28.93%).There was no significant difference in the level of 25(OH)D between girls and boys at the age of 0~5 (P>0.05).Children at the age of 3~5 had significantly lower level of 25(OH)D compared to those less than 1 year old (P<0.05). Conclusions In Xuzhou City,children at the age of 0~5 years old generally exhibited low levels of 25(OH)D.Therefore,attention should be paid to the 25(OH)D test and supplementation.
    Investigation of anemia of 6~24 months old infants among Drung ethnic minority in Yunnan province
    ZOU Tuan-biao,ZHANG Yan,YANG Hua,ZHU Xi-xiang,HE Xiu-hua,GUO Guang-ping
    2017, 25(4):  415-416.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-27
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    Objective To find out the rate,type and cause of anemia of 6 to 24 months old infants from Yunnan Drung minority area,and to provide a scientific basis for nutrition package taking of "Yunnan poor areas children's nutrition improvement project" and the prevention anemia measures. Methods Using cluster samping method,the vein blood of local area 6~24 months old infants collected,and analysis was detected serum ferritin (SF) by sysmex-21N blood cell analyzer,the SEBIA capillarys 2 flex piercing hemoglobin electrophoresis analyzer was used for hemoglobin electrophoresis,the BIO-RAD CFX96 PCR was used to diagnose thalassemia gene.Finally,all data were carried on the statistical analysis. Result Local infant anemia incidence rate was 54.2% (65/120),the major anemia type was mild anemia,wich cell morphology was in cellule low pigment based (accounted for 84.2%),SF lack was 57.5%,Thalassemia was 0%. Conclusions The anemia incidence rate is more higher among 6~24 months infant of Drung minority.The major type of anemia was iron deficiency anemia,that is extraordinary important guiding for taking the nutrition package.
    Growth and development analysis of primary school students who join Nutrition Improvement Program in Xinjiang Corps rural
    YANG Yan-qiong,LUO Jian-zhong,Tuerxunjiang·Maimaitiming,Dilihuomaer·Wuerkaixi,PU Jin-fen,WANG Li
    2017, 25(4):  420-422.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-29
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    Objective To analyse physical development of compulsory primary students who participated in nutrition improvement program in Xinjiang Corps,to explore factors affecting the growth and development and propose reasonable nutrition intervention improvements opinion,to promote primary students' health in Region. Methods The sample was obtained by cluster sampling study,the basic information was recorded and height and weight were measured,The data were inputted to Excel software and the corresponding BMI values were calculated,and compared with the 2010 National Student Physical Fitness and evaluated using SPSS 21.0. Results The total of 4 507 people were surveyed.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys was higher than that of girls (P<0.001);The prevalence of 6-year-old group and 7-year-old group was the highest (P<0.001); The difference of different academic year was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Detection rate of wasting in boys was higher than that of girls (P=0.003);12-year-old group (P=0.015) and 2014-2015 school year were the highest (P<0.001).Detection rate of growth retardation in different gender,the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05);13-year-old group (P<0.001) and 2012-2013 school year were the highest (P<0.001). Conclusion Xinjiang Corps rural compulsory education students nutritional imbalance seriously overweight boys than girls are more vulnerable to malnutrition and obesity,should be the main object of attention,more likely to overweight and obesity in low-age group,prone to malnutrition in the high-age group.
    Level of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D in children of Taizhou
    HUA Mei-juan,DING Shan-shan,XU jian-li,WAN Xue-long,WU You-gui,LIU Qi-yan
    2017, 25(4):  425-427.  DOI: 10.11852/zgetbjzz2017-25-04-31
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    Objective To investigate 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels of healthy children in Taizhou by testing serum 25(OH)D of some children,and provide evidence for rickets. Methods A total of 476 children were enrolled in children healthcare outpatient clinic of Taizhou from October 2013 to September 2014.The blood samples were colleted on an empty stomach in the morning,and the serum 25(OH)D levels were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Results The levels of 25(OH)D in serum of all age groups of children in Taizhou city were skewed distribution,with the median of that,as infant group,early childhood group,preschool group,school age group,respectively.After the rank sum test,the difference of vitamin D levels in different age groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).While there were no significant differences in the level of vitamin D in different age groups between boys and girls (P>0.05).476 children,a serious lack of vitamin D(≤5 ng/ml) (15/476) accounted for 3.15%;The lack (≤15 ng/ml) accounted for 38.45% (183/476);Under or below(15~20 ng/ml)accounted for 17.86% (85/476);Adequate (>20 ng/ml) accounted for 40.55% (193/467);Excess (>100 ng/ml) accounted 0.Vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/ml) children accounted for 59.45% (283/476),the infant group was 9.3% (8/476);Child group was 36.21% (42/467);preschool group was 70.13% (54/567);school age group was 90.86% (179/476),they were mainly school age children.There were significant differences among all groups (P<0.05) and statistically significant differences in serum vitamin D levels in different seasons (P<0.05). Conclusions The vitamin D levels of chinldren in Taizhou decreased with age,the lack of vitamin D in school age children is particularly serious.Therefore,children over the age of 3 need vitamin D supplementation,especially in winter.